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1.
Viruses ; 14(4)2022 03 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1810313

ABSTRACT

Surface plasmon resonance and biolayer interferometry are two common real-time and label-free assays that quantify binding events by providing kinetic parameters. There is increased interest in using these techniques to characterize whole virus-ligand interactions, as the methods allow for more accurate characterization than that of a viral subunit-ligand interaction. This review aims to summarize and evaluate the uses of these technologies specifically in virus-ligand and virus-like particle-ligand binding cases to guide the field towards studies that apply these robust methods for whole virus-based studies.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , Surface Plasmon Resonance , Biological Assay , Interferometry/methods , Kinetics , Ligands
2.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 209: 114237, 2022 Aug 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1778012

ABSTRACT

Kinetics measurements of antigen-antibody binding interactions are critical to understanding the functional efficiency of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. Previously reported chaotrope-based avidity assays that rely on artificial disruption of binding do not reflect the natural binding kinetics. This study developed a chaotrope- and label-free biolayer interferometry (BLI) assay for the real-time monitoring of receptor binding domain (RBD) binding kinetics with SARS-CoV-2 spike protein in convalescent COVID-19 patients. An improved conjugation biosensor probe coated with streptavidin-polysaccharide (SA-PS) led to a six-fold increase of signal intensities and two-fold reduction of non-specific binding (NSB) compared to streptavidin only probe. Furthermore, by utilizing a separate reference probe and biotin-human serum albumin (B-HSA) blocking process to subtracted NSB signal in serum, this BLI biosensor can measure a wide range of the dissociation rate constant (koff), which can be measured without knowledge of the specific antibody concentrations. The clinical utility of this improved BLI kinetics assay was demonstrated by analyzing the koff values in sera of 24 pediatric (≤18 years old) and 63 adult (>18 years old) COVID-19 convalescent patients. Lower koff values for SARS-CoV-2 serum antibodies binding to RBD were measured in samples from children. This rapid, easy to operate and chaotrope-free BLI assay is suitable for clinical use and can be readily adapted to characterize SARS-CoV-2 antibodies developed by COVID-19 patients and vaccines.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Child , Humans , Immunologic Techniques , Interferometry , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Streptavidin
3.
Anal Chem ; 94(6): 2926-2933, 2022 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1721378

ABSTRACT

Recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) is a useful pathogen identification method. Several label-free detection methods for RPA amplicons have been developed in recent years. However, these methods still lack sensitivity, specificity, efficiency, or simplicity. In this study, we propose a rapid, highly sensitive, and label-free pathogen assay system based on a solid-phase self-interference RPA chip (SiSA-chip) and hyperspectral interferometry. The SiSA-chips amplify and capture RPA amplicons on the chips, rather than irrelevant amplicons such as primer dimers, and the SiSA-chips are then analysed by hyperspectral interferometry. Optical length increases of SiSA-chips are used to demonstrate RPA detection results, with a limit of detection of 1.90 nm. This assay system can detect as few as six copies of the target 18S rRNA gene of Plasmodium falciparum within 20 min, with a good linear relationship between the detection results and the concentration of target genes (R2 = 0.9903). Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping of the dhfr gene of Plasmodium falciparum is also possible using the SiSA-chip, with as little as 1% of mutant gene distinguished from wild-type loci (m/wt). This system offers a high-efficiency (20 min), high-sensitivity (6 copies/reaction), high-specificity (1% m/wt), and low-cost (∼1/50 of fluorescence assays for RPA) diagnosis method for pathogen DNA identification. Therefore, this system is promising for fast identification of pathogens to help diagnose infectious diseases, including SNP genotyping.


Subject(s)
Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques , Recombinases , Interferometry , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , Nucleotidyltransferases , Plasmodium falciparum/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity
4.
Pharmacol Res ; 172: 105820, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1531713

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which enter the host cells through the interaction between its receptor binding domain (RBD) of spike glycoprotein with angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor on the plasma membrane of host cell. Neutralizing antibodies and peptide binders of RBD can block viral infection, however, the concern of accessibility and affordability of viral infection inhibitors has been raised. Here, we report the identification of natural compounds as potential SARS-CoV-2 entry inhibitors using the molecular docking-based virtual screening coupled with bilayer interferometry (BLI). From a library of 1871 natural compounds, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), 20(R)-ginsenoside Rg3 (RRg3), 20(S)-ginsenoside Rg3 (SRg3), isobavachalcone (Ibvc), isochlorogenic A (IscA) and bakuchiol (Bkc) effectively inhibited pseudovirus entry at concentrations up to 100 µM. Among these compounds, four compounds, EGCG, Ibvc, salvianolic acid A (SalA), and isoliensinine (Isl), were effective in inhibiting SARS-CoV-2-induced cytopathic effect and plaque formation in Vero E6 cells. The EGCG was further validated with no observable animal toxicity and certain antiviral effect against SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus mutants (D614G, N501Y, N439K & Y453F). Interestingly, EGCG, Bkc and Ibvc bind to ACE2 receptor in BLI assay, suggesting a dual binding to RBD and ACE2. Current findings shed some insight into identifications and validations of SARS-CoV-2 entry inhibitors from natural compounds.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/antagonists & inhibitors , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Biological Products/chemistry , COVID-19/drug therapy , Enzyme Inhibitors/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Binding, Competitive , Biological Products/pharmacology , Catechin/analogs & derivatives , Catechin/pharmacology , Cell Membrane/metabolism , Cell Membrane/ultrastructure , Chalcones/pharmacology , Chlorogenic Acid/analogs & derivatives , Chlorogenic Acid/pharmacology , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Ginsenosides/pharmacology , Humans , Interferometry , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Phenols/pharmacology , Protein Binding
5.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21768, 2021 11 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1505016

ABSTRACT

Rapid design, screening, and characterization of biorecognition elements (BREs) is essential for the development of diagnostic tests and antiviral therapeutics needed to combat the spread of viruses such as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). To address this need, we developed a high-throughput pipeline combining in silico design of a peptide library specific for SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein and microarray screening to identify binding sequences. Our optimized microarray platform allowed the simultaneous screening of ~ 2.5 k peptides and rapid identification of binding sequences resulting in selection of four peptides with nanomolar affinity to the SARS-CoV-2 S protein. Finally, we demonstrated the successful integration of one of the top peptides into an electrochemical sensor with a clinically relevant limit of detection for S protein in spiked saliva. Our results demonstrate the utility of this novel pipeline for the selection of peptide BREs in response to the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, and the broader application of such a platform in response to future viral threats.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Combinatorial Chemistry Techniques , Peptides/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , COVID-19/virology , Computational Biology , Electrochemistry/methods , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Humans , Interferometry , Kinetics , Peptide Library , Protein Array Analysis , Protein Engineering , Saliva/immunology
6.
J Biol Chem ; 297(4): 101175, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1401575

ABSTRACT

The spike protein is the main protein component of the SARS-CoV-2 virion surface. The spike receptor-binding motif mediates recognition of the human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor, a critical step in infection, and is the preferential target for spike-neutralizing antibodies. Posttranslational modifications of the spike receptor-binding motif have been shown to modulate viral infectivity and host immune response, but these modifications are still being explored. Here we studied asparagine deamidation of the spike protein, a spontaneous event that leads to the appearance of aspartic and isoaspartic residues, which affect both the protein backbone and its charge. We used computational prediction and biochemical experiments to identify five deamidation hotspots in the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. Asparagine residues 481 and 501 in the receptor-binding motif deamidate with a half-life of 16.5 and 123 days at 37 °C, respectively. Deamidation is significantly slowed at 4 °C, indicating a strong dependence of spike protein molecular aging on environmental conditions. Deamidation of the spike receptor-binding motif decreases the equilibrium constant for binding to the human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor more than 3.5-fold, yet its high conservation pattern suggests some positive effect on viral fitness. We propose a model for deamidation of the full SARS-CoV-2 virion illustrating how deamidation of the spike receptor-binding motif could lead to the accumulation on the virion surface of a nonnegligible chemically diverse spike population in a timescale of days. Our findings provide a potential mechanism for molecular aging of the spike protein with significant consequences for understanding virus infectivity and vaccine development.


Subject(s)
SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Amino Acid Motifs , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Interferometry , Kinetics , Protein Binding , Protein Domains , Recombinant Proteins/biosynthesis , Recombinant Proteins/chemistry , Recombinant Proteins/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sequence Alignment , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry
7.
J Biol Chem ; 297(4): 101151, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1377741

ABSTRACT

The seasonal nature of outbreaks of respiratory viral infections with increased transmission during low temperatures has been well established. Accordingly, temperature has been suggested to play a role on the viability and transmissibility of SARS-CoV-2, the virus responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic. The receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the Spike glycoprotein is known to bind to its host receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) to initiate viral fusion. Using biochemical, biophysical, and functional assays to dissect the effect of temperature on the receptor-Spike interaction, we observed a significant and stepwise increase in RBD-ACE2 affinity at low temperatures, resulting in slower dissociation kinetics. This translated into enhanced interaction of the full Spike glycoprotein with the ACE2 receptor and higher viral attachment at low temperatures. Interestingly, the RBD N501Y mutation, present in emerging variants of concern (VOCs) that are fueling the pandemic worldwide (including the B.1.1.7 (α) lineage), bypassed this requirement. This data suggests that the acquisition of N501Y reflects an adaptation to warmer climates, a hypothesis that remains to be tested.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Calorimetry , Humans , Interferometry , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Protein Binding , Protein Structure, Quaternary , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Temperature , Thermodynamics
8.
Proteins ; 90(1): 176-185, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1347427

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a novel, highly infectious RNA virus that belongs to the coronavirus family. Replication of the viral genome is a fundamental step in the virus life cycle and SARS-CoV-2 non-structural protein 9 (Nsp9) is shown to be essential for virus replication through its ability to bind RNA in the closely related SARS-CoV-1 strain. Two recent studies revealing the three-dimensional structure of Nsp9 from SARS-CoV-2 have demonstrated a high degree of similarity between Nsp9 proteins within the coronavirus family. However, the binding affinity to RNA is very low which, until now, has prevented the determination of the structural details of this interaction. In this study, we have utilized nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) in combination with surface biolayer interferometry (BLI) to reveal a distinct binding interface for both ssDNA and RNA that is different to the one proposed in the recently solved SARS-CoV-2 replication and transcription complex (RTC) structure. Based on these data, we have proposed a structural model of a Nsp9-RNA complex, shedding light on the molecular details of these important interactions.


Subject(s)
DNA, Single-Stranded/metabolism , RNA-Binding Proteins/chemistry , RNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/chemistry , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism , Binding Sites , Interferometry , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Models, Molecular , Protein Conformation , Protein Multimerization , RNA , Solutions
9.
Viruses ; 13(6)2021 06 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282643

ABSTRACT

Proteolytic enzymes have great significance in medicine and the pharmaceutical industry and are applied in multiple fields of life sciences. Therefore, cost-efficient, reliable and sensitive real-time monitoring methods are highly desirable to measure protease activity. In this paper, we describe the development of a new experimental approach for investigation of proteolytic enzymes. The method was designed by the combination of recombinant fusion protein substrates and bio-layer interferometry (BLI). The protease (PR) of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) was applied as model enzyme to set up and test the method. The principle of the assay is that the recombinant protein substrates immobilized to the surface of biosensor are specifically cleaved by the PR, and the substrate processing can be followed by measuring change in the layer thickness by optical measurement. We successfully used this method to detect the HIV-1 PR activity in real time, and the initial rate of the signal decrease was found to be proportional to the enzyme activity. Substrates representing wild-type and modified cleavage sites were designed to study HIV-1 PR's specificity, and the BLI-based measurements showed differential cleavage efficiency of the substrates, which was proven by enzyme kinetic measurements. We applied this BLI-based assay to experimentally confirm the existence of extended binding sites at the surface of HIV-1 PR. We found the measurements may be performed using lysates of cells expressing the fusion protein, without primary purification of the substrate. The designed BLI-based protease assay is high-throughput-compatible and enables real-time and small-volume measurements, thus providing a new and versatile approach to study proteolytic enzymes.


Subject(s)
Enzyme Assays/methods , HIV Protease/metabolism , HIV-1/enzymology , Interferometry/methods , Biosensing Techniques , Cloning, Molecular , HIV Protease/genetics , HIV Protease/isolation & purification , Humans , Kinetics , Proteolysis , Recombinant Proteins , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Substrate Specificity
10.
Clin Chem ; 67(9): 1249-1258, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1207270

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Low initial severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibody titers dropping to undetectable levels within months after infection have raised concerns about long-term immunity. Both the antibody levels and the avidity of the antibody-antigen interaction should be examined to understand the quality of the antibody response. METHODS: A testing-on-a-probe "plus" panel (TOP-Plus) was developed to include a newly developed avidity assay built into the previously described SARS-CoV-2 TOP assays that measured total antibody (TAb), surrogate neutralizing antibody (SNAb), IgM, and IgG on a versatile biosensor platform. TAb and SNAb levels were compared with avidity in previously infected individuals at 1.3 and 6.2 months after infection in paired samples from 80 patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Sera from individuals vaccinated for SARS-CoV-2 were also evaluated for antibody avidity. RESULTS: The newly designed avidity assay in this TOP panel correlated well with a reference Bio-Layer Interferometry avidity assay (r = 0.88). The imprecision of the TOP avidity assay was <10%. Although TAb and neutralization activity (by SNAb) decreased between 1.3 and 6.2 months after infection, the antibody avidity increased significantly (P < 0.0001). Antibody avidity in 10 SARS-CoV-2 vaccinated individuals (median: 28 days after vaccination) was comparable to the measured antibody avidity in infected individuals (median: 26 days after infection). CONCLUSIONS: This highly precise and versatile TOP-Plus panel with the ability to measure SARS-CoV-2 TAb, SNAb, IgG, and IgM antibody levels and avidity of individual sera on one sensor can become a valuable asset in monitoring not only patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 but also the status of individuals' COVID-19 vaccination response.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibody Affinity/physiology , Biosensing Techniques/methods , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Interferometry , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Time Factors , Young Adult
11.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 21738, 2020 12 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-971154

ABSTRACT

Serological testing to evaluate antigen-specific antibodies in plasma is generally performed by rapid lateral flow test strips that lack quantitative results or by high complexity immunoassays that are time- and labor-intensive but provide semi-quantitative results. Here, we describe a novel application of biolayer interferometry for the rapid detection of antigen-specific antibody levels in plasma samples, and demonstrate its utility for quantification of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. Our biolayer interferometry immunosorbent assay (BLI-ISA) utilizes single-use biosensors in an automated "dip-and-read" format, providing real-time optical measurements of antigen loading, plasma antibody binding, and antibody isotype detection. Complete semi-quantitative results are obtained in less than 20 min. BLI-ISA meets or exceeds the performance of high complexity methods such as Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and Chemiluminescent Immunoassay. Importantly, our method can be immediately implemented on existing BLI platforms for urgent COVID-19 studies, such as serosurveillance and the evaluation of vaccine candidates. In a broader sense, BLI-ISA can be developed as a novel diagnostic platform to evaluate antibodies and other biomolecules in clinical specimens.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 Serological Testing , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Humans , Interferometry , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism
12.
Anal Chem ; 92(17): 11520-11524, 2020 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-713341

ABSTRACT

The traditional approach for analyzing interaction data from biosensors instruments is based on the simplified assumption that also larger biomolecules interactions are homogeneous. It was recently reported that the human receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) plays a key role for capturing SARS-CoV-2 into the human target body, and binding studies were performed using biosensors techniques based on surface plasmon resonance and bio-layer interferometry. The published affinity constants for the interactions, derived using the traditional approach, described a single interaction between ACE2 and the SARS-CoV-2 receptor binding domain (RBD). We reanalyzed these data sets using our advanced four-step approach based on an adaptive interaction distribution algorithm (AIDA) that accounts for the great complexity of larger biomolecules and gives a two-dimensional distribution of association and dissociation rate constants. Our results showed that in both cases the standard assumption about a single interaction was erroneous, and in one of the cases, the value of the affinity constant KD differed more than 300% between the reported value and our calculation. This information can prove very useful in providing mechanistic information and insights about the mechanism of interactions between ACE2 and SARS-CoV-2 RBD or similar systems.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/chemistry , Interferometry/statistics & numerical data , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Surface Plasmon Resonance/statistics & numerical data , Algorithms , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Humans , Kinetics , Ligands , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/chemistry , Protein Binding , Protein Domains , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry
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