Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 600
Filter
1.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 23795, 2021 12 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34893675

ABSTRACT

To examine temporal trends of NICU admissions in the U.S. by race/ethnicity, we conducted a retrospective cohort analysis using natality files provided by the National Center for Health Statistics at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. A total of 38,011,843 births in 2008-2018 were included. Crude and risk-adjusted NICU admission rates, overall and stratified by birth weight group, were compared between white, black, and Hispanic infants. Crude NICU admission rates increased from 6.62% (95% CI 6.59-6.65) to 9.07% (95% CI 9.04-9.10) between 2008 and 2018. The largest percentage increase was observed among Hispanic infants (51.4%) compared to white (29.1%) and black (32.4%) infants. Overall risk-adjusted rates differed little by race/ethnicity, but birth weight-stratified analysis revealed that racial/ethnic differences diminished in the very low birth weight (< 1500 g) and moderately low birth weight (1500-2499 g) groups. Overall NICU admission rates increased by 37% from 2008 to 2018, and the increasing trends were observed among all racial and ethnic groups. Diminished racial/ethnic differences in NICU admission rates in very low birth weight infants may reflect improved access to timely appropriate NICU care among high-risk infants through increasing health care coverage coupled with growing NICU supply.


Subject(s)
/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care, Neonatal/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care, Neonatal/trends , Patient Admission/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Female , History, 21st Century , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Intensive Care, Neonatal/history , Male , Maternal Age , Middle Aged , Public Health Surveillance , United States/epidemiology , United States/ethnology , Young Adult
2.
Early Hum Dev ; 163: 105491, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34710831

ABSTRACT

Following the first peak of the COVID-19 pandemic, reports from around the world suggested a reduction in preterm deliveries during lockdown periods. We reviewed preterm admissions to a large tertiary neonatal unit in inner North East London during two United Kingdom (UK) national lockdowns in 2020 and 2021. We found no evidence of difference in admissions during two national lockdowns compared to previous years. Based on these findings, we recommend that neonatal services remain as vigilant and prepared as ever for the unpredictable nature of preterm birth, and their staff protected to provide this highly specialist care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control , Health Services Needs and Demand/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care, Neonatal/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pandemics , Premature Birth
3.
J Korean Med Sci ; 36(31): e206, 2021 Aug 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34402234

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate the survival and morbidities of infants in the Korean Neonatal Network (KNN) with birth weight (BW) < 500 g. METHODS: The demographic and clinical data of 208 live-born infants with a BW < 500 g at a gestational age of ≥ 22 weeks who were treated in the neonatal intensive care units of the KNN between 2013 and 2017 were reviewed. RESULTS: The survival rate of the infants was 28%, with a median gestational age and BW of 243/7 weeks (range, 220/7-336/7) and 440 g (range, 220-499), respectively. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards analysis demonstrated that survival to discharge was associated with longer gestation, higher BW, female sex, singleton gestation, use of any antenatal corticosteroids, and higher Apgar scores at 5 minutes. The overall survival rates were significantly different between the BW categories of < 400 g and 400-499 g. However, there was no significant difference in the incidence of any morbidity between the BW groups. Half of the deaths of infants with BW < 500 g occurred within a week of life, mainly due to cardiopulmonary and neurologic causes. The major causes of death in infants after 1 week of age were infection and gastrointestinal disease. Among the surviving infants, 79% had moderate to severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia, 21% underwent surgical ligation of patent ductus arteriosus, 12% had severe intraventricular hemorrhage (grade III-IV), 38% had sepsis, 9% had necrotizing enterocolitis (stage ≥ 2), and 47% underwent laser treatment for retinopathy of prematurity. The median length of hospital stay was 132 days (range, 69-291), and 53% required assistive devices at discharge. CONCLUSION: Despite recent advances in neonatal intensive care, the survival and morbidity rates of infants with BW < 500 g need further improvement.


Subject(s)
Birth Weight , Infant, Premature, Diseases/mortality , Intensive Care, Neonatal/statistics & numerical data , Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia/epidemiology , Enterocolitis, Necrotizing/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant Mortality , Infant, Extremely Premature , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Premature , Infant, Very Low Birth Weight , Infections/epidemiology , Male , Morbidity , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Survival Rate
4.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(8): e2118904, 2021 08 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34338792

