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2.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 5(1): 221, 2020 10 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387195
3.
J Med Virol ; 93(9): 5376-5389, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1363676

ABSTRACT

The suppression of types I and III interferon (IFN) responses by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) contributes to the pathogenesis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The strategy used by SARS-CoV-2 to evade antiviral immunity needs further investigation. Here, we reported that SARS-CoV-2 ORF9b inhibited types I and III IFN production by targeting multiple molecules of innate antiviral signaling pathways. SARS-CoV-2 ORF9b impaired the induction of types I and III IFNs by Sendai virus and poly (I:C). SARS-CoV-2 ORF9b inhibited the activation of types I and III IFNs induced by the components of cytosolic dsRNA-sensing pathways of RIG-I/MDA5-MAVS signaling, including RIG-I, MDA-5, MAVS, TBK1, and IKKε, rather than IRF3-5D, which is the active form of IRF3. SARS-CoV-2 ORF9b also suppressed the induction of types I and III IFNs by TRIF and STING, which are the adaptor protein of the endosome RNA-sensing pathway of TLR3-TRIF signaling and the adaptor protein of the cytosolic DNA-sensing pathway of cGAS-STING signaling, respectively. A mechanistic analysis revealed that the SARS-CoV-2 ORF9b protein interacted with RIG-I, MDA-5, MAVS, TRIF, STING, and TBK1 and impeded the phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of IRF3. In addition, SARS-CoV-2 ORF9b facilitated the replication of the vesicular stomatitis virus. Therefore, the results showed that SARS-CoV-2 ORF9b negatively regulates antiviral immunity and thus facilitates viral replication. This study contributes to our understanding of the molecular mechanism through which SARS-CoV-2 impairs antiviral immunity and provides an essential clue to the pathogenesis of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
DEAD Box Protein 58/immunology , Immune Evasion/genetics , Interferons/immunology , Nucleotidyltransferases/immunology , Receptors, Immunologic/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Toll-Like Receptor 3/immunology , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/genetics , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/immunology , Adaptor Proteins, Vesicular Transport/genetics , Adaptor Proteins, Vesicular Transport/immunology , Animals , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , DEAD Box Protein 58/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation , HEK293 Cells , HeLa Cells , Humans , I-kappa B Kinase/genetics , I-kappa B Kinase/immunology , Immunity, Innate , Interferon Regulatory Factor-3/genetics , Interferon Regulatory Factor-3/immunology , Interferon-Induced Helicase, IFIH1/genetics , Interferon-Induced Helicase, IFIH1/immunology , Interferons/genetics , Membrane Proteins/genetics , Membrane Proteins/immunology , Nucleotidyltransferases/genetics , Phosphoproteins/genetics , Phosphoproteins/immunology , Plasmids/chemistry , Plasmids/metabolism , /immunology , Receptors, Immunologic/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Signal Transduction/genetics , Signal Transduction/immunology , Toll-Like Receptor 3/genetics , Transfection , Vero Cells , Virus Replication/immunology
4.
J Virol ; 95(17): e0074721, 2021 08 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356909

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is bringing an unprecedented health crisis to the world. To date, our understanding of the interaction between SARS-CoV-2 and host innate immunity is still limited. Previous studies reported that SARS-CoV-2 nonstructural protein 12 (NSP12) was able to suppress interferon-ß (IFN-ß) activation in IFN-ß promoter luciferase reporter assays, which provided insights into the pathogenesis of COVID-19. In this study, we demonstrated that IFN-ß promoter-mediated luciferase activity was reduced during coexpression of NSP12. However, we could show NSP12 did not affect IRF3 or NF-κB activation. Moreover, IFN-ß production induced by Sendai virus (SeV) infection or other stimulus was not affected by NSP12 at mRNA or protein level. Additionally, the type I IFN signaling pathway was not affected by NSP12, as demonstrated by the expression of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs). Further experiments revealed that different experiment systems, including protein tags and plasmid backbones, could affect the readouts of IFN-ß promoter luciferase assays. In conclusion, unlike as previously reported, our study showed SARS-CoV-2 NSP12 protein is not an IFN-ß antagonist. It also rings the alarm on the general usage of luciferase reporter assays in studying SARS-CoV-2. IMPORTANCE Previous studies investigated the interaction between SARS-CoV-2 viral proteins and interferon signaling and proposed that several SARS-CoV-2 viral proteins, including NSP12, could suppress IFN-ß activation. However, most of these results were generated from IFN-ß promoter luciferase reporter assay and have not been validated functionally. In our study, we found that, although NSP12 could suppress IFN-ß promoter luciferase activity, it showed no inhibitory effect on IFN-ß production or its downstream signaling. Further study revealed that contradictory results could be generated from different experiment systems. On one hand, we demonstrated that SARS-CoV-2 NSP12 could not suppress IFN-ß signaling. On the other hand, our study suggests that caution needs to be taken with the interpretation of SARS-CoV-2-related luciferase assays.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase , Interferon-beta , Promoter Regions, Genetic , SARS-CoV-2 , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/genetics , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/metabolism , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Interferon Regulatory Factor-3/genetics , Interferon Regulatory Factor-3/metabolism , Interferon-beta/antagonists & inhibitors , Interferon-beta/biosynthesis , Interferon-beta/genetics , NF-kappa B/genetics , NF-kappa B/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/biosynthesis , RNA, Messenger/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism
5.
J Virol ; 95(17): e0074721, 2021 08 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1350002

