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1.
J Med Microbiol ; 71(5)2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1874076

ABSTRACT

Introduction. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused a serious threat to public health worldwide, and there is currently no effective therapeutic strategy for treating COVID-19.Hypothesis/Gap Statement. We propose that sophocarpine (SOP) might have potential therapeutic effects on COVID-19 through inhibiting the cytokine storm and the nuclear factor NF-κB signalling pathway.Aim. The objective was to elucidate the potential mechanism of SOP against COVID-19 through a network pharmacology analysis and its experimental validation.Methodology. The BATMAN-TCM database was used to identify the therapeutic targets of SOP, while the GeneCards and DisGeNET databases were used to identify the targets related to COVID-19. A protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was constructed from the STRING and analysed using Cytoscape software. Gene ontology (GO), Kyoto Encyclopaedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) and disease ontology (DO) enrichment analyses of the co-targets were performed using Metascape. Autodock 4.2.6 and Pymol software were applied for molecular docking. Levels of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-6, TNFα and IL-1ß were measured by ELISA, while mRNA expression levels of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) and IFN gamma (IFNG) were detected by real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR. The protein levels of the molecules involved in the NF-κB signalling pathway were validated by western blot analysis.Results. A total of 65 co-targets of SOP and COVID-19 were determined. GO and KEGG enrichment analyses suggested that SOP affected COVID-19 by regulating the IL-17 signalling pathway, TNF signalling pathway and other signalling pathways. The PPI network and molecular docking showed that p65, ICAM-1 and VEGFA were key targets of SOP against COVID-19 and the underlying mechanism was validated in A549 cells in vitro. SOP attenuated the LPS-induced production of TNF-α and IL-6 and downregulated the LPS-induced mRNA expression of ICAM-1, VEGFA and IFNG. Mechanistically, SOP pretreatment inhibited the phosphorylation of p65 and facilitated the activation of Nrf2.Conclusions. SOP has a potential therapeutic effect on COVID-19 through multiple pathways and targets, and inhibits the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and molecules involved in the NF-κB signalling pathway.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 , Alkaloids , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cytokines/metabolism , Humans , Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1/genetics , Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1/metabolism , Interleukin-6 , Lipopolysaccharides , Molecular Docking Simulation , NF-kappa B/metabolism , RNA, Messenger , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
2.
Am J Physiol Renal Physiol ; 322(3): F309-F321, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1799210

ABSTRACT

Substantial evidence has supported the role of endothelial cell (EC) activation and dysfunction in the development of hypertension, chronic kidney disease (CKD), and lupus nephritis (LN). In both humans and experimental models of hypertension, CKD, and LN, ECs become activated and release potent mediators of inflammation including cytokines, chemokines, and reactive oxygen species that cause EC dysfunction, tissue damage, and fibrosis. Factors that activate the endothelium include inflammatory cytokines, mechanical stretch, and pathological shear stress. These signals can activate the endothelium to promote upregulation of adhesion molecules, such as intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, which promote leukocyte adhesion and migration to the activated endothelium. More importantly, it is now recognized that some of these signals may in turn promote endothelial antigen presentation through major histocompatibility complex II. In this review, we will consider in-depth mechanisms of endothelial activation and the novel mechanism of endothelial antigen presentation. Moreover, we will discuss these proinflammatory events in renal pathologies and consider possible new therapeutic approaches to limit the untoward effects of endothelial inflammation in hypertension, CKD, and LN.


Subject(s)
Hypertension , Lupus Nephritis , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Cytokines/metabolism , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Endothelium, Vascular/metabolism , Female , Humans , Hypertension/metabolism , Inflammation/metabolism , Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1/metabolism , Lupus Nephritis/metabolism , Male , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/metabolism , Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1/metabolism
3.
J Virol ; 96(2): e0106021, 2022 01 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1759286

