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1.
Cogn Res Princ Implic ; 7(1): 87, 2022 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2196537

ABSTRACT

Misinformation has been a pressing issue since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, threatening our ability to effectively act on the crisis. Nevertheless, little is known about the actual effects of fake news on behavioural intentions. Does exposure to or belief in misinformation about COVID-19 vaccines affect people's intentions to receive such a vaccine? This paper attempts to address this question via three preregistered experiments (N = 3463). In Study 1, participants (n = 1269) were exposed to fabricated pro- or anti-vaccine information or to neutral true information, and then asked about their intentions to get vaccinated. In Study 2, participants (n = 646) were exposed to true pro- and anti-vaccine information, while Study 3 (n = 1548) experimentally manipulated beliefs in novel misinformation about COVID-19 vaccines by increasing exposure to the information. The results of these three studies showed that exposure to false information about the vaccines had little effect on participants' intentions to get vaccinated, even when multiple exposures led them to believe the headlines to be more accurate. An exploratory meta-analysis of studies 1 and 3, with a combined sample size of 2683, showed that exposure to false information both supporting and opposing COVID-19 vaccines actually increased vaccination intentions, though the effect size was very small. We conclude by cautioning researchers against equating exposure to misinformation or perceived accuracy of false news with actual behaviours.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Communication , Humans , Intention , Pandemics , Vaccination
2.
Can Fam Physician ; 68(11): 836-846, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2164765

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine the extent to which family physicians closed their doors altogether or for in-person visits during the pandemic, their future practice intentions, and related factors. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. SETTING: Six geographic areas in Toronto, Ont, aligned with Ontario Health Team regions. PARTICIPANTS: Family doctors practising office-based, comprehensive family medicine. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Practice operations in January 2021, use of virtual care, and future plans. RESULTS: Of the 1016 (85.7%) individuals who responded to the survey, 99.7% (1001 of 1004) indicated their practices were open in January 2021, with 94.8% (928 of 979) seeing patients in person and 30.8% (264 of 856) providing in-person care to patients reporting COVID-19 symptoms. Respondents estimated spending 58.2% of clinical care time on telephone visits, 5.8% on video appointments, and 7.5% on e-mail or secure messaging. Among respondents, 17.5% (77 of 439) were planning to close their existing practices in the next 5 years. There were higher proportions of physicians who worked alone in clinics among those who did not see patients in person (27.6% no vs 12.4% yes, P<.05), among those who did not see symptomatic patients (15.6% no vs 6.5% yes, P<.001), and among those who planned to close their practices in the next 5 years (28.9% yes vs 13.9% no, P<.01). CONCLUSION: Most family physicians in Toronto were open to in-person care in January 2021, but almost one-fifth were considering closing their practices in the next 5 years. Policy makers need to prepare for a growing family physician shortage and better understand factors that support recruitment and retention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Practice Patterns, Physicians' , Humans , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ontario , Intention
3.
BMC Med Inform Decis Mak ; 22(1): 191, 2022 07 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1965798

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite the high usage of mobile phones in daily life in developing countries like Bangladesh, the adoption and usage of mHealth services have been significantly low among the elderly population. When searching previous studies, the researchers have found that no studies have empirically investigated whether the quality of life and service quality are significant for mHealth adoption by elderlies in Bangladesh. Hence, this study aimed to extend the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology by adding service quality and the quality of life to empirically find the key factors that influence elderlies' intention to adopt and use mHealth services in Bangladesh. METHODS: A face-to-face structured questionnaire survey method was used to collect data from 493 elderlies (aged 60 years and above) in Bangladesh. The data were analyzed with the Structural Equations Modelling (SEM) and Fuzzy Set Qualitative Comparative Analysis (fsQCA). RESULTS: SEM results suggested that Social Influence, Hedonic Motivation, Price Value, Habit, and Service Quality had significant impact (p < 0.05) on the elderlies' behavioral intention to adopt mHealth services. Service Quality, Quality of Life, and elderlies' Habit were found significant in explaining the Use Behavior of mHealth services. Quality of Life did not show significant (p > 0.05) effect on Behavioral Intention, which is inconsistent with existing literature. In addition, fsQCA findings suggest how the intensity of the influencers may contribute to high versus low m-health behavioral outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: The findings have significant implications for theory, practice and future research as explained in the paper. The originality of this study is the integration of quality of life and service quality into UTUAT2 to explain the users' behavioural intention and use behaviour. Overall, the findings may contribute to shaping appropriate policies for designing and implementing mHealth services effectively for elderlies in developing countries.


Subject(s)
Cell Phone , Telemedicine , Aged , Humans , Intention , Quality of Life , Surveys and Questionnaires
4.
BMC Psychiatry ; 22(1): 380, 2022 06 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1881211

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Demand for mental health services in New Zealand and internationally is growing. Little is known about how psychiatrists are faring in this environment. This study aimed to investigate wellbeing of psychiatrists working in the public health system in New Zealand, identify the main risk factors for work-related stress, gauge perceptions of how workload has changed over time, assess job satisfaction and whether individuals intend or desire to leave their work. METHODS: Psychiatrists working in New Zealand who were also members of the Association of Salaried Medical Specialists were invited to participate in an online survey. Main outcome measures were degree of burnout and stress experienced at work. Supplementary measures included perceived workplace demands and levels of support. Predictor variables included perceptions of changes to workloads over time, degree of job satisfaction and intentions to leave work. Logistic regression assessed characteristics associated with burnout and job satisfaction as well as intentions to leave work. Free text comments were analysed thematically alongside quantitative trends. RESULTS: 368/526 responded (70% response rate). 34.6% met the criteria for burnout and 35.3% scored with high work stress. There were no significant patterns of association with demographic variables but significant correlation with all but one predictor variable; having experienced a change to the demands of the on-call workload. 45% agreed they would leave their current job if able and 87% disagreed that they are working in a well-resourced mental health service. Respondents emphasised the impact of growing workloads and expressed concerns about their ability to provide optimal care in these circumstances. CONCLUSIONS: High burnout appears to affect one in three psychiatrists in New Zealand. Many attribute their feelings of burnout to demand for their services. These findings may assist with better workforce planning for psychiatry and emphasises potential consequences of demand for and poor resourcing of mental health services for the retention and wellbeing of doctors in psychiatry worldwide.


Subject(s)
Burnout, Professional , Occupational Stress , Psychiatry , Burnout, Professional/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Intention , Job Satisfaction , New Zealand , Surveys and Questionnaires
5.
J Manag Care Spec Pharm ; 28(12): 1429-1438, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2145819

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy for adults and children varies depending on societal factors, race, and trust ascribed to the source of vaccine information. OBJECTIVE: To assess COVID-19 vaccination rates and trust levels for vaccine information by race at 2 time points. METHODS: Online cross-sectional data from US adults were collected in February/March 2021 (T1) and November 2021 (T2). Questions included vaccination status, reasons for vaccine refusal, trust levels for vaccine information and the Wake Forest Physician Trust Scale. At T2, parents were asked about vaccination status of children aged 12-18 years and intent for children aged 5-11 years. Vaccination rates and trust levels for vaccine information were measured. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify characteristics predictive of receiving COVID-19 vaccination. RESULTS: Vaccination rates were 20.2% and 70.8% at T1 and T2, respectively. At T1 and T2, higher proportions of White (23.2% and 72.0%) and Other race (14.4% and 75.2%) respondents were vaccinated relative to Black respondents (9.6% and 64.4%) (P < 0.05). In descending order, respondents' doctors, family members, and pharmacists were the most trusted information sources. Black parents, relative to White and Other parents with unvaccinated children aged 12-18 years or who were not very likely to vaccinate younger children, reported lowest physician trust (P < 0.01). At T1, being married, college educated, and older and having greater Wake Forest Physician Trust Scale scores and a higher number of comorbidities predicted a higher likelihood of being vaccinated. Being Black, having a median household income less than $100,000, and residing in the Northeast or Midwest, relative to the West, predicted a decreased likelihood of being vaccinated. At T2, race and comorbidities were no longer predictive of vaccination. CONCLUSIONS: Racial variation in vaccination status decreased from T1 to T2. Physician trust predicted vaccination status and intent regardless of race. Respondents' doctors, family members, and pharmacists are trusted sources of vaccine information, and targeting these influencers may reduce vaccination hesitancy. DISCLOSURES: Dr Brown reports personal fees from Taiho Oncology, outside the submitted work. Dr Morlock reports personal fees from Johnson and Johnson, Heron Therapeutics, Evofem Biosciences, Horizon Therapeutics, and Taiho Oncology, outside the submitted work. Amy Morlock reports personal fees from both AbbVie (formerly Allergan) and Ironwood, outside the submitted work. Drs Blakolmer and Heidari have nothing to disclose.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Intention , Adult , Child , Humans , Trust , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Vaccination , Surveys and Questionnaires
6.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(20)2022 Oct 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2142970

ABSTRACT

The main objective of the present study is to examine the impact of job stress, role ambiguity, work-life imbalance and burnout on employee turnover intention. Moreover, the mediating role of burnout between job stress, role ambiguity, work-life imbalance and turnover intention is also examined. The data collection for this quantitative research was conducted through the "Questionnaire" technique. The questionnaire was developed based on previously established questions available in the literature. The data were collected using simple random sampling from the healthcare workers of KSA. From the distributed questionnaire, 73.5% of the usable questionnaires were returned. This study used SPSS and PLS for the analysis of the data to highlight the most significant variables that impact the employees' turnover intentions among KSA health workers. The findings show that job burnout is clearly related to turnover intentions and is positively affected by both role stress and role ambiguity. Moreover, a statistically positive association is found between work-life imbalance and burnout among the healthcare workers in KSA. Furthermore, the mediating role of burnout is also confirmed in this study. The study also indicates that role ambiguity and role stress due to COVID-19 may create burnout among employees, which may lead to turnover intention among healthcare workers. There is a lack of research on the assessment of the impact of the novel COVID-19-related job stress, role ambiguity and work-life imbalance on the medical staff's turnover intentions in hospitals. This study fills the gap of the limited studies conducted regarding the identification of the factors that can create turnover intention among healthcare workers of KSA by providing empirical evidence from a Gulf country, Saudi Arabia. This study provides managerial implications for hospital management and health policymakers to develop a strategy to retain the employees. Furthermore, healthcare administrators need to pay close attention to front line workers' turnover intentions as these medical heroes are the vital part of our society who assist patients to receive their initial treatment during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Burnout, Professional , COVID-19 , Occupational Stress , Humans , Personnel Turnover , Intention , COVID-19/epidemiology , Job Satisfaction , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Pandemics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Occupational Stress/epidemiology , Burnout, Professional/epidemiology , Health Personnel , Surveys and Questionnaires
7.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0278060, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2140682

ABSTRACT

In this paper, we study the relationship between trust and COVID-19 vaccination intentions. Vaccinating a large share of the population is essential for containing the COVID-19 pandemic. However, many individuals refuse to get vaccinated, which might be related to a lack of trust. Using unique survey data from Lithuania during the COVID-19 pandemic, we show that trust in government authorities, science, and pharmaceutical companies are important predictors of individual vaccination intentions. We do not find evidence that trust in strangers, the healthcare system, or the media predict intentions to get vaccinated against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Humans , Trust , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Intention , Pandemics/prevention & control , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Lithuania/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Vaccination
8.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem ; 30(spe): e3759, 2022.
Article in English, Portuguese, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2123340

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: investigate the influence of health literacy on the assessment of COVID-19 threat to health and the intention not to be vaccinated among Brazilian adolescents. METHOD: cross-sectional study with 526 Brazilian adolescents aged 14 to 19 years. Socioeconomic aspects, health-disease profile, health literacy, health threat by COVID-19 and intention not to be vaccinated were analyzed by bivariate association and multiple linear regression with Poisson response. RESULTS: higher health literacy score (p=0.010), cardiovascular disease (p=0.006), lower income (p=0.000), and living in the North region (p=0.007) were factors that contributed to feeling more threatened by COVID-19. Health literacy did not influence the intention not to be vaccinated (p=0.091), whose prevalence was lower among adolescents in the Southeast region when compared to those in the North region (p=0.010), among those who attended higher education (p=0,049) and those with higher income (p=0.000). CONCLUSION: health literacy influenced the perception of COVID-19 threat, but not the intention not to be vaccinated. Assessment of COVID-19 threat to health and prevalence of the intention not to be vaccinated were influenced by the region of residence, income, and education, which reinforces the importance of social determinants of health in this context. KEYPOINTS: (1) Average health literacy (HL) score of Brazilian adolescents: 25.3 (p-HLAT-8). (2) Adolescents in the Southeast region felt less threatened by COVID-19. (3) Higher HL score indicated adolescents felt more threatened by COVID-19. (4) Intention not to be vaccinated was observed among adolescents with higher income and education. (5) About 87% of Brazilian adolescents want to be vaccinated against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Literacy , Adolescent , Humans , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Intention , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Vaccination
9.
Soc Sci Med ; 313: 115400, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2121487

ABSTRACT

People may choose to receive vaccines in response to pressures that outweigh any concerns that they have. We explored Racialized minority and Indigenous Peoples' motivations for, perceptions of choice in, and concerns about, COVID-19 vaccination. We used a sequential explanatory mixed methods approach, including a national survey administered around the time vaccines were first authorized (Dec 2020) followed by qualitative interviews when vaccines were becoming more readily available to adults (May-June 2021). We analyzed survey data using descriptive statistics and interviews using critical feminist methodologies. Survey respondents self-identified as a Racialized minority (n = 1488) or Indigenous (n = 342), of which 71.4% and 64.6%, respectively, intended to receive a COVID-19 vaccine. Quantitative results indicated perceptions of COVID-19 disease were associated with vaccination intention. For instance, intention was associated with agreement that COVID-19 disease is severe, risk of becoming sick is great, COVID-19 vaccination is necessary, and vaccines available in Canada will be safe (p < 0.001). COVID-19 vaccines were in short supply in Canada when we subsequently completed qualitative interviews with a subset of Racialized minority (n = 17) and Indigenous (n = 10) survey respondents. We coded interview transcripts around three emergent themes relating to governmentality and cultural approaches to intersectional risk theories: feelings of collective responsibility, choice as privilege, and remaining uncertainties about COVID-19 vaccines. For example, some mentioned the responsibility and privilege to receive a vaccine earlier than those living outside of Canada. Some felt constraints on their freedom to choose to receive or refuse a vaccine from intersecting oppressions or their health status. Although all participants intended to get vaccinated, many mentioned uncertainties about the safety and effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccination. Survey respondents and interview participants demonstrated nuanced associations of vaccine acceptance and hesitancy shaped by perspectives of vaccine-related risks, symbolic associations of vaccines with hope, and intersecting social privileges and inequities (including racialization).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Adult , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Intention , Indigenous Peoples , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination , Canada
10.
Front Public Health ; 10: 1031520, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119702

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this paper is to explore how social influence (SI), which is disaggregated into subjective norms (SN), social image (SIM), and social identity (SID), predicts perceived usefulness (PU), perceived pleasure (PP), and continuance intention (CI) toward sports and fitness applications. The underlying context is the socialization and gamification of exercise during the Covid-19 pandemic. Based on the theory of SI and the technology acceptance model, a theoretical framework was built where PU and PP mediate the influence of SI on CI, and proposed hypotheses were tested. The responses of 296 Keep users (a popular sports and fitness application in China) to a questionnaire survey were analyzed. SN and SIM were found to have significant positive effects on SID; SID has significant positive effects on PU and PP; both PU and PP have significant positive effects on the CI of users; SID and PU positively and significantly mediate the relationship between SN/SIM and CI; PU positively and significantly mediates the SID-CI relationship. However, the role of PP in mediating the influence of SI on CI is non-significant. This paper deepens the current understanding of the mechanisms that influence the relationship between SI and CI under the context of socialization and gamification services.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sudden Infant Death , Humans , Intention , Pandemics , Exercise
11.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(46): 1479-1484, 2022 Nov 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119413

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 vaccines are safe and effective for infants and young children, and on June 18, 2022, CDC recommended COVID-19 vaccination for infants and children (children) aged 6 months-4 years (1,2). As of November 9, 2022, based on administrative data reported to CDC,* 5.9% of children aged <2 years and 8.8% of children aged 2-4 years had received ≥1 dose. To better understand reasons for low coverage among children aged <5 years, CDC analyzed data from 4,496 National Immunization Survey-Child COVID Module (NIS-CCM) interviews conducted during July 1-29, 2022, to examine variation in receipt of ≥1 dose of COVID-19 vaccine and parental intent to vaccinate children aged 6 months-4 years by sociodemographic characteristics and by parental beliefs about COVID-19; type of vaccination place was also reported. Among children aged 6 months-4 years, 3.5% were vaccinated; 59.3% were unvaccinated, but the parent was open to vaccination; and 37.2% were unvaccinated, and the parent was reluctant to vaccinate their child. Openness to vaccination was higher among parents of Hispanic or Latino (Hispanic) (66.2%), non-Hispanic Black or African American (Black) (61.1%), and non-Hispanic Asian (Asian) (83.1%) children than among parents of non-Hispanic White (White) (52.9%) children and lower among parents of children in rural areas (45.8%) than among parents of children in urban areas (64.1%). Parental confidence in COVID-19 vaccine safety and receipt of a provider recommendation for COVID-19 vaccination were lower among unvaccinated than vaccinated children. COVID-19 vaccine recommendations from a health care provider, along with dissemination of information about the safety of COVID-19 vaccine by trusted persons, could increase vaccination coverage among young children.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Infant , United States/epidemiology , Humans , Child, Preschool , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination , Parents , Intention
12.
Health Promot Int ; 37(6)2022 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2116663

ABSTRACT

Vaccination hesitancy has become a central concern and is a barrier to overcoming the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) crisis. Studies have indicated that mis/disinformation plays a role on the attitudes and behaviours towards vaccination. However, further formal statistical models are required to investigate how fake news relates to vaccination intent and how they mediate the relationship between socioeconomic/political factors and vaccination intent. We studied a sample of 500 Brazilians and found that people were mostly not susceptible to vaccine mis/disinformation. In addition, we found that their vaccination intent was high. However, suspicions that fake news could be true raised doubts over the vaccination intention. Although age and political orientation directly influenced vaccination intent, we found that the relationship between socioeconomic/political factors and vaccination intent was strongly mediated by belief in fake news. Our results raise the need to create multiple strategies to combat the dissemination and acceptance of such content.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Brazil , COVID-19/prevention & control , Intention , Disinformation , Vaccination
13.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(22)2022 Nov 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2110099

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has produced a far-reaching influence on higher education and the teaching activities of teachers in Chinese universities. The intentions of teachers in universities for using the micro-lecture, one of the educational informationization products, and the influencing factors of the intentions for using micro-lectures, are changing in the post COVID-19 era. This paper, based on the Technical Acceptance Model (TAM) and the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT), constructed the research hypotheses for the influence factors of micro-lecture usage intentions of teachers in universities in the post COVID-19 era, and made corresponding verifications through the Structural Equation Model (SEM). As shown by the results therefrom: (1) the micro-lecture usage experience before the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic significantly affected the usage intentions of teachers in universities; (2) the perceived usefulness influenced the usage intention directly, but the perceived ease of use did not directly produce influence; (3) policy impact had no significant influence on the perceived usefulness and the perceived ease of use of university teachers for micro-lecture use; (4) social relations and personal innovativeness have significant impacts on perceived usefulness, teaching objectives and micro-lecture characteristics have significant impacts on the perceived ease of use. In this paper, suggestions and opinions on popularizing micro-lecture usage in the post COVID-19 era were put forward on the basis of research conclusions therein.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Intention , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Universities , Pandemics , Surveys and Questionnaires , China/epidemiology
14.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 19165, 2022 Nov 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2118041

ABSTRACT

Machine learning methods are a novel way to predict and rank donors' willingness to donate blood and to achieve precision recruitment, which can improve the recruitment efficiency and meet the challenge of blood shortage. We collected information about experienced blood donors via short message service (SMS) recruitment and developed 7 machine learning-based recruitment models using PyCharm-Python Environment and 13 features which were described as a method for ranking and predicting donors' intentions to donate blood with a floating number between 0 and 1. Performance of the prediction models was assessed by the Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), accuracy, precision, recall, and F1 score in the full dataset, and by the accuracy in the four sub-datasets. The developed models were applied to prospective validations of recruiting experienced blood donors during two COVID-19 pandemics, while the routine method was used as a control. Overall, a total of 95,476 recruitments via SMS and their donation results were enrolled in our modelling study. The strongest predictor features for the donation of experienced donors were blood donation interval, age, and donation frequency. Among the seven baseline models, the eXtreme Gradient Boosting (XGBoost) and Support vector machine models (SVM) achieved the best performance: mean (95%CI) with the highest AUC: 0.809 (0.806-0.811), accuracy: 0.815 (0.812-0.818), precision: 0.840 (0.835-0.845), and F1 score of XGBoost: 0.843 (0.840-0.845) and recall of SVM: 0.991 (0.988-0.994). The hit rate of the XGBoost model alone and the combined XGBoost and SVM models were 1.25 and 1.80 times higher than that of the conventional method as a control in 2 recruitments respectively, and the hit rate of the high willingness to donate group was 1.96 times higher than that of the low willingness to donate group. Our results suggested that the machine learning models could predict and determine the experienced donors with a strong willingness to donate blood by a ranking score based on personalized donation data and demographical details, significantly improve the recruitment rate of blood donors and help blood agencies to maintain the blood supply in emergencies.


Subject(s)
Blood Donors , COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Machine Learning , Intention , Disease Outbreaks
15.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0272627, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2117552

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic among Latino communities, with an emphasis on understanding barriers and facilitators to vaccine intention prior to the development of the vaccine. METHODS: Qualitative data were collected between April and June 2020 from 3 focus groups with Latino adults (n = 21) and interviews with administrators of community-based organizations serving Latino communities (n = 12) in urban (Los Angeles) and rural (Fresno) California, supplemented by Community Advisory Board input in May 2021to elucidate the findings. Data were analyzed with deductive content analysis. RESULTS: We have identified four main themes that are barriers to vaccinating against COVID-19: 1) concerns about accessing appropriate healthcare services, 2) financial issues and 3) immigration matters, as well as 4) misinformation. CONCLUSIONS: Findings illustrate the pervasive role of addressable social determinants of health in the intention of rural and urban Latino communities in being vaccinated, which is a pressing public health issue. Policy implications: Findings provide evidence for a systemic shift to prioritize equitable access to COVID-19 vaccines to Latino communities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines , Intention , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Hispanic or Latino
16.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 2030, 2022 11 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2108761

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Only 63.8% of Americans who are 18-to-24-years-old have been fully vaccinated for COVID-19 as of June 1, 2022. The Grand Forks County, North Dakota is facing a similar challenge. As of June 2022, 47% of individuals in the 19-to-29-year-old age group are vaccinated. Focusing on unvaccinated individuals in their 20s, Study 1 aims to understand the ways in which receiving COVID-19 vaccines is construed using qualitative interviews; and Study 2 compares the predictors of short-term vaccination intention (i.e., next month) with those of long-term vaccination intention (i.e., three to 5 years) using an online survey. METHODS: For Study 1, we conducted five focus groups and four in-depth interviews via Zoom with a total of 26 unvaccinated individuals in their 20s living in the Grand Forks County. Constant comparison process was used to categorize data into themes and to recognize characteristics of the identified themes. The aim was to develop themes and associated characteristics. For Study 2, we conducted an online survey with a convenience sample of 526 unvaccinated individuals. Logistic regression estimated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for associations between attitudes, perceptions, and beliefs in misinformation and short-term and long-term vaccination intentions, accounting for demographics and socioeconomic status. RESULTS: In Study 1, two themes were identified: feelings of uncertainty sparked by profits and monetization and navigating the fear of the unknown. In Study 2, an increase in the confidence of COVID-19 vaccines showed significantly higher odds of short-term intention (OR = 2.658, 95%CI 1.770, 3.990) and long-term intention (OR = 1.568, 95% CI 1.105, 2.226). Believing in misinformation had significantly lower odds of short-term intention (OR = 0.712, 95%CI 0.513, 0.990), while more positive attitudes (OR = 1.439, 95% CI 1.024, 2.024), stronger preference in calculating the benefits of COVID-19 vaccines (OR = 2.108, 95% CI 1.541, 2.882), and greater perceived susceptibility (OR = 1.471, 95% CI 1.045, 2.070) to and severity of contracting COVID-19 (OR = 1.362, 95% CI 1.020, 1.820) were significantly associated with higher odds of long-term intention. CONCLUSIONS: Short-term and long-term intentions were predicted differently. Instilling strong confidence in COVID-19 vaccines should increase both short-term and long-term intentions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Intention , Young Adult , Humans , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination Hesitancy , Vaccination
17.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 2033, 2022 11 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2108758

ABSTRACT

To facilitate maximum uptake of the COVID-19 vaccine, the roles of medical trust and mistrust of healthcare professionals must be examined. Previous work suggests that trust and mistrust may have differential impacts on vaccination intention via vaccine necessity and concerns. Multigroup structural equation modeling was utilized to test whether vaccine necessity and concerns mediated the associations between trust in providers and health information, mistrust of providers, and willingness to get the COVID-19 vaccine. The model was found to be invariant across Black and White respondents. Trust in providers and trust in healthcare information exerted indirect effects on intentions through vaccine necessity, while mistrust of providers exerted indirect effects through vaccine concerns. Unlike previous work, the forms of trust did not influence vaccine concerns. The findings have implications for future communication efforts from healthcare professionals and health messengers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Humans , Trust , COVID-19 Vaccines , Intention , African Americans , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination
18.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(21)2022 Nov 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099559

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: this study aimed to examine the user satisfaction and reuse intention of the elderly for neighborhood sports facilities in South Korea during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: this study surveyed 386 Korean elderly individuals aged ≥ 65 years, who were users of neighborhood sports facilities, from 1 May to 31 August 2022. A total of 386 questionnaires were used for data analysis, which was carried out using SPSS 23.0 statistical software. Descriptive statistics of the mean, standard deviation, and frequency distribution were used at the descriptive level. Moreover, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), Scheffe's post hoc pair-wise comparison analysis, Pearson's correlation coefficient, and multiple regression analysis were used at the inferential level. The significance level of these tests was considered for less than 0.05. RESULTS: the mechanistic and humanistic service factors of neighborhood sports facilities affected user satisfaction and reuse intention. Furthermore, user satisfaction of the elderly during the COVID-19 pandemic had a positive effect on reuse intention. CONCLUSION: this study confirmed that the service quality characteristics of neighborhood sports facilities during the COVID-19 pandemic had a positive effect on user satisfaction and intention to continue to exercise among the elderly.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Intention , Aged , Humans , Personal Satisfaction , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires
19.
BMC Med Ethics ; 23(1): 45, 2022 04 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1798405

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Commentators believe that the ethical decision-making climate is instrumental in enhancing interprofessional collaboration in intensive care units (ICUs). Our aim was twofold: (1) to determine the perception of the ethical climate, levels of moral distress, and intention to leave one's job among nurses and physicians, and between the different ICU types and (2) determine the association between the ethical climate, moral distress, and intention to leave. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional questionnaire study between May 2021 and August 2021 involving 206 nurses and physicians in a large urban academic hospital. We used the validated Ethical Decision-Making Climate Questionnaire (EDMCQ) and the Measure of Moral Distress for Healthcare Professionals (MMD-HP) tools and asked respondents their intention to leave their jobs. We also made comparisons between the different ICU types. We used Pearson's correlation coefficient to identify statistically significant associations between the Ethical Climate, Moral Distress, and Intention to Leave. RESULTS: Nurses perceived the ethical climate for decision-making as less favorable than physicians (p < 0.05). They also had significantly greater levels of moral distress and higher intention to leave their job rates than physicians. Regarding the ICU types, the Neonatal/Pediatric unit had a significantly higher overall ethical climate score than the Medical and Surgical units (3.54 ± 0.66 vs. 3.43 ± 0.81 vs. 3.30 ± 0.69; respectively; both p ≤ 0.05) and also demonstrated lower moral distress scores (both p < 0.05) and lower "intention to leave" scores compared with both the Medical and Surgical units. The ethical climate and moral distress scores were negatively correlated (r = -0.58, p < 0.001); moral distress and "intention to leave" was positively correlated (r = 0.52, p < 0.001); and ethical climate and "intention to leave" were negatively correlated (r = -0.50, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Significant differences exist in the perception of the ethical climate, levels of moral distress, and intention to leave between nurses and physicians and between the different ICU types. Inspecting the individual factors of the ethical climate and moral distress tools can help hospital leadership target organizational factors that improve interprofessional collaboration, lessening moral distress, decreasing turnover, and improved patient care.


Subject(s)
Attitude of Health Personnel , Intention , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hospitals , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Intensive Care Units , Job Satisfaction , Morals , Stress, Psychological , Surveys and Questionnaires
20.
Front Public Health ; 10: 882909, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099255

ABSTRACT

Object: During the later period of the COVID-19 pandemic, the public has been at risk of the evolving COVID-19 variants and hesitated to be vaccinated against COVID-19 to a certain extent. In this context, the health belief model (HBM) and the theory of planned behavior model (TPB) were used to compare and summarize the relationship between vaccine hesitation/non-hesitation and the intentions to get COVID-19 vaccines and its influencing factors. Methods: The cross-sectional, population-based online survey was conducted from 14 April to 30 April 2021, and 1757 respondents were recruited to participate in the survey through the Wenjuanxing online survey platform. The HBM and TPB covariate scores were expressed using means and standard deviations and compared between groups using t-tests. Backward multiple linear regression models were used to explore the factors influencing the public's intentions to receive the COVID-19 vaccines. Results: This study found that educational background is one of the factors influencing vaccine hesitation. Most people with high education do not hesitate (65.24%), while a more significant proportion of people with low education have vaccine hesitation (66.00%). According to HBM, for the vaccine hesitation group, self-efficacy, family advice, and doctor's advice were the most critical factors affecting the public's future vaccination intentions; for the vaccine non-hesitation group, self-efficacy, doctor's advice, and perceived benefits are the most important influencing factors. According to the TPB, the subjective norm is the most critical factor affecting the future vaccination intention of the vaccine hesitation group, and the attitude toward behavior is the most critical factor affecting the future vaccination intention of the vaccine non-hesitation group. Conclusions: In the context of COVID-19, the public's hesitation on the "current" vaccines will still affect future vaccination intentions. Using HBM and TPB would help health policymakers and healthcare providers formulate intervention plans.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Intention , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines , Pandemics/prevention & control , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Health Belief Model
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