Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 17 de 17
Filter
1.
Biochem Mol Biol Educ ; 50(6): 649-660, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2047482

ABSTRACT

While biomedical and life science research have embraced interdisciplinarity as the means to solving pressing 21st century complex challenges, interdisciplinarity in undergraduate education has been more difficult to implement. As a consequence, disciplinary rather than interdisciplinary capstones have become ubiquitous. Disciplinary capstones are valuable for students because they enable them to integrate knowledge and skills within the discipline, but they are also limiting because the integration is within rather than across disciplines. In contrast to a capstone, which involves a single discipline, interdisciplinary capstones require two or more disciplines to combine and integrate across disciplinary boundaries. Interdisciplinarity, where two of more disciplines come together, is difficult to implement in the biomedical and life science curricula because student majors and finances are administered in ways, which reinforce institutional organization of schools and faculties and prevent collaboration. Here in this "idea to explore" we provide an interdisciplinary capstone model where students enroll in disciplinary courses, but then these disciplinary courses and students collaborate on interdisciplinary real-world problems. This interdisciplinary capstone model was implemented across two diverse and large biomedical and life science schools within two faculties in a research intensive, metropolitan university. This approach allows for integration of the biomedical, social and ethical perspectives required when solving problems in the real world, such as COVID-19. Interdisciplinary learning also better prepares students for higher degree research and future careers. Overcoming disciplinary curriculum silos and faculty barriers is critical if we are to meet expectations of acquiring interdisciplinarity as a key competency.


Subject(s)
Biological Science Disciplines , COVID-19 , Humans , Interdisciplinary Studies , Curriculum , Faculty
2.
BMC Med Ethics ; 23(1): 88, 2022 08 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2021280

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: At the start of 2021, oncologists lacked the necessary scientific knowledge to adapt their clinical practices optimally when faced with cancer patients refusing or reluctant to be vaccinated against COVID-19, despite the marked vulnerability of these patients to severe, and even fatal forms of this new viral infectious disease. Oncologists at Foch Hospital were confronted with this phenomenon, which was observed worldwide, in both the general population and the population of cancer patients. METHODS: Between April and November 2021, the Ethics and Oncology Departments of Foch Hospital decided to investigate this subject, through an empirical and interdisciplinary study in bioethics. Our scientific objective was to try to identify and resolve the principal bio-ethical issues, with a view to improving clinical practices in oncology during future major pandemics of this kind, from a highly specific bio-ethical standpoint (= quality of life/survival). We used a mainly qualitative methodological approach based on questionnaires and interviews. RESULTS: In April 2021, 29 cancer patients refused or were reluctant to be vaccinated (5.6%; 29/522). Seventeen of these patients said that making vaccination mandatory would have helped them to accept vaccination. In October 2021, only 10 cancer patients continued to maintain their refusal (1.9%; 10/522). One of the main reasons for the decrease in refusals was probably the introduction of the "pass sanitaire" (health pass) in July 2021, which rendered vaccination indispensable for many activities. However, even this was not sufficient to convince these 10 cancer patients. CONCLUSION: We identified a key bio-ethical issue, which we then tried to resolve: vaccination policy. We characterized a major tension between "the recommendation of anti-COVID-19 vaccination" (a new clinical practice) and "free will" (a moral value), and the duty to "protect each other" (a moral standard). Mandatory vaccination, at least in France, could resolve this tension, with positive effects on quality of life (i.e. happiness), or survival, in cancer patients initially refusing or reluctant to be vaccinated, but only if collective and individual scales are clearly distinguished.


Subject(s)
Bioethics , COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Humans , Interdisciplinary Studies , Policy , Quality of Life , Vaccination
3.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0271998, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1987155

ABSTRACT

Bibliographic properties of more than 75 million scholarly articles, are examined and trends in overall research productivity are analysed as a function of research field (over the period of 1970-2020) and author gender (over the period of 2006-2020). Potential disruptive effects of the Covid-19 pandemic are also investigated. Over the last decade (2010-2020), the annual number of publications have invariably increased every year with the largest relative increase in a single year happening in 2019 (more than 6% relative growth). But this momentum was interrupted in 2020. Trends show that Environmental Sciences and Engineering Environmental have been the fastest growing research fields. The disruption in patterns of scholarly publication due to the Covid-19 pandemic was unevenly distributed across fields, with Computer Science, Engineering and Social Science enduring the most notable declines. The overall trends of male and female productivity indicate that, in terms of absolute number of publications, the gender gap does not seem to be closing in any country. The trends in absolute gap between male and female authors is either parallel (e.g., Canada, Australia, England, USA) or widening (e.g., majority of countries, particularly Middle Eastern countries). In terms of the ratio of female to male productivity, however, the gap is narrowing almost invariably, though at markedly different rates across countries. While some countries are nearing a ratio of .7 and are well on track for a 0.9 female to male productivity ratio, our estimates show that certain countries (particularly across the Middle East) will not reach such targets within the next 100 years. Without interventional policies, a significant gap will continue to exist in such countries. The decrease or increase in research productivity during the first year of the pandemic, in contrast to trends established before 2020, was generally parallel for male and female authors. There has been no substantial gender difference in the disruption due to the pandemic. However, opposite trends were found in a few cases. It was observed that, in some countries (e.g., The Netherlands, The United States and Germany), male productivity has been more negatively affected by the pandemic. Overall, female research productivity seems to have been more resilient to the disruptive effect of Covid-19 pandemic, although the momentum of female researchers has been negatively affected in a comparable manner to that of males.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Efficiency , Engineering , Female , Humans , Interdisciplinary Studies , Male , Pandemics , United States
4.
Soc Sci Med ; 305: 115069, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1915003

ABSTRACT

The diffusion of palliative care has been rapid, yet uncertainty remains regarding palliative care's "active ingredients." The National Consensus Project Guidelines for Quality Palliative Care identified eight domains of palliative care. Despite these identified domains, when pressed to describe the specific maneuvers used in clinical encounters, palliative care providers acknowledge that "it's complex." The field of systems has been used to explain complexity across many different types of systems. Specifically, engineering systems develop a representation of a system that helps manage complexity to help humans better understand the system. Our goal was to develop a system model of what palliative care providers do such that the elements of the model can be described concretely and sequentially, aggregated to describe the high-level domains currently described by palliative care, and connected to the complexity described by providers and the literature. Our study design combined methodological elements from both qualitative research and systems engineering modeling. The model drew on participant observation and debriefing semi-structured interviews with interdisciplinary palliative care team members by a systems engineer. The setting was an interdisciplinary palliative care service in a US rural academic medical center. In the developed system model, we identified 59 functions provided to patients, families, non-palliative care provider(s), and palliative care provider(s). The high-level functions related to measurement, decision-making, and treatment address up to 8 states of an individual, including an overall holistic state, physical state, psychological state, spiritual state, cultural state, personal environment state, and clinical environment state. In contrast to previously described expert consensus domain-based descriptions of palliative care, this model more directly connects palliative care provider functions to emergent behaviors that may explain system-level mechanisms of action for palliative care. Thus, a systems modeling approach provides insights into the challenges surrounding the recurring question of what is in the palliative care "syringe."


Subject(s)
Palliative Care , Syringes , Humans , Interdisciplinary Studies , Palliative Care/psychology , Qualitative Research , Rural Population
5.
Wound Manag Prev ; 68(5): 14-24, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1887420

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease-19 pandemic has created changes in the way medicine is practiced. The move to virtual conferencing to avoid mass gatherings is a significant change to how health care professionals meet, discuss current trends, and share research. METHODS: Data from exit polls conducted after annual wound care symposiums were reviewed. Physicians, nurses, podiatrists, and other health care professionals attended. Respondents were asked to comment and reflect on their experiences of attending a virtual conference. RESULTS: Over 60% of all (N = 283) respondents stated the virtual conference was better than or on par with a live event. Many respondents had attended this live event in person in previous years. Of all respondents, 83% stated that they planned to access conference materials for the 30 days they remained posted after the event. More than 50% of respondents stated they favored the ability to communicate effectively with colleagues via the instant messaging feature offered by the conference. Approximately 80% of respondents stated that they would like to attend this and other conferences virtually in the future. CONCLUSIONS: The shift from in-person to virtual conferences has the potential to remain a significant method of attending health care conferences. Conference organizers are encouraged to consider how they can implement virtual components, including postconference access to materials, to enhance the conference experience. Additional work needs to be done to understand the impact of the virtual format on knowledge retention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Medicine , Humans , Interdisciplinary Studies , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
6.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(12): e31917, 2021 12 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1598416

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Elective colorectal cancer (CRC) surgeries offer enhanced surgical outcomes but demand high self-efficacy in prehabilitation and competency in self-care and disease management postsurgery. Conventional strategies to meet perioperative needs have not been pragmatic, and there remains a pressing need for novel technologies that could improve health outcomes. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper was to describe the development of a smartphone-based interactive CRC self-management enhancement psychosocial program (iCanManage) in order to improve health outcomes among patients who undergo elective CRC surgeries and their family caregivers. METHODS: A multidisciplinary international team comprising physicians, specialist nurses, a psychologist, software engineers, academic researchers, cancer survivors, patient ambassadors, and ostomy care medical equipment suppliers was formed to facilitate the development of this patient-centric digital solution. The process occurred in several stages: (1) review of current practice through clinic visits and on-site observations; (2) review of literature and findings from preliminary studies; (3) content development grounded in an underpinning theory; (4) integration of support services; and (5) optimizing user experience through improving interface aesthetics and customization. In our study, 5 participants with CRC performed preliminary assessments on the quality of the developed solution using the 20-item user version of the Mobile App Rating Scale (uMARS), which had good psychometric properties. RESULTS: Based on the collected uMARS data, the smartphone app was rated highly for functionality, aesthetics, information quality, and perceived impact, and moderately for engagement and subjective quality. Several limiting factors such as poor agility in the adoption of digital technology and low eHealth literacy were identified despite efforts to promote engagement and ensure ease of use of the mobile app. To overcome such barriers, additional app-training sessions, an instruction manual, and regular telephone calls will be incorporated into the iCanManage program during the trial period. CONCLUSIONS: This form of multidisciplinary collaboration is advantageous as it can potentially streamline existing care paths and allow the delivery of more holistic care to the CRC population during the perioperative period. Should the program be found to be effective and sustainable, hospitals adopting this digital solution may achieve better resource allocation and reduce overall health care costs in the long run. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04159363; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04159363.


Subject(s)
Caregivers , Colorectal Neoplasms , Colorectal Neoplasms/surgery , Humans , Interdisciplinary Studies , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Patient-Centered Care
7.
Med Educ Online ; 26(1): 1886649, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575951

ABSTRACT

Online classes have been provided for health-care pre-licensure learners during the novel coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of online group work in interprofessional education. A total of 209 students were assigned to 50 groups (18 medical student groups, 13 nursing student groups, and 19 mixed medical/nursing student groups). Learners performed group work during the orientation for the course, which was hosted using an online video conferencing system. The learners first performed the activity individually (10 min) and then engaged in a group discussion to reach consensus on their answers (30 min). We calculated the scores before and after the group discussion and shared the results with the students. Scores were improved after the group discussion (mean ± SEM, 23.7 ± 0.9) compared with before (37.3 ± 1.3) (P < .0001). Lower scores after the group discussion, which indicated the effect of the group discussion on making better decisions, were observed most in the mixed medical/nursing student groups, followed by the nursing student and medical student groups. We noted only 3 groups in which the group discussion showed a negative effect on decision-making: all 3 of these groups were mixed (3 of 19 groups; 16%). These data demonstrated the power of group discussion for solving tasks when the participants' professional fields were mixed. However, the small size of the interdisciplinary groups might have resulted in less effective discussion, which might be due in part to psychological barriers arising from professional differences. Online group work is effective for facilitating discussion and building consensus about decisions in interprofessional education for medical and nursing students. Potential psychological barriers may exist in about 16% of mixed group students at the start, which should be kept in mind by instructors. Abbreviations: COVID-19: coronavirus disease 2019; IPE: Interprofessional Education; NASA: National Aeronautics and Space Administration; SD: standard deviation; WHO: World Health Organization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Interdisciplinary Studies , Interprofessional Relations , Students, Medical/psychology , Students, Nursing/psychology , Adult , Education, Distance , Female , Group Processes , Humans , Learning , Male , SARS-CoV-2
8.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257872, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1443846

ABSTRACT

The current challenges at the forefront of data-enabled science and engineering require interdisciplinary solutions. Yet most traditional doctoral programs are not structured to support successful interdisciplinary research. Here we describe the design of and students' experiences in the COMBINE (Computation and Mathematics for Biological Networks) interdisciplinary graduate program at the University of Maryland. COMBINE focuses on the development and application of network science methods to biological systems for students from three primary domains: life sciences, computational/engineering sciences, and mathematical/physical sciences. The program integrates three established models (T-shaped, pi-shaped and shield-shaped) for interdisciplinary training. The program components largely fall into three categories: (1) core coursework that provides content expertise, communication, and technical skills, (2) discipline-bridging elective courses in the two COMBINE domains that complement the student's home domain, (3) broadening activities such as workshops, symposiums, and formal peer-mentoring groups. Beyond these components, the program builds community through both formal and informal networking and social events. In addition to the interactions with other program participants, students engage with faculty in several ways beyond the conventional adviser framework, such as the requirement to select a second out-of-field advisor, listening to guest speakers, and networking with faculty through workshops. We collected data through post-program surveys, interviews and focus groups with students, alumni and faculty advisors. Overall, COMBINE students and alumni reported feeling that the program components supported their growth in the three program objectives of Network Science & Interdisciplinarity, Communication, and Career Preparation, but also recommended ways to improve the program. The value of the program can be seen not only through the student reports, but also through the students' research products in network science which include multiple publications and presentations. We believe that COMBINE offers an effective model for integrated interdisciplinary training that can be readily applied in other fields.


Subject(s)
Education, Graduate/methods , Interdisciplinary Studies , Humans , Mathematics , Models, Educational , Neural Networks, Computer , Professional Competence
9.
BMJ Open ; 11(6): e048788, 2021 06 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1276964

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To capture the complexities and unique experience of a newly formed multidisciplinary and multicentre research team developing and deploying a COVID-19 study and to identify lessons learnt. DESIGN: Co-autoethnographic study. SETTING: Staff at two UK academic institutions, a national charity and two major UK hospitals. PARTICIPANTS: Researchers, clinicians, academics, statisticians and analysts, patient and public involvement representatives and national charity. METHODS: The sampling frame was any content discussed or shared between research team members (emails, meeting minutes, etc), standard observational dimensions and reflective interviews with team members. Data were thematically analysed. RESULTS: Data from 34 meetings and >50 emails between 17 March and 5 August 2020 were analysed. The analysis yielded seven themes with 'Managing our stress' as an overarching theme. CONCLUSIONS: Mutual respect, flexibility and genuine belief that team members are doing the best they can under the circumstances are essential for completing a time-consuming study, requiring a rapid response during a pandemic. Acknowledging and managing stress and a shared purpose can moderate many barriers, such as the lack of face-to-face interactions, leading to effective team working.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , Interdisciplinary Studies , Research Personnel , SARS-CoV-2
10.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(6): e27989, 2021 06 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1273311

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Simulation study results suggest that COVID-19 contact tracing apps have the potential to achieve pandemic control. Concordantly, high app adoption rates were a stipulated prerequisite for success. Early studies on potential adoption were encouraging. Several factors predicting adoption rates were investigated, especially pertaining to user characteristics. Since then, several countries have released COVID-19 contact tracing apps. OBJECTIVE: This study's primary aim is to investigate the quality characteristics of national European COVID-19 contact tracing apps, thereby shifting attention from user to app characteristics. The secondary aim is to investigate associations between app quality and adoption. Finally, app features contributing to higher app quality were identified. METHODS: Eligible COVID-19 contact tracing apps were those released by national health authorities of European Union member states, former member states, and countries of the European Free Trade Association, all countries with comparable legal standards concerning personal data protection and app use voluntariness. The Mobile App Rating Scale was used to assess app quality. An interdisciplinary team, consisting of two health and two human-computer interaction scientists, independently conducted Mobile App Rating Scale ratings. To investigate associations between app quality and adoption rates and infection rates, Bayesian linear regression analyses were conducted. RESULTS: We discovered 21 national COVID-19 contact tracing apps, all demonstrating high quality overall and high-level functionality, aesthetics, and information quality. However, the average app adoption rate of 22.9% (SD 12.5%) was below the level recommended by simulation studies. Lower levels of engagement-oriented app design were detected, with substantial variations between apps. By regression analyses, the best-case adoption rate was calculated by assuming apps achieve the highest ratings. The mean best-case adoption rates for engagement and overall app quality were 39.5% and 43.6%, respectively. Higher adoption rates were associated with lower cumulative infection rates. Overall, we identified 5 feature categories (symptom assessment and monitoring, regularly updated information, individualization, tracing, and communication) and 14 individual features that contributed to higher app quality. These 14 features were a symptom checker, a symptom diary, statistics on COVID-19, app use, public health instructions and restrictions, information of burden on health care system, assigning personal data, regional updates, control over tracing activity, contact diary, venue check-in, chats, helplines, and app-sharing capacity. CONCLUSIONS: European national health authorities have generally released high quality COVID-19 contact tracing apps, with regard to functionality, aesthetics, and information quality. However, the app's engagement-oriented design generally was of lower quality, even though regression analyses results identify engagement as a promising optimization target to increase adoption rates. Associations between higher app adoption and lower infection rates are consistent with simulation study results, albeit acknowledging that app use might be part of a broader set of protective attitudes and behaviors for self and others. Various features were identified that could guide further engagement-enhancing app development.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Contact Tracing/methods , Mobile Applications/statistics & numerical data , Europe/epidemiology , Humans , Interdisciplinary Studies , Pandemics , Quality of Health Care , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
11.
Jt Comm J Qual Patient Saf ; 47(6): 347-353, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1108396

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The spread of the COVID-19 pandemic in China demonstrated at an early stage the high rate of moderate to severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in the patient population. An intervention that has proved beneficial is the use of prone positioning (PP) for mechanically ventilated patients with ARDS. In one institution, PP was practiced in the medical ICU for this population. However, with the dramatically increasing patient load, staff anticipated that greater capacity to provide this treatment to all qualifying patients would be required. METHODS: A group of physical therapists and occupational therapists (PT/OTs) with ICU experience was redeployed from their regular roles to receive training in PP from an experienced medical ICU (MICU) RN. After intensive training, the team was ready to provide PP to patients. As the workload increased, additional PT/OTs were recruited to the team. A coordinating structure comprising attending pulmonologists screened and advised on appropriate patients. A communication and feedback structure was also implemented. RESULTS: Over a period of seven weeks, the team provided PP to more than 100 patients, with 577 individual interventions in a total of 14 ICUs and one emergency department. There were no major airway or central venous access complications, and only one anterior pressure injury was recorded. CONCLUSION: The rapid implementation of an interdisciplinary PP team in a crisis situation is feasible. It can provide a safe and efficient alternative to adding to the workload of an overloaded nursing staff.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Patient Care Team , Prone Position , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Interdisciplinary Studies , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Birth Defects Res ; 112(12): 903-913, 2020 07 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-687654

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This paper updates the history of the Teratology Society, now known as the Society for Birth Defects Research and Prevention (BDRP), for its first 60 years and describes the current strategy to position the Society to continue to advance its multidisciplinary science in the future. Common threads across our history include the positive impact of the Society's approach to sharing multidisciplinary, cutting-edge science and the collegial nature of the annual meetings. AIM: In recent years, we have tackled challenging issues through periodic strategic planning sessions to improve the impact of the Society and its value to our members. MATERIALS & METHODS: Archived and current resources were reviewed for this historical perspective. RESULTS: In 2019, the Society took steps to rebrand itself to clarify our mission to the broader scientific and governmental communities. DISCUSSION: Although our name has changed, the mission remains to understand and prevent birth defects and disorders of developmental and reproductive origin. CONCLUSION: As BDRP, we continue to promote the exchange of research and ideas, provide educational opportunities, influence policy through advocacy, and evolve our communications to better serve our members and to have a greater impact on the health of future generations.


Subject(s)
Societies, Medical , Teratology , Interdisciplinary Studies
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL