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1.
Dis Markers ; 2022: 1568352, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1832655

ABSTRACT

Reliable biomarkers allowing early patients' stratification for the risk of adverse outcomes in COVID-19 are lacking. Gas6, together with its tyrosine kinase receptors named TAM, is involved in the regulation of immune homeostasis, fibrosis, and thrombosis. Our aim was to evaluate whether Gas6, sAxl, and sMerTK could represent early predictors of disease evolution either towards a negative (death or need of ICU admission) or a positive (discharge and/or clinical resolution within the first 14 days of hospitalization) outcome. To this purpose, between January and May 2021 (corresponding to third pandemic wave in Italy), 139 consecutive SARS-CoV-2 positive patients were enrolled in a prospective observational study. Plasma levels of these molecules were measured by ELISA at the time of hospitalization and after 7 and 14 days. We observed that higher plasma Gas6 concentrations at hospital admission were associated with a worsening in clinical conditions while lower sMerTK concentrations at baseline and after 7 days of hospitalization were associated with a more favorable outcome. At multivariate analysis, after correction for demographic and COVID-19 severity variables (NEWS2 and PiO2/FiO2), only Gas6 measured at baseline predicted an adverse prognosis with an odds ratio of 1.03 (C.I. 1.01-10.5). At ROC curve analysis, baseline Gas6 levels higher than 58.0 ng/ml predicted a severe disease evolution with 53.3% sensitivity and 77.6% specificity (area under the curve 0.653, p = 0.01, likelihood ratio of 2.38, IQR: 1.46-3.87). Taken together, these results support the hypothesis that a dysregulation in the Gas6/TAM axis could play a relevant role in modulating the course of COVID-19 and suggest that plasma Gas6 may represent a promising prognostic laboratory parameter for this condition.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins , Blood Proteins , Humans , Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/blood , Proto-Oncogene Proteins , Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 115(3): 790-798, 2022 03 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1621541

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The modulating effect of vitamin D on cytokine concentrations in severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains unknown. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate the effect of a single high dose of vitamin D3 on cytokines, chemokines, and growth factor in hospitalized patients with moderate to severe COVID-19. METHODS: This is a post hoc, ancillary, and exploratory analysis from a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial. Patients with moderate to severe COVID-19 were recruited from 2 hospitals in São Paulo, Brazil. Of 240 randomly assigned patients, 200 were assessed in this study and randomly assigned to receive a single oral dose of 200,000 IU vitamin D3 (n = 101) or placebo (n = 99). The primary outcome was hospital length of stay, which has been published in our previous study. The prespecified secondary outcomes were serum concentrations of IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D. The post hoc exploratory secondary outcomes were IL-4, IL-12p70, IL-17A, IFN-γ, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), IL-8, IFN-inducible protein-10 (IP-10), macrophage inflammatory protein-1ß (MIP-1ß), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and leukocyte count. Generalized estimating equations for repeated measures, with Bonferroni's adjustment, were used for testing all outcomes. RESULTS: The study included 200 patients with a mean ± SD age of 55.5 ± 14.3 y and BMI of 32.2 ± 7.1 kg/m2, of which 109 (54.5%) were male. GM-CSF concentrations showed a significant group-by-time interaction effect (P = 0.04), although the between-group difference at postintervention after Bonferroni's adjustment was not significant. No significant effects were observed for the other outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: The findings do not support the use of a single dose of 200,000 IU vitamin D3, compared with placebo, for the improvement of cytokines, chemokines, and growth factor in hospitalized patients with moderate to severe COVID-19.This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT04449718.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Chemokines/drug effects , Cholecalciferol/administration & dosage , Cytokines/drug effects , Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor/drug effects , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/drug effects , Vitamins/administration & dosage , Adult , Aged , Brazil , COVID-19/immunology , Double-Blind Method , Female , Humans , Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/blood , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
3.
J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci ; 76(10): 1775-1783, 2021 09 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1358442

ABSTRACT

Aging and comorbidities make individuals at greatest risk of COVID-19 serious illness and mortality due to senescence-related events and deleterious inflammation. Long-living individuals (LLIs) are less susceptible to inflammation and develop more resiliency to COVID-19. As demonstrated, LLIs are characterized by high circulating levels of BPIFB4, a protein involved in homeostatic response to inflammatory stimuli. Also, LLIs show enrichment of homozygous genotype for the minor alleles of a 4 missense single-nucleotide polymorphism haplotype (longevity-associated variant [LAV]) in BPIFB4, able to counteract progression of diseases in animal models. Thus, the present study was designed to assess the presence and significance of BPIFB4 level in COVID-19 patients and the potential therapeutic use of LAV-BPIFB4 in fighting COVID-19. BPIFB4 plasma concentration was found significantly higher in LLIs compared to old healthy controls while it significantly decreased in 64 COVID-19 patients. Further, the drop in BPIFB4 values correlated with disease severity. Accordingly to the LAV-BPIFB4 immunomodulatory role, while lysates of SARS-CoV-2-infected cells induced an inflammatory response in healthy peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro, the co-treatment with recombinant protein (rh) LAV-BPIFB4 resulted in a protective and self-limiting reaction, culminating in the downregulation of CD69 activating-marker for T cells (both TCD4+ and TCD8+) and in MCP-1 reduction. On the contrary, rhLAV-BPIFB4 induced a rapid increase in IL-18 and IL-1b levels, shown largely protective during the early stages of the virus infection. This evidence, along with the ability of rhLAV-BPIFB4 to counteract the cytotoxicity induced by SARS-CoV-2 lysate in selected target cell lines, corroborates BPIFB4 prognostic value and open new therapeutic possibilities in more vulnerable people.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins , Longevity/immunology , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , Cell Line , Cytokines/blood , Cytotoxicity, Immunologic/drug effects , Female , Humans , Immunologic Factors/immunology , Immunologic Factors/pharmacology , Inflammation/blood , Inflammation/immunology , Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/blood , Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/immunology , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Prognosis , Recombinant Proteins/immunology , Recombinant Proteins/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severity of Illness Index
4.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 15701, 2021 08 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1341012

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) presents with disease severities of varying degree. In its most severe form, infection may lead to respiratory failure and multi-organ dysfunction. Here we study the levels and evolution of the damage associated molecular patterns (DAMPS) cell free DNA (cfDNA), extracellular histone H3 (H3) and neutrophil elastase (NE), and the immune modulators GAS6 and AXL in relation to clinical parameters, ICU scoring systems and mortality in patients (n = 100) with severe COVID-19. cfDNA, H3, NE, GAS6 and AXL were increased in COVID-19 patients compared to controls. These measures associated with occurrence of clinical events and intensive care unit acquired weakness (ICUAW). cfDNA and GAS6 decreased in time in patients surviving to 30 days post ICU admission. A decrease of 27.2 ng/mL cfDNA during ICU stay associated with patient survival, whereas levels of GAS6 decreasing more than 4.0 ng/mL associated with survival. The presence of H3 in plasma was a common feature of COVID-19 patients, detected in 38% of the patients at ICU admission. NETosis markers cfDNA, H3 and NE correlated well with parameters of tissue damage and neutrophil counts. Furthermore, cfDNA correlated with lowest p/f ratio and a lowering in cfDNA was observed in patients with ventilator-free days.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/pathology , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Cell-Free Nucleic Acids/blood , Critical Illness , Female , Histones/analysis , Histones/blood , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/blood , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Leukocyte Elastase/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
5.
EBioMedicine ; 66: 103317, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1163669

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 infection in children can present with varied clinical phenotypes and understanding the pathogenesis is essential, to inform about the clinical trajectory and management. METHODS: We performed a multiplex immune assay analysis and compared the plasma biomarkers of Paediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome temporally associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection (PIMS-TS), acute COVID-19 infection (COVID-19), SARS-CoV-2 seropositive and control children admitted to a tertiary care children's hospital in Chennai, India. Pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and growth factors were correlated with SARS-CoV-2 clinical phenotypes. FINDINGS: PIMS-TS children had significantly elevated levels of cytokines, IFNγ, IL-2, TNFα, IL-1α, IFNα, IFNß, IL-6, IL-15, IL-17A, GM-CSF, IL-10, IL-33 and IL-Ra; elevated chemokines, CCL2, CCL19, CCL20 and CXCL10 and elevated VEGF, Granzyme B and PDL-1 in comparison to COVID-19, seropositive and controls. COVID-19 children had elevated levels of IFNγ, IL-2, TNFα, IL-1α, IFNα, IFNß, IL-6, IL-17A, IL-10, CCL2, CCL5, CCL11, CXCL10 and VEGF in comparison to seropositive and/or controls. Similarly, seropositive children had elevated levels of IFNγ, IL-2, IL-1α, IFNß, IL-17A, IL-10, CCL5 and CXCL10 in comparison to control children. Plasma biomarkers in PIMS-TS and COVID-19 children showed a positive correlation with CRP and a negative correlation with the lymphocyte count and sodium levels. INTERPRETATION: We describe a comprehensive plasma biomarker profile of children with different clinical spectrum of SARS-CoV-2 infection from a low- and middle-income country (LMIC) and observed that PIMS-TS is a distinct and unique immunopathogenic paediatric illness related to SARS-CoV-2 presenting with cytokine storm different from acute COVID-19 infection and other hyperinflammatory conditions.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/blood , Adolescent , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Case-Control Studies , Chemokines/blood , Child , Child, Preschool , Cytokines/blood , Female , Humans , India , Infant , Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/blood , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/etiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/virology
6.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0246681, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1117478

ABSTRACT

Central nervous system and visual dysfunction is an unfortunate consequence of systemic hypoxia in the setting of cardiopulmonary disease, including infection with SARS-CoV-2, high-altitude cerebral edema and retinopathy and other conditions. Hypoxia-induced inflammatory signaling may lead to retinal inflammation, gliosis and visual disturbances. We investigated the consequences of systemic hypoxia using serial retinal optical coherence tomography and by assessing the earliest changes within 24h after hypoxia by measuring a proteomics panel of 39 cytokines, chemokines and growth factors in the plasma and retina, as well as using retinal histology. We induced severe systemic hypoxia in adult C57BL/6 mice using a hypoxia chamber (10% O2) for 1 week and rapidly assessed measurements within 1h compared with 18h after hypoxia. Optical coherence tomography revealed retinal tissue edema at 18h after hypoxia. Hierarchical clustering of plasma and retinal immune molecules revealed obvious segregation of the 1h posthypoxia group away from that of controls. One hour after hypoxia, there were 10 significantly increased molecules in plasma and 4 in retina. Interleukin-1ß and vascular endothelial growth factor were increased in both tissues. Concomitantly, there was significantly increased aquaporin-4, decreased Kir4.1, and increased gliosis in retinal histology. In summary, the immediate posthypoxic period is characterized by molecular changes consistent with systemic and retinal inflammation and retinal glial changes important in water transport, leading to tissue edema. This posthypoxic inflammation rapidly improves within 24h, consistent with the typically mild and transient visual disturbance in hypoxia, such as in high-altitude retinopathy. Given hypoxia increases risk of vision loss, more studies in at-risk patients, such as plasma immune profiling and in vivo retinal imaging, are needed in order to identify novel diagnostic or prognostic biomarkers of visual impairment in systemic hypoxia.


Subject(s)
Hypoxia/complications , Inflammation/etiology , Retina/pathology , Animals , Central Nervous System/pathology , Cytokines/analysis , Cytokines/blood , Female , Hypoxia/blood , Hypoxia/pathology , Inflammation/blood , Inflammation/pathology , Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/analysis , Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/blood , Male , Mice, Inbred C57BL
7.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 5(1): 100, 2020 06 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-606785
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