ABSTRACT

Importance: The Chinese Neonatal Network was established in 2018 and maintains a standardized national clinical database of very preterm or very low-birth-weight infants in tertiary neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) throughout China. National-level data on outcomes and care practices of very preterm infants (VPIs) in China are lacking. Objective: To assess the care practices in NICUs and outcomes among VPIs in China. Design, Setting, and Participants: A cohort study was conducted comprising 57 tertiary hospitals from 25 provinces throughout China. All infants with gestational age (GA) less than 32 weeks who were admitted to the 57 NICUs between January 1 and December 31, 2019, were included. Main Outcomes and Measures: Care practices, morbidities, and survival were the primary outcomes of the study. Major morbidities included bronchopulmonary dysplasia, severe intraventricular hemorrhage (grade ≥3) and/or periventricular leukomalacia, necrotizing enterocolitis (stage ≥2), sepsis, and severe retinopathy of prematurity (stage ≥3). Results: A total of 9552 VPIs were included, with mean (SD) GA of 29.5 (1.7) weeks and mean (SD) birth weight of 1321 (321) g; 5404 infants (56.6%) were male. Antenatal corticosteroids were used in 75.6% (6505 of 8601) of VPIs, and 54.8% (5211 of 9503)were born through cesarean delivery. In the delivery room, 12.1% of VPIs received continuous positive airway pressure and 26.7% (2378 or 8923) were intubated. Surfactant was prescribed for 52.7% of the infants, and postnatal dexamethasone was prescribed to 9.5% (636 of 6675) of the infants. A total of 85.5% (8171) of the infants received complete care, and 14.5% (1381) were discharged against medical advice. The incidences of the major morbidities were bronchopulmonary dysplasia, 29.2% (2379 of 8148); severe intraventricular hemorrhage and/or periventricular leukomalacia, 10.4% (745 of 7189); necrotizing enterocolitis, 4.9% (403 of 8171 ); sepsis, 9.4% (764 of 8171); and severe retinopathy of prematurity, 4.3% (296 of 6851) among infants who received complete care. Among VPIs with complete care, 95.4% (7792 of 8171) survived: 65.6% (155 of 236) at 25 weeks' or less GA, 89.0% (880 of 988) at 26 to 27 weeks' GA, 94.9% (2635 of 2755)at 28 to 29 weeks' GA, and 98.3% (4122 of 4192) at 30 to 31 weeks' GA. Only 57.2% (4677 of 8171) of infants survived without major morbidity: 10.5% (25 of 236) at 25 weeks' or less GA, 26.8% (48 of 179) at 26 to 27 weeks' GA, 51.1% (1409 of 2755) at 28 to 29 weeks' GA, and 69.3% (2904 of 4192) at 30 to 31 weeks' GA. Among all infants admitted, the survival rate was 87.6% (8370 of 9552)and survival without major morbidities was 51.8% (4947 of 9552). Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this study suggest that survival and survival without major morbidity of VPIs in Chinese NICUs have improved but remain lower than in high-income countries. Comprehensive and targeted quality improvement efforts are needed to provide complete care for all VPIs, optimize obstetrical and neonatal care practices, and improve outcomes.


Subject(s)
Infant Mortality , Infant, Extremely Premature , Infant, Premature, Diseases/mortality , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care, Neonatal/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Birth Weight , China/epidemiology , Critical Care Outcomes , Delivery, Obstetric/statistics & numerical data , Female , Gestational Age , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Morbidity , Pregnancy , Survival Rate
5.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 6: CD014484, 2021 06 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34155622

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Misoprostol given orally is a commonly used labour induction method. Our Cochrane Review is restricted to studies with low-dose misoprostol (initially ≤ 50 µg), as higher doses pose unacceptably high risks of uterine hyperstimulation. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy and safety of low-dose oral misoprostol for labour induction in women with a viable fetus in the third trimester of pregnancy. SEARCH METHODS: We searched Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth's Trials Register, ClinicalTrials.gov,  the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (14 February 2021) and reference lists of retrieved studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised trials comparing low-dose oral misoprostol (initial dose ≤ 50 µg) versus placebo, vaginal dinoprostone, vaginal misoprostol, oxytocin, or mechanical methods; or comparing oral misoprostol protocols (one- to two-hourly versus four- to six-hourly; 20 µg to 25 µg versus 50 µg; or 20 µg hourly titrated versus 25 µg two-hourly static). DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Using Covidence, two review authors independently screened reports, extracted trial data, and performed quality assessments. Our primary outcomes were vaginal birth within 24 hours, caesarean section, and hyperstimulation with foetal heart changes. MAIN RESULTS: We included 61 trials involving 20,026 women. GRADE assessments ranged from moderate- to very low-certainty evidence, with downgrading decisions based on imprecision, inconsistency, and study limitations. Oral misoprostol versus placebo/no treatment (four trials; 594 women) Oral misoprostol may make little to no difference in the rate of caesarean section (risk ratio (RR) 0.81, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.59 to 1.11; 4 trials; 594 women; moderate-certainty evidence), while its effect on uterine hyperstimulation with foetal heart rate changes is uncertain (RR 5.15, 95% CI 0.25 to 105.31; 3 trials; 495 women; very low-certainty evidence). Vaginal births within 24 hours was not reported. In all trials, oxytocin could be commenced after 12 to 24 hours and all women had pre-labour ruptured membranes. Oral misoprostol versus vaginal dinoprostone (13 trials; 9676 women) Oral misoprostol probably results in fewer caesarean sections (RR 0.84, 95% CI 0.78 to 0.90; 13 trials, 9676 women; moderate-certainty evidence). Subgroup analysis indicated that 10 µg to 25 µg (RR 0.80, 95% CI 0.74 to 0.87; 9 trials; 8652 women) may differ from 50 µg (RR 1.10, 95% CI 0.91 to 1.34; 4 trials; 1024 women) for caesarean section. Oral misoprostol may decrease vaginal births within 24 hours (RR 0.93, 95% CI 0.87 to 1.00; 10 trials; 8983 women; low-certainty evidence) and hyperstimulation with foetal heart rate changes (RR 0.49, 95% CI 0.40 to 0.59; 11 trials; 9084 women; low-certainty evidence). Oral misoprostol versus vaginal misoprostol (33 trials; 6110 women) Oral use may result in fewer vaginal births within 24 hours (average RR 0.81, 95% CI 0.68 to 0.95; 16 trials, 3451 women; low-certainty evidence), and less hyperstimulation with foetal heart rate changes (RR 0.69, 95% CI 0.53 to 0.92, 25 trials, 4857 women, low-certainty evidence), with subgroup analysis suggesting that 10 µg to 25 µg orally (RR 0.28, 95% CI 0.14 to 0.57; 6 trials, 957 women) may be superior to 50 µg orally (RR 0.82, 95% CI 0.61 to 1.11; 19 trials; 3900 women). Oral misoprostol probably does not increase caesarean sections overall (average RR 1.00, 95% CI 0.86 to 1.16; 32 trials; 5914 women; low-certainty evidence) but likely results in fewer caesareans for foetal distress (RR 0.74, 95% CI 0.55 to 0.99; 24 trials, 4775 women). Oral misoprostol versus intravenous oxytocin (6 trials; 737 women, 200 with ruptured membranes) Misoprostol may make little or no difference to vaginal births within 24 hours (RR 1.12, 95% CI 0.95 to 1.33; 3 trials; 466 women; low-certainty evidence), but probably results in fewer caesarean sections (RR 0.67, 95% CI 0.50 to 0.90; 6 trials; 737 women; moderate-certainty evidence). The effect on hyperstimulation with foetal heart rate changes is uncertain (RR 0.66, 95% CI 0.19 to 2.26; 3 trials, 331 women; very low-certainty evidence). Oral misoprostol versus mechanical methods (6 trials; 2993 women) Six trials compared oral misoprostol to transcervical Foley catheter. Misoprostol may increase vaginal birth within 24 hours (RR 1.32, 95% CI 0.98 to 1.79; 4 trials; 1044 women; low-certainty evidence), and probably reduces the risk of caesarean section (RR 0.84, 95% CI 0.75 to 0.95; 6 trials; 2993 women; moderate-certainty evidence). There may be little or no difference in hyperstimulation with foetal heart rate changes (RR 1.31, 95% CI 0.78 to 2.21; 4 trials; 2828 women; low-certainty evidence). Oral misoprostol one- to two-hourly versus four- to six-hourly (1 trial; 64 women) The evidence on hourly titration was very uncertain due to the low numbers reported. Oral misoprostol 20 µg hourly titrated versus 25 µg two-hourly static (2 trials; 296 women) The difference in regimen may have little or no effect on the rate of vaginal births in 24 hours (RR 0.97, 95% CI 0.80 to 1.16; low-certainty evidence). The evidence is of very low certainty for all other reported outcomes. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Low-dose oral misoprostol is probably associated with fewer caesarean sections (and therefore more vaginal births) than vaginal dinoprostone, and lower rates of hyperstimulation with foetal heart rate changes. However, time to birth may be increased, as seen by a reduced number of vaginal births within 24 hours. Compared to transcervical Foley catheter, low-dose oral misoprostol is associated with fewer caesarean sections, but equivalent rates of hyperstimulation. Low-dose misoprostol given orally rather than vaginally is probably associated with similar rates of vaginal birth, although rates may be lower within the first 24 hours. However, there is likely less hyperstimulation with foetal heart changes, and fewer caesarean sections performed due to foetal distress. The best available evidence suggests that low-dose oral misoprostol probably has many benefits over other methods for labour induction. This review supports the use of low-dose oral misoprostol for induction of labour, and demonstrates the lower risks of hyperstimulation than when misoprostol is given vaginally. More trials are needed to establish the optimum oral misoprostol regimen, but these findings suggest that a starting dose of 25 µg may offer a good balance of efficacy and safety.


Subject(s)
Labor, Induced/methods , Misoprostol/administration & dosage , Oxytocics/administration & dosage , Administration, Intravaginal , Administration, Oral , Apgar Score , Cesarean Section/statistics & numerical data , Dinoprostone/administration & dosage , Drug Administration Schedule , Female , Heart Rate, Fetal/drug effects , Humans , Intensive Care, Neonatal/statistics & numerical data , Oxytocin/administration & dosage , Parturition , Placebos/administration & dosage , Pregnancy , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Time Factors , Uterus/drug effects
6.
J Perinat Med ; 49(9): 1145-1153, 2021 Nov 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34107572

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Multiple pregnancies sustain the high pace of extreme prematurity. Little evidence is available about triplet gestation given the evolution in their management during the last decades. The aim of the study was to compare the neonatal outcomes of triplets with those of matched singletons in a cohort study. METHODS: An observational retrospective cohort study of triplets and matched singletons born between 2004 and 2017 matched by gestational age was conducted. Additionally, the investigation performed in regard to data from the overall Greek population of interest. The primary outcome was mortality or severe neonatal morbidity based on pregnancy type. RESULTS: A total of 237 triplets of 24-36 weeks' gestation and 482 matched singletons were included. No differences in the primary outcome between triplets and singletons were found. Rates of severe neonatal morbidities did not differ significantly between triplets and singletons. A threshold of 1000 gr for birthweight and 28 weeks' gestation for gestational age determined survival on triplets [OR: 0.08 (95% CI: 0.02-0.40, p=0.0020) and OR: 0.13 (95% CI: 0.03-0.57, p=0.0020) for gestational age and birthweight respectively]. In Greece stillbirths in triplets was 8 times higher than that of singletons (OR: 8.5, 95% CI: 6.9-10.5). From 3,375 triplets, 94 were stillborn, whereas in singletons, 4,659 out of 1,388,273. In our center 5 times more triplets than the expected average in Greece were delivered with no significant difference in stillbirths' rates. CONCLUSIONS: No significant differences were identified in mortality or major neonatal morbidities between triplets and matched singletons highlighting the significance of prematurity and birthweight for these outcomes.