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is bringing an unprecedented health crisis to the world. To date, our understanding of the interaction between SARS-CoV-2 and host innate immunity is still limited. Previous studies reported that SARS-CoV-2 nonstructural protein 12 (NSP12) was able to suppress interferon-ß (IFN-ß) activation in IFN-ß promoter luciferase reporter assays, which provided insights into the pathogenesis of COVID-19. In this study, we demonstrated that IFN-ß promoter-mediated luciferase activity was reduced during coexpression of NSP12. However, we could show NSP12 did not affect IRF3 or NF-κB activation. Moreover, IFN-ß production induced by Sendai virus (SeV) infection or other stimulus was not affected by NSP12 at mRNA or protein level. Additionally, the type I IFN signaling pathway was not affected by NSP12, as demonstrated by the expression of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs). Further experiments revealed that different experiment systems, including protein tags and plasmid backbones, could affect the readouts of IFN-ß promoter luciferase assays. In conclusion, unlike as previously reported, our study showed SARS-CoV-2 NSP12 protein is not an IFN-ß antagonist. It also rings the alarm on the general usage of luciferase reporter assays in studying SARS-CoV-2. IMPORTANCE Previous studies investigated the interaction between SARS-CoV-2 viral proteins and interferon signaling and proposed that several SARS-CoV-2 viral proteins, including NSP12, could suppress IFN-ß activation. However, most of these results were generated from IFN-ß promoter luciferase reporter assay and have not been validated functionally. In our study, we found that, although NSP12 could suppress IFN-ß promoter luciferase activity, it showed no inhibitory effect on IFN-ß production or its downstream signaling. Further study revealed that contradictory results could be generated from different experiment systems. On one hand, we demonstrated that SARS-CoV-2 NSP12 could not suppress IFN-ß signaling. On the other hand, our study suggests that caution needs to be taken with the interpretation of SARS-CoV-2-related luciferase assays.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase , Interferon-beta , Promoter Regions, Genetic , SARS-CoV-2 , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/genetics , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/metabolism , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Interferon Regulatory Factor-3/genetics , Interferon Regulatory Factor-3/metabolism , Interferon-beta/antagonists & inhibitors , Interferon-beta/biosynthesis , Interferon-beta/genetics , NF-kappa B/genetics , NF-kappa B/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/biosynthesis , RNA, Messenger/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism
6.
RNA ; 27(11): 1318-1329, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1329126

ABSTRACT

The transcriptional induction of interferon (IFN) genes is a key feature of the mammalian antiviral response that limits viral replication and dissemination. A hallmark of severe COVID-19 disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 is the low presence of IFN proteins in patient serum despite elevated levels of IFN-encoding mRNAs, indicative of post-transcriptional inhibition of IFN protein production. Here, we performed single-molecule RNA visualization to examine the expression and localization of host mRNAs during SARS-CoV-2 infection. Our data show that the biogenesis of type I and type III IFN mRNAs is inhibited at multiple steps during SARS-CoV-2 infection. First, translocation of the interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) transcription factor to the nucleus is limited in response to SARS-CoV-2, indicating that SARS-CoV-2 inhibits RLR-MAVS signaling and thus weakens transcriptional induction of IFN genes. Second, we observed that IFN mRNAs primarily localize to the site of transcription in most SARS-CoV-2 infected cells, suggesting that SARS-CoV-2 either inhibits the release of IFN mRNAs from their sites of transcription and/or triggers decay of IFN mRNAs in the nucleus upon exiting the site of transcription. Lastly, nuclear-cytoplasmic transport of IFN mRNAs is inhibited during SARS-CoV-2 infection, which we propose is a consequence of widespread degradation of host cytoplasmic basal mRNAs in the early stages of SARS-CoV-2 replication by the SARS-CoV-2 Nsp1 protein, as well as the host antiviral endoribonuclease, RNase L. Importantly, IFN mRNAs can escape SARS-CoV-2-mediated degradation if they reach the cytoplasm, making rescue of mRNA export a viable means for promoting the immune response to SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Interferons/genetics , RNA Stability , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/genetics , A549 Cells , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line , Endoribonucleases/genetics , Endoribonucleases/metabolism , Humans , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence/methods , Interferon Regulatory Factor-3/genetics , Interferon Regulatory Factor-3/metabolism , Interferons/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Single Molecule Imaging
7.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0253089, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282298

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused a devastating global pandemic, infecting over 43 million people and claiming over 1 million lives, with these numbers increasing daily. Therefore, there is urgent need to understand the molecular mechanisms governing SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis, immune evasion, and disease progression. Here, we show that SARS-CoV-2 can block IRF3 and NF-κB activation early during virus infection. We also identify that the SARS-CoV-2 viral proteins NSP1 and NSP13 can block interferon activation via distinct mechanisms. NSP1 antagonizes interferon signaling by suppressing host mRNA translation, while NSP13 downregulates interferon and NF-κB promoter signaling by limiting TBK1 and IRF3 activation, as phospho-TBK1 and phospho-IRF3 protein levels are reduced with increasing levels of NSP13 protein expression. NSP13 can also reduce NF-κB activation by both limiting NF-κB phosphorylation and nuclear translocation. Last, we also show that NSP13 binds to TBK1 and downregulates IFIT1 protein expression. Collectively, these data illustrate that SARS-CoV-2 bypasses multiple innate immune activation pathways through distinct mechanisms.


Subject(s)
Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Cell Nucleus/immunology , Interferon Regulatory Factor-3/immunology , RNA-Binding Proteins/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Signal Transduction/immunology , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/immunology , Active Transport, Cell Nucleus/genetics , Active Transport, Cell Nucleus/immunology , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , Cell Nucleus/genetics , HeLa Cells , Humans , Interferon Regulatory Factor-3/genetics , NF-kappa B/genetics , NF-kappa B/immunology , Phosphorylation/genetics , Phosphorylation/immunology , /immunology , RNA-Binding Proteins/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Signal Transduction/genetics , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/genetics
8.
J Virol ; 95(12)2021 05 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1247318

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic poses a serious global health threat. The rapid global spread of SARS-CoV-2 highlights an urgent need to develop effective therapeutics for blocking SARS-CoV-2 infection and spread. Stimulator of Interferon Genes (STING) is a chief element in host antiviral defense pathways. In this study, we examined the impact of the STING signaling pathway on coronavirus infection using the human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43) model. We found that HCoV-OC43 infection did not stimulate the STING signaling pathway, but the activation of STING signaling effectively inhibits HCoV-OC43 infection to a much greater extent than that of type I interferons (IFNs). We also discovered that IRF3, the key STING downstream innate immune effector, is essential for this anticoronavirus activity. In addition, we found that the amidobenzimidazole (ABZI)-based human STING agonist diABZI robustly blocks the infection of not only HCoV-OC43 but also SARS-CoV-2. Therefore, our study identifies the STING signaling pathway as a potential therapeutic target that could be exploited for developing broad-spectrum antiviral therapeutics against multiple coronavirus strains in order to face the challenge of future coronavirus outbreaks.IMPORTANCE The highly infectious and lethal SARS-CoV-2 is posing an unprecedented threat to public health. Other coronaviruses are likely to jump from a nonhuman animal to humans in the future. Novel broad-spectrum antiviral therapeutics are therefore needed to control known pathogenic coronaviruses such as SARS-CoV-2 and its newly mutated variants, as well as future coronavirus outbreaks. STING signaling is a well-established host defense pathway, but its role in coronavirus infection remains unclear. In the present study, we found that activation of the STING signaling pathway robustly inhibits infection of HCoV-OC43 and SARS-CoV-2. These results identified the STING pathway as a novel target for controlling the spread of known pathogenic coronaviruses, as well as emerging coronavirus outbreaks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Coronavirus OC43, Human/metabolism , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Signal Transduction , A549 Cells , Animals , COVID-19/genetics , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus OC43, Human/genetics , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Interferon Regulatory Factor-3/genetics , Interferon Regulatory Factor-3/metabolism , Membrane Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Membrane Proteins/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vero Cells
9.
Biochem J ; 478(10): 1853-1859, 2021 05 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1232077

ABSTRACT

The current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has spurred new interest in interferon signaling in response to viral pathogens. Much of what we know about the signaling molecules and associated signal transduction induced during the host cellular response to viral pathogens has been gained from research conducted from the 1990's to the present day, but certain intricacies of the mechanisms involved, still remain unclear. In a recent study by Vaughn et al. the authors examine one of the main mechanisms regulating interferon induction following viral infection, the RIG-I/MAVS/IRF3 pathway, and find that similar to PKR both DICER interacting proteins, PACT and TRBP, regulate RIG-I signaling in an opposing manner. More specifically, the reported findings demonstrate, like others, that PACT stimulates RIG-I-mediated signaling in a manner independent of PACT dsRNA-binding ability or phosphorylation at sites known to be important for PACT-dependent PKR activation. In contrast, they show for the first time that TRBP inhibits RIG-I-mediated signaling. RIG-I inhibition by TRBP did not require phosphorylation of sites shown to be important for inhibiting PKR, nor did it involve PACT or PKR, but it did require the dsRNA-binding ability of TRBP. These findings open the door to a complex co-regulation of RIG-I, PKR, MDA5, miRNA processing, and interferon induction.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Interferons/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Signal Transduction/immunology , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/genetics , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , DEAD Box Protein 58/genetics , DEAD Box Protein 58/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation/immunology , Humans , Interferon Regulatory Factor-3/genetics , Interferon Regulatory Factor-3/metabolism , Interferon-Induced Helicase, IFIH1/genetics , Interferon-Induced Helicase, IFIH1/metabolism , Interferons/genetics , MicroRNAs/genetics , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Nuclear Receptor Coactivators/genetics , Nuclear Receptor Coactivators/metabolism , RNA-Binding Proteins/genetics , RNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Receptors, Immunologic/genetics , Receptors, Immunologic/metabolism
10.
J Immunol ; 206(10): 2420-2429, 2021 05 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1215526

ABSTRACT

We have recently shown that type 2 transglutaminase (TG2) plays a key role in the host's inflammatory response during bacterial infections. In this study, we investigated whether the enzyme is involved in the regulation of the STING pathway, which is the main signaling activated in the presence of both self- and pathogen DNA in the cytoplasm, leading to type I IFN (IFN I) production. In this study, we demonstrated that TG2 negatively regulates STING signaling by impairing IRF3 phosphorylation in bone marrow-derived macrophages, isolated from wild-type and TG2 knockout mice. In the absence of TG2, we found an increase in the IFN-ß production and in the downstream JAK/STAT pathway activation. Interestingly, proteomic analysis revealed that TG2 interacts with TBK1, affecting its interactome composition. Indeed, TG2 ablation facilitates the TBK1-IRF3 interaction, thus indicating that the enzyme plays a negative regulatory effect on IRF3 recruitment in the STING/TBK1 complex. In keeping with these findings, we observed an increase in the IFNß production in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids from COVID-19-positive dead patients paralleled by a dramatic decrease of the TG2 expression in the lung pneumocytes. Taken together, these results suggest that TG2 plays a negative regulation on the IFN-ß production associated with the innate immunity response to the cytosolic presence of both self- and pathogen DNA.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , GTP-Binding Proteins/immunology , Immunity, Innate , Interferon Regulatory Factor-3/immunology , Membrane Proteins/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Signal Transduction/immunology , Transglutaminases/immunology , Animals , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/pathology , GTP-Binding Proteins/genetics , Humans , Interferon Regulatory Factor-3/genetics , Interferon-beta/genetics , Interferon-beta/immunology , Membrane Proteins/genetics , Mice , Mice, Knockout , Signal Transduction/genetics , Transglutaminases/genetics
11.
J Med Virol ; 93(9): 5376-5389, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1206842

ABSTRACT

The suppression of types I and III interferon (IFN) responses by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) contributes to the pathogenesis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The strategy used by SARS-CoV-2 to evade antiviral immunity needs further investigation. Here, we reported that SARS-CoV-2 ORF9b inhibited types I and III IFN production by targeting multiple molecules of innate antiviral signaling pathways. SARS-CoV-2 ORF9b impaired the induction of types I and III IFNs by Sendai virus and poly (I:C). SARS-CoV-2 ORF9b inhibited the activation of types I and III IFNs induced by the components of cytosolic dsRNA-sensing pathways of RIG-I/MDA5-MAVS signaling, including RIG-I, MDA-5, MAVS, TBK1, and IKKε, rather than IRF3-5D, which is the active form of IRF3. SARS-CoV-2 ORF9b also suppressed the induction of types I and III IFNs by TRIF and STING, which are the adaptor protein of the endosome RNA-sensing pathway of TLR3-TRIF signaling and the adaptor protein of the cytosolic DNA-sensing pathway of cGAS-STING signaling, respectively. A mechanistic analysis revealed that the SARS-CoV-2 ORF9b protein interacted with RIG-I, MDA-5, MAVS, TRIF, STING, and TBK1 and impeded the phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of IRF3. In addition, SARS-CoV-2 ORF9b facilitated the replication of the vesicular stomatitis virus. Therefore, the results showed that SARS-CoV-2 ORF9b negatively regulates antiviral immunity and thus facilitates viral replication. This study contributes to our understanding of the molecular mechanism through which SARS-CoV-2 impairs antiviral immunity and provides an essential clue to the pathogenesis of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
DEAD Box Protein 58/immunology , Immune Evasion/genetics , Interferons/immunology , Nucleotidyltransferases/immunology , Receptors, Immunologic/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Toll-Like Receptor 3/immunology , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/genetics , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/immunology , Adaptor Proteins, Vesicular Transport/genetics , Adaptor Proteins, Vesicular Transport/immunology , Animals , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , DEAD Box Protein 58/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation , HEK293 Cells , HeLa Cells , Humans , I-kappa B Kinase/genetics , I-kappa B Kinase/immunology , Immunity, Innate , Interferon Regulatory Factor-3/genetics , Interferon Regulatory Factor-3/immunology , Interferon-Induced Helicase, IFIH1/genetics , Interferon-Induced Helicase, IFIH1/immunology , Interferons/genetics , Membrane Proteins/genetics , Membrane Proteins/immunology , Nucleotidyltransferases/genetics , Phosphoproteins/genetics , Phosphoproteins/immunology , Plasmids/chemistry , Plasmids/metabolism , /immunology , Receptors, Immunologic/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Signal Transduction/genetics , Signal Transduction/immunology , Toll-Like Receptor 3/genetics , Transfection , Vero Cells , Virus Replication/immunology
12.
Mol Ther ; 29(3): 1174-1185, 2021 03 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-985497

ABSTRACT

Self-amplifying RNA (saRNA) is a cutting-edge platform for both nucleic acid vaccines and therapeutics. saRNA is self-adjuvanting, as it activates types I and III interferon (IFN), which enhances the immunogenicity of RNA vaccines but can also lead to inhibition of translation. In this study, we screened a library of saRNA constructs with cis-encoded innate inhibiting proteins (IIPs) and determined the effect on protein expression and immunogenicity. We observed that the PIV-5 V and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) ORF4a proteins enhance protein expression 100- to 500-fold in vitro in IFN-competent HeLa and MRC5 cells. We found that the MERS-CoV ORF4a protein partially abates dose nonlinearity in vivo, and that ruxolitinib, a potent Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) inhibitor, but not the IIPs, enhances protein expression of saRNA in vivo. Both the PIV-5 V and MERS-CoV ORF4a proteins were found to enhance the percentage of resident cells in human skin explants expressing saRNA and completely rescued dose nonlinearity of saRNA. Finally, we observed that the MERS-CoV ORF4a increased the rabies virus (RABV)-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) titer and neutralization half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) by ∼10-fold in rabbits, but not in mice or rats. These experiments provide a proof of concept that IIPs can be directly encoded into saRNA vectors and effectively abate the nonlinear dose dependency and enhance immunogenicity.


Subject(s)
Immunity, Innate/drug effects , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Protein Biosynthesis/drug effects , Vaccines, Synthetic/pharmacology , Viral Envelope Proteins/administration & dosage , Animals , Cell Line , Encephalitis Virus, Venezuelan Equine/drug effects , Encephalitis Virus, Venezuelan Equine/immunology , Encephalitis Virus, Venezuelan Equine/pathogenicity , Fibroblasts , Gene Expression Regulation , HeLa Cells , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/biosynthesis , Interferon Regulatory Factor-3/genetics , Interferon Regulatory Factor-3/immunology , Janus Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors , Janus Kinases/genetics , Janus Kinases/immunology , Mice , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/drug effects , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/pathogenicity , NF-kappa B/genetics , NF-kappa B/immunology , Nitriles , Parainfluenza Virus 5/drug effects , Parainfluenza Virus 5/immunology , Parainfluenza Virus 5/pathogenicity , Pyrazoles/pharmacology , Pyrimidines , Rabbits , Rabies virus/drug effects , Rabies virus/immunology , Rabies virus/pathogenicity , Rats , STAT Transcription Factors/antagonists & inhibitors , STAT Transcription Factors/genetics , STAT Transcription Factors/immunology , Signal Transduction , Vaccines, Synthetic/biosynthesis , Viral Envelope Proteins/genetics , Viral Envelope Proteins/immunology
13.
Viruses ; 13(4)2021 03 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1158784

ABSTRACT

The immune system defends against invading pathogens through the rapid activation of innate immune signaling pathways. Interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) is a key transcription factor activated in response to virus infection and is largely responsible for establishing an antiviral state in the infected host. Studies in Irf3-/- mice have demonstrated the absence of IRF3 imparts a high degree of susceptibility to a wide range of viral infections. Virus infection causes the activation of IRF3 to transcribe type-I interferon (e.g., IFNß), which is responsible for inducing the interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs), which act at specific stages to limit virus replication. In addition to its transcriptional function, IRF3 is also activated to trigger apoptosis of virus-infected cells, as a mechanism to restrict virus spread within the host, in a pathway called RIG-I-like receptor-induced IRF3 mediated pathway of apoptosis (RIPA). These dual functions of IRF3 work in concert to mediate protective immunity against virus infection. These two pathways are activated differentially by the posttranslational modifications (PTMs) of IRF3. Moreover, PTMs regulate not only IRF3 activation and function, but also protein stability. Consequently, many viruses utilize viral proteins or hijack cellular enzymes to inhibit IRF3 functions. This review will describe the PTMs that regulate IRF3's RIPA and transcriptional activities and use coronavirus as a model virus capable of antagonizing IRF3-mediated innate immune responses. A thorough understanding of the cellular control of IRF3 and the mechanisms that viruses use to subvert this system is critical for developing novel therapies for virus-induced pathologies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , Interferon Regulatory Factor-3/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Animals , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Interferon Regulatory Factor-3/genetics , Protein Processing, Post-Translational , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
14.
Cells ; 10(3)2021 03 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1125490

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative agent of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) that has resulted in the current pandemic. The lack of highly efficacious antiviral drugs that can manage this ongoing global emergency gives urgency to establishing a comprehensive understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2. We characterized the role of the nucleocapsid protein (N) of SARS-CoV-2 in modulating antiviral immunity. Overexpression of SARS-CoV-2 N resulted in the attenuation of retinoic acid inducible gene-I (RIG-I)-like receptor-mediated interferon (IFN) production and IFN-induced gene expression. Similar to the SARS-CoV-1 N protein, SARS-CoV-2 N suppressed the interaction between tripartate motif protein 25 (TRIM25) and RIG-I. Furthermore, SARS-CoV-2 N inhibited polyinosinic: polycytidylic acid [poly(I:C)]-mediated IFN signaling at the level of Tank-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) and interfered with the association between TBK1 and interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3), subsequently preventing the nuclear translocation of IRF3. We further found that both type I and III IFN production induced by either the influenza virus lacking the nonstructural protein 1 or the Zika virus were suppressed by the SARS-CoV-2 N protein. Our findings provide insights into the molecular function of the SARS-CoV-2 N protein with respect to counteracting the host antiviral immune response.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , DEAD Box Protein 58/metabolism , Interferons/metabolism , Receptors, Immunologic/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , DEAD Box Protein 58/genetics , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Humans , Interferon Regulatory Factor-3/genetics , Interferon Regulatory Factor-3/metabolism , Interferon Type I/genetics , Interferon Type I/metabolism , Interferon-gamma/genetics , Interferon-gamma/metabolism , Interferons/genetics , Orthomyxoviridae/genetics , Orthomyxoviridae/metabolism , Phosphoproteins/metabolism , Poly C/pharmacology , Poly I/pharmacology , Promoter Regions, Genetic , /metabolism , Receptors, Immunologic/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Signal Transduction/genetics , Transcription Factors/metabolism , Tripartite Motif Proteins/metabolism , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/metabolism , Up-Regulation , Zika Virus/genetics , Zika Virus/metabolism
15.
Cell Mol Immunol ; 18(4): 945-953, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1104474

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is the pathogenic agent of COVID-19, which has evolved into a global pandemic. Compared with some other respiratory RNA viruses, SARS-CoV-2 is a poor inducer of type I interferon (IFN). Here, we report that SARS-CoV-2 nsp12, the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), suppresses host antiviral responses. SARS-CoV-2 nsp12 attenuated Sendai virus (SeV)- or poly(I:C)-induced IFN-ß promoter activation in a dose-dependent manner. It also inhibited IFN promoter activation triggered by RIG-I, MDA5, MAVS, and IRF3 overexpression. Nsp12 did not impair IRF3 phosphorylation but suppressed the nuclear translocation of IRF3. Mutational analyses suggested that this suppression was not dependent on the polymerase activity of nsp12. Given these findings, our study reveals that SARS-CoV-2 RdRp can antagonize host antiviral innate immunity and thus provides insights into viral pathogenesis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/metabolism , Interferon Regulatory Factor-3/metabolism , Interferon Type I/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/genetics , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/metabolism , Cell Nucleus/metabolism , DEAD Box Protein 58/genetics , DEAD Box Protein 58/metabolism , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Interferon Regulatory Factor-3/genetics , Interferon Type I/genetics , Interferon-Induced Helicase, IFIH1/genetics , Interferon-Induced Helicase, IFIH1/metabolism , Interferon-beta/genetics , Interferon-beta/metabolism , Mutation , Phosphorylation , Promoter Regions, Genetic , Receptors, Immunologic/genetics , Receptors, Immunologic/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Sendai virus/metabolism
16.
Cell Rep ; 34(2): 108628, 2021 01 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1036973

ABSTRACT

Recent studies have profiled the innate immune signatures in patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and suggest that cellular responses to viral challenge may affect disease severity. Yet the molecular events that underlie cellular recognition and response to SARS-CoV-2 infection remain to be elucidated. Here, we find that SARS-CoV-2 replication induces a delayed interferon (IFN) response in lung epithelial cells. By screening 16 putative sensors involved in sensing of RNA virus infection, we found that MDA5 and LGP2 primarily regulate IFN induction in response to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Further analyses revealed that viral intermediates specifically activate the IFN response through MDA5-mediated sensing. Additionally, we find that IRF3, IRF5, and NF-κB/p65 are the key transcription factors regulating the IFN response during SARS-CoV-2 infection. In summary, these findings provide critical insights into the molecular basis of the innate immune recognition and signaling response to SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Immunity, Innate , Interferon-Induced Helicase, IFIH1/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line , Epithelial Cells/cytology , Epithelial Cells/immunology , Epithelial Cells/virology , Humans , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/cytology , Interferon Regulatory Factor-3/genetics , Interferon Regulatory Factor-3/metabolism , Interferon Regulatory Factors/genetics , Interferon Regulatory Factors/metabolism , Interferons/genetics , Interferons/metabolism , RNA Helicases/metabolism , RNA Interference , RNA, Double-Stranded/metabolism , RNA, Small Interfering/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Signal Transduction , Transcription Factor RelA/metabolism , Virus Replication
18.
Vet Microbiol ; 252: 108918, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-909094

ABSTRACT

Porcine haemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus (PHEV) is a member of coronavirus that causes acute infectious disease and high mortality in piglets. The transcription factor IRF3 is a central regulator of type I interferon (IFN) innate immune signalling. Here, we report that PHEV infection of RAW264.7 cells results in strong suppression of IFN-ß production in the early stage. A comparative analysis of the upstream effector of IFN-ß transcription demonstrated that deactivation of IRF3, but not p65 or ATF-2 proteins, is uniquely attributed to failure of early IFN-ß induction. Moreover, the RIG-I/MDA5/MAVS/TBK1-dependent protective response that regulates the IRF3 pathway is not disrupted by PHEV and works well underlying the deactivated IRF3-mediated IFN-ß inhibition. After challenge with poly(I:C), a synthetic analogue of dsRNA used to stimulate IFN-ß secretion in the TLR-controlled pathway, we show that PHEV and poly(I:C) regulate IFN-ß-induction via two different pathways. Collectively, our findings reveal that deactivation of IRF3 is a specific mechanism that contributes to termination of type I IFN signalling during early infection with PHEV independent of the conserved RIG-I/MAVS/MDA5/TBK1-mediated innate immune response.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus 1/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Interferon Regulatory Factor-3/genetics , Interferon-beta/immunology , Animals , Betacoronavirus 1/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Immunity, Innate , Interferon Regulatory Factor-3/immunology , Mice , Poly I-C/pharmacology , RAW 264.7 Cells , Signal Transduction/immunology
19.
Viruses ; 12(6)2020 05 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-645542

ABSTRACT

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) causes a porcine disease associated with swine epidemic diarrhea. The type I interferon (IFN-I or IFN α/ß) is a key mediator of innate antiviral response during virus infection. Different antagonistic strategies have been identified and determined as to how PEDV infection inhibits the host's IFN responses to escape the host innate immune pathway, but the pathogenic mechanisms of PEDV infection are not fully elucidated. Our preliminary results revealed that endogenous TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) and interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3), the key components in the IFN signaling pathway were downregulated in PEDV infected IPEC-J2 cells by iTRAQ analysis. In this study, we screened nsp15 as the most important viral encoded protein involved in TBK1 and IRF3 reduction. Endoribonuclease (EndoU) activity has been well determined for coronavirus nsp15. Three residues (H226, H241, and K282) of PEDV nsp15 were identified as critical amino acids for PEDV EndoU but not D265, which was not well correlated with published results of other coronaviruses, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome virus (SARS-CoV). Moreover, PEDV nsp15 can directly degrade the RNA levels of TBK1 and IRF3 dependent on its EndoU activity to suppress IFN production and constrain the induction of IFN stimulated genes (ISGs), by which PEDV antagonizes the host innate response to facilitate its replication. Collectively, these results have confirmed that PEDV nsp15 was capable of subverting the IFN response by the RNA degradation of TBK1 and IRF3.


Subject(s)
Endoribonucleases/immunology , Interferon Regulatory Factor-3/metabolism , Interferon Type I/immunology , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/immunology , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/immunology , Animals , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Down-Regulation , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Interferon Regulatory Factor-3/genetics , Interferon Type I/antagonists & inhibitors , RNA Stability/genetics , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Signal Transduction/immunology , Swine , Swine Diseases/immunology , Swine Diseases/pathology , Vero Cells
20.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 7257, 2020 04 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-154662

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses that cause severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) are speculated to have originated in bats. The mechanisms by which these viruses are maintained in individuals or populations of reservoir bats remain an enigma. Mathematical models have predicted long-term persistent infection with low levels of periodic shedding as a likely route for virus maintenance and spillover from bats. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that bat cells and MERS coronavirus (CoV) can co-exist in vitro. To test our hypothesis, we established a long-term coronavirus infection model of bat cells that are persistently infected with MERS-CoV. We infected cells from Eptesicus fuscus with MERS-CoV and maintained them in culture for at least 126 days. We characterized the persistently infected cells by detecting virus particles, protein and transcripts. Basal levels of type I interferon in the long-term infected bat cells were higher, relative to uninfected cells, and disrupting the interferon response in persistently infected bat cells increased virus replication. By sequencing the whole genome of MERS-CoV from persistently infected bat cells, we identified that bat cells repeatedly selected for viral variants that contained mutations in the viral open reading frame 5 (ORF5) protein. Furthermore, bat cells that were persistently infected with ΔORF5 MERS-CoV were resistant to superinfection by wildtype virus, likely due to reduced levels of the virus receptor, dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) and higher basal levels of interferon in these cells. In summary, our study provides evidence for a model of coronavirus persistence in bats, along with the establishment of a unique persistently infected cell culture model to study MERS-CoV-bat interactions.


Subject(s)
Chiroptera/virology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Fibroblasts/virology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , Open Reading Frames/genetics , Point Mutation , Animals , Chiroptera/anatomy & histology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins , Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4/metabolism , Fibroblasts/metabolism , Genome, Viral/genetics , Humans , Interferon Regulatory Factor-3/genetics , Interferon Regulatory Factor-3/metabolism , Interferon Type I/metabolism , Kidney/cytology , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/genetics , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , Transfection , Vero Cells , Virus Replication/genetics , Whole Genome Sequencing
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