ABSTRACT

Rhinoviruses (RVs) cause recurrent infections of the nasal and pulmonary tracts, life-threatening conditions in chronic respiratory illness patients, predisposition of children to asthmatic exacerbation, and large economic cost. RVs are difficult to treat. They rapidly evolve resistance and are genetically diverse. Here, we provide insight into RV drug resistance mechanisms against chemical compounds neutralizing low pH in endolysosomes. Serial passaging of RV-A16 in the presence of the vacuolar proton ATPase inhibitor bafilomycin A1 (BafA1) or the endolysosomotropic agent ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) promoted the emergence of resistant virus populations. We found two reproducible point mutations in viral proteins 1 and 3 (VP1 and VP3), A2526G (serine 66 to asparagine [S66N]), and G2274U (cysteine 220 to phenylalanine [C220F]), respectively. Both mutations conferred cross-resistance to BafA1, NH4Cl, and the protonophore niclosamide, as identified by massive parallel sequencing and reverse genetics, but not the double mutation, which we could not rescue. Both VP1-S66 and VP3-C220 locate at the interprotomeric face, and their mutations increase the sensitivity of virions to low pH, elevated temperature, and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 receptor. These results indicate that the ability of RV to uncoat at low endosomal pH confers virion resistance to extracellular stress. The data endorse endosomal acidification inhibitors as a viable strategy against RVs, especially if inhibitors are directly applied to the airways. IMPORTANCE Rhinoviruses (RVs) are the predominant agents causing the common cold. Anti-RV drugs and vaccines are not available, largely due to rapid evolutionary adaptation of RVs giving rise to resistant mutants and an immense diversity of antigens in more than 160 different RV types. In this study, we obtained insight into the cell biology of RVs by harnessing the ability of RVs to evolve resistance against host-targeting small chemical compounds neutralizing endosomal pH, an important cue for uncoating of normal RVs. We show that RVs grown in cells treated with inhibitors of endolysosomal acidification evolved capsid mutations yielding reduced virion stability against elevated temperature, low pH, and incubation with recombinant soluble receptor fragments. This fitness cost makes it unlikely that RV mutants adapted to neutral pH become prevalent in nature. The data support the concept of host-directed drug development against respiratory viruses in general, notably at low risk of gain-of-function mutations.


Subject(s)
Capsid/chemistry , Mutation/drug effects , Rhinovirus/physiology , Virus Uncoating/physiology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Capsid/drug effects , Capsid Proteins/genetics , Capsid Proteins/metabolism , Drug Resistance, Viral/drug effects , Drug Resistance, Viral/genetics , Endosomes/chemistry , Endosomes/drug effects , Endosomes/metabolism , HeLa Cells , Humans , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1/metabolism , Protein Conformation , Rhinovirus/chemistry , Rhinovirus/drug effects , Rhinovirus/genetics , Virion/chemistry , Virion/genetics , Virion/metabolism , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Virus Uncoating/drug effects , Virus Uncoating/genetics
4.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 74(7): 1132-1138, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1694821

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: While endothelial dysfunction has been implicated in the widespread thromboinflammatory complications of COVID-19, the upstream mediators of endotheliopathy remain, for the most part, unknown. This study was undertaken to identify circulating factors contributing to endothelial cell activation and dysfunction in COVID-19. METHODS: Human endothelial cells were cultured in the presence of serum or plasma from 244 patients hospitalized with COVID-19 and plasma from 100 patients with non-COVID-19-related sepsis. Cell adhesion molecules (E-selectin, vascular cell adhesion molecule 1, and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 [ICAM-1]) were quantified using in-cell enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: Serum and plasma from COVID-19 patients increased surface expression of cell adhesion molecules. Furthermore, levels of soluble ICAM-1 and E-selectin were elevated in patient serum and correlated with disease severity. The presence of circulating antiphospholipid antibodies was a strong marker of the ability of COVID-19 serum to activate endothelium. Depletion of total IgG from antiphospholipid antibody-positive serum markedly reduced the up-regulation of cell adhesion molecules. Conversely, supplementation of control serum with patient IgG was sufficient to trigger endothelial activation. CONCLUSION: These data are the first to indicate that some COVID-19 patients have potentially diverse antibodies that drive endotheliopathy, providing important context regarding thromboinflammatory effects of autoantibodies in severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , E-Selectin , Antibodies, Antiphospholipid , Cell Adhesion Molecules/metabolism , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Endothelium, Vascular , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/metabolism , Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1/metabolism , Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1
5.
Front Immunol ; 12: 748417, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528820

ABSTRACT

Rationale: Myocardial injury associates significantly and independently with mortality in COVID-19 patients. However, the pathogenesis of myocardial injury in COVID-19 remains unclear, and cardiac involvement by SARS-CoV-2 presents a major challenge worldwide. Objective: This histological and immunohistochemical study sought to clarify the pathogenesis and propose a mechanism with pathways involved in COVID-19 myocardial injury. Methods and Results: Postmortem minimally invasive autopsies were performed in six patients who died from COVID-19, and the myocardium samples were compared to a control group (n=11). Histological analysis was performed using hematoxylin-eosin and toluidine blue staining. Immunohistochemical (IHC) staining was performed using monoclonal antibodies against targets: caspase-1, caspase-9, gasdermin-d, ICAM-1, IL-1ß, IL-4, IL-6, CD163, TNF-α, TGF-ß, MMP-9, type 1 and type 3 collagen. The samples were also assessed for apoptotic cells by TUNEL. Histological analysis showed severe pericardiocyte interstitial edema and higher mast cells counts per high-power field in all COVID-19 myocardium samples. The IHC analysis showed increased expression of caspase-1, ICAM-1, IL-1ß, IL-6, MMP-9, TNF-α, and other markers in the hearts of COVID-19 patients. Expression of caspase-9 did not differ from the controls, while gasdermin-d expression was less. The TUNEL assay was positive in all the COVID-19 samples supporting endothelial apoptosis. Conclusions: The pathogenesis of COVID-19 myocardial injury does not seem to relate to primary myocardiocyte involvement but to local inflammation with associated interstitial edema. We found heightened TGF-ß and interstitial collagen expression in COVID-affected hearts, a potential harbinger of chronic myocardial fibrosis. These results suggest a need for continued clinical surveillance of patients for myocardial dysfunction and arrythmias after recovery from the acute phase of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Heart Injuries/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Apoptosis , Biopsy , COVID-19/pathology , Caspase 1/metabolism , Collagen/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , Female , Heart Injuries/pathology , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1/metabolism , Male , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9/metabolism , Myocardium/metabolism , Myocardium/pathology
6.
Nutrients ; 13(11)2021 Nov 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512522

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We aimed to establish an acute treatment protocol to increase serum vitamin D, evaluate the effectiveness of vitamin D3 supplementation, and reveal the potential mechanisms in COVID-19. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the data of 867 COVID-19 cases. Then, a prospective study was conducted, including 23 healthy individuals and 210 cases. A total of 163 cases had vitamin D supplementation, and 95 were followed for 14 days. Clinical outcomes, routine blood biomarkers, serum levels of vitamin D metabolism, and action mechanism-related parameters were evaluated. RESULTS: Our treatment protocol increased the serum 25OHD levels significantly to above 30 ng/mL within two weeks. COVID-19 cases (no comorbidities, no vitamin D treatment, 25OHD <30 ng/mL) had 1.9-fold increased risk of having hospitalization longer than 8 days compared with the cases with comorbidities and vitamin D treatment. Having vitamin D treatment decreased the mortality rate by 2.14 times. The correlation analysis of specific serum biomarkers with 25OHD indicated that the vitamin D action in COVID-19 might involve regulation of INOS1, IL1B, IFNg, cathelicidin-LL37, and ICAM1. CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin D treatment shortened hospital stay and decreased mortality in COVID-19 cases, even in the existence of comorbidities. Vitamin D supplementation is effective on various target parameters; therefore, it is essential for COVID-19 treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamin D/administration & dosage , Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides/blood , Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides/genetics , Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides/metabolism , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Dietary Supplements , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Humans , Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1/blood , Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1/genetics , Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1/metabolism , Interferon-gamma/blood , Interferon-gamma/genetics , Interferon-gamma/metabolism , Interleukin-1beta/blood , Interleukin-1beta/genetics , Interleukin-1beta/metabolism , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II/blood , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II/genetics , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II/metabolism , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Vitamin D/blood , Vitamin D/pharmacology , Vitamins/administration & dosage , Vitamins/pharmacology
7.
Dis Model Mech ; 14(11)2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1430507

ABSTRACT

Vascular permeability triggered by inflammation or ischemia promotes edema, exacerbates disease progression and impairs tissue recovery. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent inducer of vascular permeability. VEGF plays an integral role in regulating vascular barrier function physiologically and in pathologies, including cancer, stroke, cardiovascular disease, retinal conditions and COVID-19-associated pulmonary edema, sepsis and acute lung injury. Understanding temporal molecular regulation of VEGF-induced vascular permeability will facilitate developing therapeutics to inhibit vascular permeability, while preserving tissue-restorative angiogenesis. Here, we demonstrate that VEGF signals through signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) to promote vascular permeability. We show that genetic STAT3 ablation reduces vascular permeability in STAT3-deficient endothelium of mice and VEGF-inducible zebrafish crossed with CRISPR/Cas9-generated Stat3 knockout zebrafish. Intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) expression is transcriptionally regulated by STAT3, and VEGF-dependent STAT3 activation is regulated by JAK2. Pyrimethamine, an FDA-approved antimicrobial agent that inhibits STAT3-dependent transcription, substantially reduces VEGF-induced vascular permeability in zebrafish, mouse and human endothelium. Collectively, our findings suggest that VEGF/VEGFR-2/JAK2/STAT3 signaling regulates vascular barrier integrity, and inhibition of STAT3-dependent activity reduces VEGF-induced vascular permeability. This article has an associated First Person interview with the first author of the paper.


Subject(s)
Capillary Permeability , Endothelium, Vascular/metabolism , STAT3 Transcription Factor/genetics , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/metabolism , Animals , CRISPR-Cas Systems , Humans , Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1/metabolism , Janus Kinase 2/metabolism , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Knockout , Phosphorylation , STAT3 Transcription Factor/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Zebrafish
8.
Front Immunol ; 12: 707287, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1359191

ABSTRACT

Background: The outbreak of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become an international public health crisis, and the number of cases with dengue co-infection has raised concerns. Unfortunately, treatment options are currently limited or even unavailable. Thus, the aim of our study was to explore the underlying mechanisms and identify potential therapeutic targets for co-infection. Methods: To further understand the mechanisms underlying co-infection, we used a series of bioinformatics analyses to build host factor interaction networks and elucidate biological process and molecular function categories, pathway activity, tissue-specific enrichment, and potential therapeutic agents. Results: We explored the pathologic mechanisms of COVID-19 and dengue co-infection, including predisposing genes, significant pathways, biological functions, and possible drugs for intervention. In total, 460 shared host factors were collected; among them, CCL4 and AhR targets were important. To further analyze biological functions, we created a protein-protein interaction (PPI) network and performed Molecular Complex Detection (MCODE) analysis. In addition, common signaling pathways were acquired, and the toll-like receptor and NOD-like receptor signaling pathways exerted a significant effect on the interaction. Upregulated genes were identified based on the activity score of dysregulated genes, such as IL-1, Hippo, and TNF-α. We also conducted tissue-specific enrichment analysis and found ICAM-1 and CCL2 to be highly expressed in the lung. Finally, candidate drugs were screened, including resveratrol, genistein, and dexamethasone. Conclusions: This study probes host factor interaction networks for COVID-19 and dengue and provides potential drugs for clinical practice. Although the findings need to be verified, they contribute to the treatment of co-infection and the management of respiratory disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/pathology , Computational Biology/methods , Dengue/drug therapy , Dengue/pathology , Protein Interaction Maps/physiology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Chemokine CCL2/metabolism , Coinfection , Dengue Virus/drug effects , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Gene Expression Regulation/genetics , Genistein/therapeutic use , Humans , Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1/metabolism , Lung/metabolism , Resveratrol/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Signal Transduction
9.
J Virol ; 95(17): e0079421, 2021 08 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1350003

ABSTRACT

Increased mortality in COVID-19 cases is often associated with microvascular complications. We have recently shown that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike protein promotes an inflammatory cytokine interleukin 6 (IL-6)/IL-6R-induced trans signaling response and alarmin secretion. Virus-infected or spike-transfected human epithelial cells exhibited an increase in senescence, with a release of senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP)-related inflammatory molecules. Introduction of the bromodomain-containing protein 4 (BRD4) inhibitor AZD5153 to senescent epithelial cells reversed this effect and reduced SASP-related inflammatory molecule release in TMNK-1 or EAhy926 (representative human endothelial cell lines), when cells were exposed to cell culture medium (CM) derived from A549 cells expressing SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. Cells also exhibited a senescence phenotype with enhanced p16, p21, and senescence-associated ß-galactosidase (SA-ß-Gal) expression and triggered SASP pathways. Inhibition of IL-6 trans signaling by tocilizumab and inhibition of inflammatory receptor signaling by the Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitor zanubrutinib, prior to exposure of CM to endothelial cells, inhibited p21 and p16 induction. We also observed an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) in A549 spike-transfected and endothelial cells exposed to spike-transfected CM. ROS generation in endothelial cell lines was reduced after treatment with tocilizumab and zanubrutinib. Cellular senescence was associated with an increased level of the endothelial adhesion molecules vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), which have in vitro leukocyte attachment potential. Inhibition of senescence or SASP function prevented VCAM-1/ICAM-1 expression and leukocyte attachment. Taken together, we identified that human endothelial cells exposed to cell culture supernatant derived from SARS-CoV-2 spike protein expression displayed cellular senescence markers, leading to enhanced leukocyte adhesion. IMPORTANCE The present study was aimed at examining the underlying mechanism of extrapulmonary manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein-associated pathogenesis, with the notion that infection of the pulmonary epithelium can lead to mediators that drive endothelial dysfunction. We utilized SARS-CoV-2 spike protein expression in cultured human hepatocytes (Huh7.5) and pneumocytes (A549) to generate conditioned culture medium (CM). Endothelial cell lines (TMNK-1 or EAhy926) treated with CM exhibited an increase in cellular senescence markers by a paracrine mode and led to leukocyte adhesion. Overall, the link between these responses in endothelial cell senescence and a potential contribution to microvascular complication in productively SARS-CoV-2-infected humans is implicated. Furthermore, the use of inhibitors (BTK, IL-6, and BRD4) showed a reverse effect in the senescent cells. These results may support the selection of potential adjunct therapeutic modalities to impede SARS-CoV-2-associated pathogenesis.


Subject(s)
Cellular Senescence , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Leukocytes/metabolism , Paracrine Communication , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , A549 Cells , Cell Adhesion , Cell Cycle Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Cell Cycle Proteins/metabolism , Endothelial Cells/pathology , Endothelial Cells/virology , Heterocyclic Compounds, 2-Ring/pharmacology , Humans , Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1/metabolism , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Leukocytes/pathology , Leukocytes/virology , Piperazines/pharmacology , Pyrazoles , Pyridazines , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Receptors, Interleukin-6/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Transcription Factors/antagonists & inhibitors , Transcription Factors/metabolism , Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1/metabolism
10.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 99: 108004, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1333527

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: SARS-CoV-2 replication in cell cultures has been shown to be inhibited by ivermectin. However, ivermectin's low aqueous solubility and bioavailabilityhinders its application in COVID-19 treatment. Also, it has been suggested that best outcomes for this medication can be achieved via direct administration to the lung. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed at evaluating the safety of a novel ivermectin inhalable formulation in rats as a pre-clinical step. METHODS: Hydroxy propyl-ß-cyclodextrin(HP-ß-CD) was used to formulate readily soluble ivermectin lyophilized powder. Adult male rats were used to test lung toxicity for ivermectin-HP-ß-CD formulations in doses of 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.8 mg/kg for 3 successive days. RESULTS: The X-ray diffraction for lyophilized ivermectin-HP-ß-CD revealed its amorphous structure that increased drug aqueous solubility 127-fold and was rapidly dissolved within 5 s in saline.Pulmonary administration of ivermectin-HP-ß-CD in dosesof 0.2, 0.4 and 0.8 mg/kgshowed dose-dependent increase in levels of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-13 and ICAM-1 as well as gene expression of MCP-1, protein expression of PIII-NP and serum levels of SP-D paralleled by reduction in IL-10. Moreover, lungs treated with ivermectin (0.2 mg/kg) revealed mild histopathological alterations, while severe pulmonary damage was seen in rats treated with ivermectin at doses of 0.4 and 0.8 mg/kg. However, ivermectin-HP-ß-CD formulation administered in doses of 0.05 and 0.1 mg/kg revealed safety profiles. CONCLUSION: The safety of inhaledivermectin-HP-ß-CD formulation is dose-dependent. Nevertheless, use of low doses(0.05 and 0.1 mg/kg) could be considered as a possible therapeutic regimen in COVID-19 cases.


Subject(s)
Ivermectin/adverse effects , Lung/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cytokines/metabolism , Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1/metabolism , Ivermectin/chemistry , Lung/pathology , Male , Rats , Rats, Inbred WF , Receptors, CCR2 , Solubility
11.
Gene ; 801: 145854, 2021 Oct 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1313122

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Both COVID-19 and influenza are viral respiratory tract infections and the epidemics of viral respiratory tract infections remain highly prevalent with lethal consequences in susceptible individuals. Expression of ICAM-1 on vascular endothelium recruits leukocytes which initiates inflammation. IL-6 induces ICAM-1. Both ICAM-1 and IL-6 can be enhanced in influenza virus infection and COVID-19 patients. Besides initiation of virus entry host cells, whether HA alone, instead of whole virus, of influenza has the effects on expression of ICAM-1 and IL-6 in vascular endothelium with injury in the lungs, remains to be demonstrated. METHODS: RT-qPCR and Western blot as well as histopathologic examination were used to examine mRNA and protein of ICAM-1 and IL-6 as well as pathological injury in the lung tissues, respectively. RESULTS: After incubation of the Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVECs) with HA of H1N1 for 24 h, the mRNA and protein of ICAM-1 and IL-6 in HUVECs were increased in group of 5 µg/ml concentration with statistical significance (p < 0.05). Pathological injury in lung tissues of the mice was shown 12 h after tail intravenous injection with 100 µl of HA (50 µg/ml and 100 µg/ml in normal saline), including widened alveolar spaces with angiotelectasis in alveolar wall, alveolar luminal and interstitial inflammatory infiltrates, alveolar luminal erythrocyte effusion. CONCLUSIONS: HA alone, instead of whole H1N1 virus, induced more expression of ICAM-1 and IL-6, two molecules involving in pathological and inflammatory responses, in HUVECs and pathological injury in lung tissues of the mice. This knowledge provides a new HA-targeted potential direction for prevention and treatment of disease related to H1N1 infection.


Subject(s)
Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus/physiology , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/physiology , Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1/metabolism , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Lung/pathology , Cells, Cultured , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells , Humans , Lung/metabolism , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
12.
Clin Immunol ; 227: 108733, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1198654

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is responsible for many pathological processes, including altered vascular disease development, dysfunctional thrombosis and a heightened inflammatory response. However, there is limited work to determine the underlying cellular responses induced by exposure to SARS-CoV-2 structural proteins. Thus, our objective was to investigate how human arterial adventitial fibroblasts inflammation, thrombosis and diabetic disease markers are altered in response to Spike, Nucleocapsid and Membrane-Envelope proteins. We hypothesized that after a short-term exposure to SARS-CoV-2 proteins, adventitial fibroblasts would have a higher expression of inflammatory, thrombotic and diabetic proteins, which would support a mechanism for altered vascular disease progression. After incubation, the expression of gC1qR, ICAM-1, tissue factor, RAGE and GLUT-4 was significantly up-regulated. In general, the extent of expression was different for each SARS-CoV-2 protein, suggesting that SARS-CoV-2 proteins interact with cells through different mechanisms. Thus, SARS-CoV-2 protein interaction with vascular cells may regulate vascular disease responses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Cardiovascular Diseases/virology , Diabetes Mellitus/virology , Fibroblasts/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Thrombosis/virology , Aorta/cytology , Aorta/metabolism , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/immunology , Cardiovascular Diseases/metabolism , Carrier Proteins/metabolism , Cell Survival/immunology , Cell Survival/physiology , Complement System Proteins/immunology , Coronavirus Envelope Proteins/immunology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolism , Glucose Transporter Type 4/metabolism , Humans , Inflammation/metabolism , Inflammation/virology , Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1/metabolism , Mitochondrial Proteins/metabolism , Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products/metabolism , Thrombosis/complications , Thrombosis/metabolism
13.
Front Immunol ; 12: 626308, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1190310

ABSTRACT

We have previously shown that conformational change in the ß2-integrin is a very early activation marker that can be detected with fluorescent multimers of its ligand intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 for rapid assessment of antigen-specific CD8+ T cells. In this study, we describe a modified protocol of this assay for sensitive detection of functional antigen-specific CD4+ T cells using a monoclonal antibody (clone m24 Ab) specific for the open, high-affinity conformation of the ß2-integrin. The kinetics of ß2-integrin activation was different on CD4+ and CD8+ T cells (several hours vs. few minutes, respectively); however, m24 Ab readily stained both cell types 4-6 h after antigen stimulation. With this protocol, we were able to monitor ex vivo effector and memory CD4+ and CD8+ T cells specific for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and hepatitis B virus (HBV) in whole blood or cryopreserved peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of infected or vaccinated individuals. By costaining ß2-integrin with m24 and CD154 Abs, we assessed extremely low frequencies of polyfunctional CD4+ T cell responses. The novel assay used in this study allows very sensitive and simultaneous screening of both CD4+ and CD8+ T cell reactivities, with versatile applicability in clinical and vaccination studies.


Subject(s)
CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Integrins/metabolism , Adult , Aged , Amino Acid Sequence , Binding Sites , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Carrier Proteins/chemistry , Cytokines/metabolism , Cytomegalovirus/immunology , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/chemistry , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/immunology , Female , HLA Antigens/chemistry , HLA Antigens/immunology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Immunophenotyping , Integrins/genetics , Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1/chemistry , Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1/metabolism , Lymphocyte Activation/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Protein Binding , Protein Multimerization , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , T-Cell Antigen Receptor Specificity , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/metabolism
14.
J Proteomics ; 234: 104083, 2021 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-988504

ABSTRACT

Using high-throughput BioPlex assays, we determined that six fractions from the venom of Conus nux inhibit the adhesion of various recombinant PfEMP-1 protein domains (PF08_0106 CIDR1α3.1, PF11_0521 DBL2ß3, and PFL0030c DBL3X and DBL5e) to their corresponding receptors (CD36, ICAM-1, and CSA, respectively). The protein domain-receptor interactions permit P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes (IE) to evade elimination in the spleen by adhering to the microvasculature in various organs including the placenta. The sequences for the main components of the fractions, determined by tandem mass spectrometry, yielded four T-superfamily conotoxins, one (CC-Loop-CC) with I-IV, II-III connectivity and three (CC-Loop-CXaaC) with a I-III, II-IV connectivity. The 3D structure for one of the latter, NuxVA = GCCPAPLTCHCVIY, revealed a novel scaffold defined by double turns forming a hairpin-like structure stabilized by the two disulfide bonds. Two other main fraction components were a miniM conotoxin, and a O2-superfamily conotoxin with cysteine framework VI/VII. This study is the first one of its kind suggesting the use of conotoxins for developing pharmacological tools for anti-adhesion adjunct therapy against malaria. Similarly, mitigation of emerging diseases like AIDS and COVID-19, can also benefit from conotoxins as inhibitors of protein-protein interactions as treatment. BIOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Among the 850+ species of cone snail species there are hundreds of thousands of diverse venom exopeptides that have been selected throughout several million years of evolution to capture prey and deter predators. They do so by targeting several surface proteins present in target excitable cells. This immense biomolecular library of conopeptides can be explored for potential use as therapeutic leads against persistent and emerging diseases affecting non-excitable systems. We aim to expand the pharmacological reach of conotoxins/conopeptides by revealing their in vitro capacity to disrupt protein-protein and protein-polysaccharide interactions that directly contribute to pathology of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. This is significant for severe forms of malaria, which might be deadly even after treated with current parasite-killing drugs because of persistent cytoadhesion of P. falciparum infected erythrocytes even when parasites within red blood cells are dead. Anti-adhesion adjunct drugs would de-sequester or prevent additional sequestration of infected erythrocytes and may significantly improve survival of malaria patients. These results provide a lead for further investigations into conotoxins and other venom peptides as potential candidates for anti-adhesion or blockade-therapies. This study is the first of its kind and it suggests that conotoxins can be developed as pharmacological tools for anti-adhesion adjunct therapy against malaria. Similarly, mitigation of emerging diseases like AIDS and COVID-19, can also benefit from conotoxins as potential inhibitors of protein-protein interactions as treatment.


Subject(s)
CD36 Antigens , DNA Repair Enzymes , Erythrocytes , Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 , Mollusk Venoms , Plasmodium falciparum , Transcription Factors , Animals , CD36 Antigens/chemistry , CD36 Antigens/metabolism , COVID-19 , Conus Snail , DNA Repair Enzymes/chemistry , DNA Repair Enzymes/metabolism , Erythrocytes/chemistry , Erythrocytes/metabolism , Erythrocytes/parasitology , Humans , Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1/chemistry , Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1/metabolism , Mollusk Venoms/chemistry , Mollusk Venoms/pharmacology , Plasmodium falciparum/chemistry , Plasmodium falciparum/metabolism , Protein Domains , Protozoan Proteins , SARS-CoV-2 , Transcription Factors/chemistry , Transcription Factors/metabolism
15.
Immunobiology ; 226(1): 152021, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-908903

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is a highly contagious virus that has caused serious health crisis world-wide resulting into a pandemic situation. As per the literature, the SARS-CoV-2 is known to exploit humanACE2 receptors (similar toprevious SARS-CoV-1) for gaining entry into the host cell for invasion, infection, multiplication and pathogenesis. However, considering the higher infectivity of SARS-CoV-2 along with the complex etiology and pathophysiological outcomes seen in COVID-19 patients, it seems that there may be an alternate receptor for SARS-CoV-2. I performed comparative protein sequence analysis, database based gene expression profiling, bioinformatics based molecular docking using authentic tools and techniques for unveiling the molecular basis of high infectivity of SARS-CoV-2 as compared to previous known coronaviruses. My study revealed that SARS-CoV-2 (previously known as 2019-nCoV) harbors a RGD motif in its receptor binding domain (RBD) and the motif is absent in all other previously known SARS-CoVs. The RGD motif is well known for its role in cell-attachment and cell-adhesion. My hypothesis is that the SARS-CoV-2 may be (via RGD) exploiting integrins, that have high expression in lungs and all other vital organs, for invading host cells. However, an experimental verification is required. The expression of ACE2, which is a known receptor for SARS-CoV-2, was found to be negligible in lungs. I assume that higher infectivity of SARS-CoV-2 could be due to this RGD-integrin mediated acquired cell-adhesive property. Gene expression profiling revealed that expression of integrins is significantly high in lung cells, in particular αvß6, α5ß1, αvß8 and an ECM protein, ICAM1. The molecular docking experiment showed the RBD of spike protein binds with integrins precisely at RGD motif in a similar manner as a synthetic RGD peptide binds to integrins as found by other researchers. SARS-CoV-2 spike protein has a number of phosphorylation sites that can induce cAMP, PKC, Tyr signaling pathways. These pathways either activate calcium ion channels or get activated by calcium. In fact, integrins have calcium & metal binding sites that were predicted around and in vicinity of RGD-integrin docking site in our analysis which suggests that RGD-integrins interaction possibly occurs in calcium-dependent manner. The higher expression of integrins in lungs along with their previously known high binding affinity (~KD = 4.0 nM) for virus RGD motif could serve as a possible explanation for high infectivity of SARS-CoV-2. On the contrary, human ACE2 has lower expression in lungs and its high binding affinity (~KD = 15 nM) for spike RBD alone could not manifest significant virus-host attachment. This suggests that besides human ACE2, an additional or alternate receptor for SARS-CoV-2 is likely to exist. A highly relevant evidence never reported earlier which corroborate in favor of RGD-integrins mediated virus-host attachment is an unleashed cytokine storm which causes due to activation of TNF-α and IL-6 activation; and integrins role in their activation is also well established. Altogether, the current study has highlighted possible role of calcium and other divalent ions in RGD-integrins interaction for virus invasion into host cells and suggested that lowering divalent ion in lungs could avert virus-host cells attachment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Calcium/metabolism , Chelation Therapy , Edetic Acid/therapeutic use , Integrins/metabolism , Receptors, Immunologic/metabolism , Receptors, Peptide/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Binding Sites/genetics , COVID-19/drug therapy , Calcium Channels/metabolism , Gene Expression Profiling , Humans , Integrins/chemistry , Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1/metabolism , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Lung/metabolism , Molecular Docking Simulation , Oligopeptides/chemistry , Oligopeptides/metabolism , Protein Binding , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Sequence Alignment , Signal Transduction/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Virus Attachment
16.
J Infect Dis ; 222(6): 894-898, 2020 08 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-613973

ABSTRACT

In a retrospective study of 39 COVID-19 patients and 32 control participants in China, we collected clinical data and examined the expression of endothelial cell adhesion molecules by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Serum levels of fractalkine, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), and vascular adhesion protein-1 (VAP-1) were elevated in patients with mild disease, dramatically elevated in severe cases, and decreased in the convalescence phase. We conclude the increased expression of endothelial cell adhesion molecules is related to COVID-19 disease severity and may contribute to coagulation dysfunction.


Subject(s)
Amine Oxidase (Copper-Containing)/blood , Betacoronavirus , Cell Adhesion Molecules/blood , Chemokine CX3CL1/blood , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1/blood , Amine Oxidase (Copper-Containing)/metabolism , Blood Coagulation Disorders/virology , COVID-19 , Cell Adhesion Molecules/metabolism , Chemokine CX3CL1/metabolism , China , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Humans , Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1/metabolism , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1/metabolism
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