Subject(s)
Gestational Age , Infant, Newborn, Diseases , Pregnancy, Triplet/statistics & numerical data , Stillbirth/epidemiology , Triplets/statistics & numerical data , Birth Weight , Cohort Studies , Female , Greece/epidemiology , Humans , Infant , Infant Mortality/trends , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Newborn, Diseases/diagnosis , Infant, Newborn, Diseases/epidemiology , Intensive Care, Neonatal/statistics & numerical data , Male , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , Premature Birth/epidemiology
7.
J Perinat Med ; 49(7): 767-772, 2021 Sep 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33962503

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To examine the impact of early term caesarean section (CS) on respiratory morbidity and early neonatal outcomes when elective caesarean section was carried out before 39 completed weeks gestation in our population. METHODS: A one-year population-based retrospective cohort analysis using routinely collected hospital data. Livebirths from women who had elective lower segment cesarean section (ELSCS) for uncomplicated singleton pregnancies at early term (ET) 37+0 to 38+6 weeks were compared to full term (FT)≥39+0 weeks gestation. Exclusion criteria included diabetes, antenatal corticosteroid use, stillbirths, immediate neonatal deaths, normal vaginal deliveries and emergency caesareans sections. The outcomes were combined respiratory morbidity (tachypnea [TTN] and respiratory distress syndrome [RDS]), Apgar <7 at 5 min of age, respiratory support, duration of respiratory support and NICU admission. RESULTS: Out of a total of 1,466 elective CS with term livebirths, the timing of CS was early term (ET) n=758 (52%) and full term (FT) n=708 (48%). There was a higher incidence of respiratory morbidities and neonatal outcomes in the ET in comparison to FT newborns. In the univariable analysis, significant risks for outcomes were: the need for oxygen support OR 2.42 (95% C.I. 1.38-4.22), respiratory distress syndrome and/or transient tachypnea of newborn (RDSF/TTN) OR 2.44 (95% C.I. 1.33-4.47) and neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admission OR 1.91 (95% C.I. 1.22-2.98). Only the need for oxygen support remained (OR 1.81, 95% C.I. 1.0-3.26) in the multivariable analysis. These results were observed within the context of a significantly higher proportion of older, multiparous, and higher number of previous caesarean sections in the early term CS group. CONCLUSIONS: There is a significant risk of respiratory morbidities in infants born by elective cesarean section prior to full term gestation. Obstetricians should aim towards reducing the high rate of women with previous multiple cesarean sections including balancing the obstetric indication of early delivery among such women with the evident risk of neonatal respiratory morbidity.


Subject(s)
Cesarean Section/adverse effects , Elective Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/etiology , Transient Tachypnea of the Newborn/etiology , Apgar Score , Female , Gestational Age , Humans , Incidence , Infant, Newborn , Intensive Care, Neonatal/statistics & numerical data , Logistic Models , Male , Pregnancy , Qatar/epidemiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/epidemiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/therapy , Respiratory Therapy/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Term Birth , Transient Tachypnea of the Newborn/epidemiology , Transient Tachypnea of the Newborn/therapy
8.
J Pediatr ; 236: 62-69.e3, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33940013

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that newborn infants cared for in hospitals with greater utilization of neonatal intensive care experienced fewer postdischarge adverse events. STUDY DESIGN: We developed 3 retrospective population-based cohorts of Texas Medicaid insured singletons born in 2010-2014 (very low birth weight [VLBW n = 11 139], late preterm [n = 57 509], and non-preterm [n = 664 447]) who received care in higher volume hospitals with level III/IV neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). Measures of NICU care were hospital-level risk adjusted NICU admission rates, special care days (days of nonroutine care) per infant, and the percent of intensive (highest billable care code) special care days. The units of analysis were hospitals (n = 80) and the primary outcome was an adverse event, (defined as admission, emergency department visit, or death) within 30 days postdischarge. RESULTS: Higher use of NICU care at a hospital level was not associated with lower postdischarge 30-day adverse event. Infants cared for in hospitals with above vs below median special care day rates experienced slightly higher postdischarge adverse event per 100 infants (VLBW: 14.01 [95% CI 12.74-15.27] vs 11.84 [10.52-13.16], P < .05; late preterm: 7.33 [6.68-7.97] vs 6.28 [5.87-6.69], P < .01; non-preterm: 4.47 [4.17-4.76] vs 3.97 [3.75-4.18], P < .01). Weak positive associations (Pearson correlations of 0.31-0.37, P < .01) were observed for adverse event with special care days; in no instance was a negative association observed between NICU utilization and adverse event. CONCLUSION: Higher utilization of NICU care was not associated with lower rates of short-term events suggesting that there may be opportunities to safely decrease admission rates and length of NICU stays.


Subject(s)
Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care, Neonatal/statistics & numerical data , Facilities and Services Utilization , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Premature , Infant, Very Low Birth Weight , Male , Medicaid , Perinatal Mortality , Retrospective Studies , Texas , United States
9.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 225(1): 87.e1-87.e10, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33865836

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Insulin detemir, being used increasingly during pregnancy, may have pharmacologic benefits compared with neutral protamine Hagedorn. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the probability that compared with treatment with neutral protamine Hagedorn, treatment with insulin detemir reduces the risk for adverse neonatal outcome among individuals with type 2 or overt type 2 diabetes mellitus (gestational diabetes mellitus diagnosed at <20 weeks' gestation). STUDY DESIGN: We performed a multiclinic randomized controlled trial (September 2018 to January 2020), which included women with singleton gestation with type 2 or overt type 2 diabetes mellitus who sought obstetrical care at ≤21 weeks' gestation. Participants were randomized to receive either insulin detemir or neutral protamine Hagedorn by a clinic-stratified scheme. The primary outcome was a composite of adverse neonatal outcomes, including shoulder dystocia, large for gestational age, neonatal intensive care unit admission, respiratory distress (defined as the need of at least 4 hours of respiratory support with supplemental oxygen, continuous positive airway pressure or ventilation at the first 24 hours of life), or hypoglycemia. The secondary neonatal outcomes included gestational age at delivery, small for gestational age, 5-minute Apgar score of <7, lowest glucose level, need for intravenous glucose, respiratory distress syndrome, need for mechanical ventilation or continuous positive airway pressure, neonatal jaundice requiring therapy, brachial plexus injury, and hospital length of stay. The secondary maternal outcomes included hypoglycemic events, hospital admission for glucose control, hypertensive disorder of pregnancy, maternal weight gain, cesarean delivery, and postpartum complications. We used the Bayesian statistics to estimate a sample size of 108 to have >75% probability of any reduction in the primary outcome, assuming 80% power and a hypothesized effect of 33% reduction with insulin detemir. All analyses were intent to treat under a Bayesian framework with neutral priors (a priori assumed a 50:50 likelihood of either intervention being better; National Clinical Trial identifier 03620890). RESULTS: There were 108 women randomized in this trial (57 in insulin detemir and 51 in neutral protamine Hagedorn), and 103 women were available for analysis of the primary outcome (n=5 for pregnancy loss before 24 weeks' gestation). Bayesian analysis indicated an 87% posterior probability of reduced primary outcome with insulin detemir compared with neutral protamine Hagedorn (posterior adjusted relative risk, 0.88; 95% credible interval, 0.61-1.12). Bayesian analyses for secondary outcomes showed consistent findings of lower adverse maternal outcomes with the use of insulin detemir vs neutral protamine Hagedorn: for example, maternal hypoglycemic events (97% probability of benefit; posterior adjusted relative risk, 0.59; 95% credible interval, 0.29-1.08) and hypertensive disorders (88% probability of benefit; posterior adjusted relative risk, 0.81; 95% credible interval, 0.54-1.16). CONCLUSION: In our comparative effectiveness trial involving individuals with type 2 or overt type 2 diabetes mellitus, use of insulin detemir resulted in lower rates of adverse neonatal and maternal outcomes compared with neutral protamine Hagedorn.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Insulin Detemir/therapeutic use , Insulin, Isophane/therapeutic use , Pregnancy Complications/prevention & control , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , Pregnancy in Diabetics/drug therapy , Abortion, Spontaneous/epidemiology , Adult , Female , Fetal Macrosomia/epidemiology , Gestational Age , Humans , Hypoglycemia/epidemiology , Infant, Newborn , Intensive Care, Neonatal/statistics & numerical data , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications/epidemiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/epidemiology , Shoulder Dystocia/epidemiology
11.
Rev Bras Enferm ; 74Suppl 1(Suppl 1): e20200662, 2021.
Article in English, Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33681959

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: to map the knowledge about the clinical findings, treatment and outcome of newborns and children infected with COVID-19. METHODS: a scoping review with search of eight databases and electronic search engine in April 2020. RESULTS: the 12 studies analyzed showed that the main clinical findings in this population were nasal congestion, fever, respiratory distress, diarrhea, fatigue, dry cough, increased C-reactive protein, leukopenia, lymphopenia, thrombocytopenia, elevated procalcitonin, bilateral ground-glass opacity, pulmonary consolidation, and pneumonia. Antivirals, respiratory support, immunomodulatory therapy, glucocorticoids, antibiotics and alpha interferon were used as treatment. The presence of a cure with hospital discharge is present in most cases. FINAL CONSIDERATIONS: most patients required hospitalization, but it evolved to cure. This study provided a greater scientific basis by showing clinical findings, treatment, and outcomes in neopediatric patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Immunomodulation , Intensive Care, Neonatal/psychology , Intensive Care, Neonatal/statistics & numerical data , Symptom Assessment/statistics & numerical data , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Interferon-alpha/therapeutic use , Male , SARS-CoV-2
12.
J Perinatol ; 41(5): 970-980, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33674713

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The impact of evolving guidelines and clinical practices on SARS-CoV-2-positive dyads across New York City Health and Hospitals during the early peak of COVID-19. DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study of positive-positive (P/P), positive-negative (P/N), and positive-untested (P/U) dyads delivered from March 1 to May 9, 2020. Wilcoxon rank sum, Chi-squared, and Fisher exact tests were used to analyze demographics, clinical variables, and system-wide management practices. RESULT: A total of 2598 mothers delivered. 23.8% (286/1198) of mothers tested for SARS-CoV-2 were positive. 89.7% (260/290) newborns of SARS-CoV-2-positive mothers were tested and 11 were positive. Positive-positive newborns were more likely to be breastfed (81%), be admitted to NICU, and have longer length of stay (7.5 days) than P/N and P/U newborns. CONCLUSION: Our study shows that varied testing, feeding, and isolation practices resulted in favorable short-term outcomes for SARS-CoV-2-positive mothers and their newborns. High-risk populations can be safely and effectively treated in resource-limited environments.


Subject(s)
Breast Feeding/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/statistics & numerical data , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Intensive Care, Neonatal/statistics & numerical data , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Neonatal Screening/methods , New York City/epidemiology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
13.
Z Geburtshilfe Neonatol ; 225(1): 74-79, 2021 Feb.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33601453

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Since 2014 outcome data for the treatment of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants in Germany have been available at www.perinatalzentren.org. This study explores the relationship between volume of VLBW infants and outcome. METHODS: Volumes of VLBW infants for each perinatal centre are available for the 5-year period from 2014 to 2018, and survival and survival without severe morbidity in relation to the national average survival rate is reported. In addition to volume an adjusted volume is specified considering several risk factors. Using regression, the relationship between volume, adjusted volume and survival was investigated. RESULTS: Of 212 perinatal centres 163 (77%) were level 1 centres (highest level in Germany) and 49 (23%) were level 2 centres caring for 9300 (94%; median 51; min 13 max 186) and 538 (6%; 9; 4-28) VLBW infants per year, respectively. No significant correlation between volume and survival and survival w/o severe morbidity was found. Adjusted volumes showed a weak linear correlation to survival w/o severe morbidity (p=0.02, R2=0.03). Non-parametric regression was significant for adjusted volumes of more than 170 (survival) and 100 (survival w/o severe morbidity) VLBW infants per year and centre, respectively. Below these limits volume does not affect variation. CONCLUSION: Linear and non-linear regression between adjusted volumes and survival was only weak and was driven by the very large perinatal centres.


Subject(s)
Infant Mortality , Infant, Very Low Birth Weight , Intensive Care, Neonatal/statistics & numerical data , Perinatal Care/statistics & numerical data , Quality of Health Care , Delivery of Health Care , Female , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Risk Factors , Survival Rate
14.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 91, 2021 Jan 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33509105

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Currently, there is a disagreement between guidelines regarding platelet count cut-off values as a sign of maternal organ damage in pre-eclampsia; the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists guidelines state a cut-off value of < 100 × 109/L; however, the International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy guidelines specify a cut-off of < 150 × 109/L. We evaluated the effect of mild thrombocytopenia: platelet count < 150 × 109/L and ≥ 100 × 109/L on clinical features of pre-eclampsia to examine whether mild thrombocytopenia reflects maternal organ damage in pre-eclampsia. METHODS: A total of 264 women were enrolled in this study. Participants were divided into three groups based on platelet count levels at delivery: normal, ≥ 150 × 109/L; mild thrombocytopenia, < 150 × 109/L and ≥ 100 × 109/L; and severe thrombocytopenia, < 100 × 109/L. Risk of severe hypertension, utero-placental dysfunction, maternal organ damage, preterm delivery, and neonatal intensive care unit admission were analyzed based on platelet count levels. Estimated relative risk was calculated with a Poisson regression analysis with a robust error. RESULTS: Platelet counts indicated normal levels in 189 patients, mild thrombocytopenia in 51 patients, and severe thrombocytopenia in 24 patients. The estimated relative risks of severe thrombocytopenia were 4.46 [95 % confidence interval, 2.59-7.68] for maternal organ damage except for thrombocytopenia, 1.61 [1.06-2.45] for preterm delivery < 34 gestational weeks, and 1.35 [1.06-1.73] for neonatal intensive care unit admission. On the other hand, the estimated relative risks of mild thrombocytopenia were 0.97 [0.41-2.26] for maternal organ damage except for thrombocytopenia, 0.91 [0.62-1.35] for preterm delivery < 34 gestational weeks, and 0.97 [0.76-1.24] for neonatal intensive care unit admission. CONCLUSIONS: Mild thrombocytopenia was not associated with severe features of pre-eclampsia and would not be suitable as a sign of maternal organ damage.


Subject(s)
Pre-Eclampsia/physiopathology , Pregnancy Complications/diagnosis , Thrombocytopenia/physiopathology , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Intensive Care, Neonatal/statistics & numerical data , Placenta/physiopathology , Platelet Count , Pregnancy , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk , Severity of Illness Index , Uterus/physiopathology
15.
JAMA Pediatr ; 175(4): 368-376, 2021 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33394020

ABSTRACT

Importance: Supplemental oxygen is commonly administered to pregnant women at the time of delivery to prevent fetal hypoxia and acidemia. There is mixed evidence on the utility of this practice. Objective: To compare the association of peripartum maternal oxygen administration with room air on umbilical artery (UA) gas measures and neonatal outcomes. Data Sources: Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, Scopus, ClinicalTrials.gov, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched from February 18 to April 3, 2020. Search terms included labor or obstetric delivery and oxygen therapy and fetal blood or blood gas or acid-base imbalance. Study Selection: Studies were included if they were randomized clinical trials comparing oxygen with room air at the time of scheduled cesarean delivery or labor in patients with singleton, nonanomalous pregnancies. Studies that did not collect paired umbilical cord gas samples or did not report either UA pH or UA Pao2 results were excluded. Data Extraction and Synthesis: Data were extracted by 2 independent reviewers. The analysis was stratified by the presence or absence of labor at the time of randomization. Data were pooled using random-effects models. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome for this review was UA pH. Secondary outcomes included UA pH less than 7.2, UA Pao2, UA base excess, 1- and 5-minute Apgar scores, and neonatal intensive care unit admission. Results: The meta-analysis included 16 randomized clinical trials (n = 1078 oxygen group and n = 974 room air group). There was significant heterogeneity among the studies (I2 = 49.88%; P = .03). Overall, oxygen administration was associated with no significant difference in UA pH (weighted mean difference, 0.00; 95% CI, -0.01 to 0.01). Oxygen use was associated with an increase in UA Pao2 (weighted mean difference, 2.57 mm Hg; 95% CI, 0.80-4.34 mm Hg) but no significant difference in UA base excess, UA pH less than 7.2, Apgar scores, or neonatal intensive care unit admissions. Umbilical artery pH values remained similar between groups after accounting for the risk of bias, type of oxygen delivery device, and fraction of inspired oxygen. After stratifying by the presence or absence of labor, oxygen administration in women undergoing scheduled cesarean delivery was associated with increased UA Pao2 (weighted mean difference, 2.12 mm Hg; 95% CI, 0.09-4.15 mm Hg) and a reduction in the incidence of UA pH less than 7.2 (relative risk, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.43-0.90), but these changes were not noted among those in labor (Pao2: weighted mean difference, 3.60 mm Hg; 95% CI, -0.30 to 7.49 mm Hg; UA pH<7.2: relative risk, 1.34; 95% CI, 0.58-3.11). Conclusions and Relevance: This systematic review and meta-analysis suggests that studies to date showed no association between maternal oxygen and a clinically relevant improvement in UA pH or other neonatal outcomes.


Subject(s)
Acidosis/prevention & control , Delivery, Obstetric/methods , Fetal Hypoxia/prevention & control , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Acidosis/blood , Acidosis/diagnosis , Apgar Score , Biomarkers/blood , Female , Fetal Hypoxia/blood , Fetal Hypoxia/diagnosis , Humans , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Infant, Newborn , Intensive Care, Neonatal/statistics & numerical data , Oxygen/blood , Treatment Outcome , Umbilical Arteries
17.
Pediatr Neonatol ; 62(1): 3-10, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33349597

ABSTRACT

A literature review was conducted to determine norms for practice in neonatal intensive care units (NICU) around the world, given the harmful risks associated with radiation exposure at a very young age; risk of radiation-induced harm later in life increases with every X-ray image taken, more so for younger premature babies. Empirical studies including a measurement of radiation dose in a NICU, published after the year 2000 in a peer-reviewed journal, were collected. Measured doses to patients or X-ray phantoms, number of X-rays per stay and conclusions with recommendations made in response to these values were compared for 25 studies from around the world. The number of X-rays a patient underwent during a NICU stay ranged from 0 to 159. Younger, lower birth weight patients consistently had the greatest number of X-rays per stay. Recommended action based on measured dose ranged from extensive (to minimize risk to neonates) to minimal (to reduce risk) to none (because imaging benefits outweigh patient risk), with no consistent pattern linking recommended action with dose quantity. This demonstrates a broad range of interpretations of the As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) concept. These findings indicate a disparity in the response to neonatal X-ray dose concerns on a global scale, posing a public health risk to this particular neonatal population. More up-to-date imaging protocols and dose limits specifically for the NICU environment with standardized dose monitoring would help minimize this risk to achieve the public health goals of prevention and harm reduction.


Subject(s)
Infant, Premature, Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Intensive Care, Neonatal/statistics & numerical data , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/statistics & numerical data , Radiation Exposure/statistics & numerical data , Global Health , Humans , Infant, Low Birth Weight , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Premature , Infant, Premature, Diseases/etiology , Intensive Care, Neonatal/methods , Intensive Care, Neonatal/standards , Patient Safety , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/standards , Radiation Exposure/adverse effects , Radiation Exposure/prevention & control , Radiation Exposure/standards , Radiography
18.
Invest Educ Enferm ; 38(3)2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33306903

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Determine the level of environmental and periauricular noise in preterm babies and identify the sources generating noise in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit -NICU- of a reference hospital in San Luis Potosí, Mexico. METHODS: Cross-sectional and analytic study of the measurement of the level of environmental noise in five critical areas of the NICU, according with the method of measurement of noise from fixed sources by the Mexican Official Norm and periauricular at 20 cm from the preterm patient's pinna. The measurements were carried out during three representative days of a week, morning, evening and nocturnal shifts. A STEREN 400 sound level meter was used with 30 to 130 dB range of measurement and a rate of 0.5 s. RESULTS: The average level of periauricular noise (64.5±1.91dB) was higher than the environmental noise (63.3±1.74 dB) during the days and shifts evaluated. The principal noise sources were activities carried out by the staff, like the nursing change of shift and conversations by the staff, which raised the level continuously or intermittently, operation of vital support equipment (alarms) and incidences (clashing of baby bottles and moving furnishings) produced sudden rises of noise. CONCLUSIONS: Environmental and periauricular noise in NICU exceeds by two and almost three times the 45 dB during the day and 35 dB at night from the norm in hospitals. It is necessary to implement permanent noise reduction programs to prevent sequelae in the preterm infant and professional burnout in the nursing staff.


Subject(s)
Environmental Exposure/analysis , Environmental Exposure/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Noise , Burnout, Professional/etiology , Burnout, Professional/prevention & control , Child Development , Cross-Sectional Studies , Environment Design , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Environmental Exposure/prevention & control , Hospitals , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Premature , Infant, Premature, Diseases/etiology , Infant, Premature, Diseases/prevention & control , Intensive Care, Neonatal/methods , Intensive Care, Neonatal/statistics & numerical data , Noise/adverse effects , Noise/prevention & control , Nurses, Neonatal/psychology , Stress, Physiological , Stress, Psychological/etiology , Stress, Psychological/prevention & control
19.
Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed ; 106(3): 327-329, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33229330

ABSTRACT

The reduction in the use of neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) during the COVID-19 outbreak has been reported, but whether this phenomenon is widespread across countries is unclear. Using a large-scale inpatient database in Japan, we analysed the intensive neonatal care volume and the number of preterm births for weeks 10-17 vs weeks 2-9 (during and before the outbreak) of 2020 with adjustment for the trends during the same period of 2019. We found statistically significant reductions in the numbers of NICU admissions (adjusted incidence rate ratio (aIRR), 0.76; 95% CI, 0.65 to 0.89) and neonatal resuscitations (aIRR, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.25 to 0.55) during the COVID-19 outbreak. Along with the decrease in the intensive neonatal care volume, preterm births before 34 gestational weeks (aIRR, 0.71) and between 34 0/7 and 36 6/7 gestational weeks (aIRR, 0.85) also showed a significant reduction. Further studies about the mechanism of this phenomenon are warranted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care, Neonatal , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Premature Birth , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Databases, Factual/statistics & numerical data , Female , Gestational Age , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Premature , Intensive Care, Neonatal/methods , Intensive Care, Neonatal/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care, Neonatal/trends , Japan/epidemiology , Neonatology/statistics & numerical data , Neonatology/trends , Patient Admission/statistics & numerical data , Pregnancy , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Premature Birth/therapy , Resuscitation/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2
20.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 106(2): e836-e854, 2021 01 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33180931

ABSTRACT

AIMS: To determine impact of mild fasting hyperglycemia in early pregnancy (fasting plasma glucose [FPG] 5.1-5.5 mmol/L) on pregnancy outcomes. METHODS: We measured FPG at 11.9 ± 1.8 weeks in 2006 women from a prospective cohort study. Women with FPG ≥5.6 mmol/L (19) received treatment and were excluded from further analyses. A total of 1838 women with FPG <5.6 mmol/L received a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) between 24 and 28 weeks of pregnancy. RESULTS: Of all participants, 78 (4.2%) had FPG 5.1 to 5.5 mmol/L in early pregnancy, of which 49 had a normal OGTT later in pregnancy (high fasting normal glucose tolerance [NGT] group). Compared with the NGT group with FPG <5.1 mmol/L in early pregnancy (low fasting NGT group, n = 1560), the high fasting NGT group had a higher body mass index (BMI), higher insulin resistance with more impaired insulin secretion and higher FPG and 30 minute glucose levels on the OGTT. The admission rate to neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) was significantly higher in the high fasting NGT group than in the low fasting NGT group (20.4% [10] vs 9.3% [143], P = .009), with no difference in duration (7.0 ± 8.6 vs 8.4 ± 14.3 days, P = .849) or indication for NICU admission between both groups. The admission rate to NICU remained significantly higher (odds ratio 2.47; 95% confidence interval 1.18-5.19, P = .017) after adjustment for age, BMI, and glucose levels at the OGTT. CONCLUSIONS: When provision of an OGTT is limited such as in the Covid-19 pandemic, using FPG in early pregnancy could be an easy alternative to determine who is at increased risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes.


Subject(s)
Fasting/blood , Hyperglycemia/blood , Intensive Care, Neonatal/statistics & numerical data , Patient Admission/statistics & numerical data , Pregnancy Complications/blood , Adult , Blood Glucose/analysis , COVID-19 , Female , Gestational Age , Glucose Tolerance Test , Humans , Hyperglycemia/diagnosis , Hyperglycemia/epidemiology , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Newborn, Diseases/epidemiology , Infant, Newborn, Diseases/etiology , Infant, Newborn, Diseases/therapy , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications/epidemiology , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects/blood , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects/epidemiology , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects/therapy , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL