Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 100
Filter
1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(18)2022 Sep 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2200315

ABSTRACT

Z-conformation nucleic acid binding protein 1 (ZBP1), a powerful innate immune sensor, has been identified as the important signaling initiation factor in innate immune response and the multiple inflammatory cell death known as PANoptosis. The initiation of ZBP1 signaling requires recognition of left-handed double-helix Z-nucleic acid (includes Z-DNA and Z-RNA) and subsequent signaling transduction depends on the interaction between ZBP1 and its adapter proteins, such as TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1), interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3), receptor-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinase 1 (RIPK1), and RIPK3. ZBP1 activated innate immunity, including type-I interferon (IFN-I) response and NF-κB signaling, constitutes an important line of defense against pathogenic infection. In addition, ZBP1-mediated PANoptosis is a double-edged sword in anti-infection, auto-inflammatory diseases, and tumor immunity. ZBP1-mediated PANoptosis is beneficial for eliminating infected cells and tumor cells, but abnormal or excessive PANoptosis can lead to a strong inflammatory response that is harmful to the host. Thus, pathogens and host have each developed multiplex tactics targeting ZBP1 signaling to maintain strong virulence or immune homeostasis. In this paper, we reviewed the mechanisms of ZBP1 signaling, the effects of ZBP1 signaling on host immunity and pathogen infection, and various antagonistic strategies of host and pathogen against ZBP1. We also discuss existent gaps regarding ZBP1 signaling and forecast potential directions for future research.


Subject(s)
DNA, Z-Form , Interferon Type I , Nucleic Acids , Immunity, Innate , Interferon Regulatory Factor-3/metabolism , Interferon Type I/metabolism , NF-kappa B/metabolism , RNA , RNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Serine/genetics , Threonine/genetics
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(21)2022 Oct 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099576

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) induces immune-mediated type 1 interferon (IFN-1) production, the pathophysiology of which involves sterile alpha motif and histidine-aspartate domain-containing protein 1 (SAMHD1) tetramerization and the cytosolic DNA sensor cyclic-GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS)-stimulator of interferon genes (STING) signaling pathway. As a result, type I interferonopathies are exacerbated. Aspirin inhibits cGAS-mediated signaling through cGAS acetylation. Acetylation contributes to cGAS activity control and activates IFN-1 production and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling via STING. Aspirin and dapsone inhibit the activation of both IFN-1 and NF-κB by targeting cGAS. We define these as anticatalytic mechanisms. It is necessary to alleviate the pathologic course and take the lag time of the odds of achieving viral clearance by day 7 to coordinate innate or adaptive immune cell reactions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Interferon Type I , Humans , COVID-19/drug therapy , Acetylation , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Drug Repositioning , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Nucleotidyltransferases/metabolism , Interferon Type I/metabolism , Aspirin , Immunity, Innate/genetics
3.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0276460, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089429

ABSTRACT

Excessive neutrophil infiltration and dysfunction contribute to the progression and severity of hyper-inflammatory syndrome, such as in severe COVID19. In the current study, we re-analysed published scRNA-seq datasets of mouse and human neutrophils to classify and compare the transcriptional regulatory networks underlying neutrophil differentiation and inflammatory responses. Distinct sets of TF modules regulate neutrophil maturation, function, and inflammatory responses under the steady state and inflammatory conditions. In COVID19 patients, neutrophil activation was associated with the selective activation of inflammation-specific TF modules. SARS-CoV-2 RNA-positive neutrophils showed a higher expression of type I interferon response TF IRF7. Furthermore, IRF7 expression was abundant in neutrophils from severe patients in progression stage. Neutrophil-mediated inflammatory responses positively correlate with the expressional level of IRF7. Based on these results, we suggest that differential activation of activation-related TFs, such as IRF7 mediate neutrophil inflammatory responses during inflammation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neutrophils , Humans , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , Inflammation/genetics , Interferon Type I/metabolism , Neutrophil Activation/genetics , Neutrophil Activation/physiology , Neutrophils/metabolism , RNA, Viral , RNA-Seq , SARS-CoV-2 , Single-Cell Analysis
4.
BMC Immunol ; 23(1): 51, 2022 10 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089161

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Plasmacytoid and myeloid dendritic cells play a vital role in the protection against viral infections. In COVID-19, there is an impairment of dendritic cell (DC) function and interferon secretion which has been correlated with disease severity. RESULTS: In this study, we described the frequency of DC subsets and the plasma levels of Type I (IFNα, IFNß) and Type III Interferons (IFNλ1), IFNλ2) and IFNλ3) in seven groups of COVID-19 individuals, classified based on days since RT-PCR confirmation of SARS-CoV2 infection. Our data shows that the frequencies of pDC and mDC increase from Days 15-30 to Days 61-90 and plateau thereafter. Similarly, the levels of IFNα, IFNß, IFNλ1, IFNλ2 and IFNλ3 increase from Days 15-30 to Days 61-90 and plateau thereafter. COVID-19 patients with severe disease exhibit diminished frequencies of pDC and mDC and decreased levels of IFNα, IFNß, IFNλ1, IFNλ2 and IFNλ3. Finally, the percentages of DC subsets positively correlated with the levels of Type I and Type III IFNs. CONCLUSION: Thus, our study provides evidence of restoration of homeostatic levels in DC subset frequencies and circulating levels of Type I and Type III IFNs in convalescent COVID-19 individuals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Interferon Type I , Humans , Interferon Type I/metabolism , RNA, Viral/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Dendritic Cells/metabolism , Homeostasis
5.
Cell Stem Cell ; 29(10): 1475-1490.e6, 2022 10 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2061891

ABSTRACT

Population-based studies to identify disease-associated risk alleles typically require samples from a large number of individuals. Here, we report a human-induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-based screening strategy to link human genetics with viral infectivity. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) identified a cluster of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a cis-regulatory region of the NDUFA4 gene, which was associated with susceptibility to Zika virus (ZIKV) infection. Loss of NDUFA4 led to decreased sensitivity to ZIKV, dengue virus, and SARS-CoV-2 infection. Isogenic hiPSC lines carrying non-risk alleles of SNPs or deletion of the cis-regulatory region lower sensitivity to viral infection. Mechanistic studies indicated that loss/reduction of NDUFA4 causes mitochondrial stress, which leads to the leakage of mtDNA and thereby upregulation of type I interferon signaling. This study provides proof-of-principle for the application of iPSC arrays in GWAS and identifies NDUFA4 as a previously unknown susceptibility locus for viral infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dengue , Electron Transport Complex IV , Zika Virus Infection , Humans , Alleles , COVID-19/genetics , DNA, Mitochondrial/metabolism , Electron Transport Complex IV/genetics , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Genome-Wide Association Study , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/metabolism , Interferon Type I/metabolism , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , SARS-CoV-2 , Zika Virus , Zika Virus Infection/genetics , Dengue/genetics
6.
Microbiol Spectr ; 10(5): e0232222, 2022 Oct 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2053139

ABSTRACT

Over the last 2 years, several global virus-host interactome studies have been published with SARS-CoV-2 proteins with the purpose of better understanding how specific viral proteins can subvert or utilize different cellular processes to promote viral infection and pathogenesis. However, most of the virus-host protein interactions have not yet been confirmed experimentally, and their biological significance is largely unknown. The goal of this study was to verify the interaction of NSP5, the main protease of SARS-CoV-2, with the host epigenetic factor histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) and test if HDAC2 is required for NSP5-mediated inhibition of the type I interferon signaling pathway. Our results show that NSP5 can significantly reduce the expression of a subset of immune response genes such as IL-6, IL-1ß, and IFNß, which requires NSP5's protease activity. We also found that NSP5 can inhibit Sendai virus-, RNA sensor-, and DNA sensor-mediated induction of IFNß promoter, block the IFN response pathway, and reduce the expression of IFN-stimulated genes. We also provide evidence for HDAC2 interacting with IRF3, and NSP5 can abrogate their interaction by binding to both IRF3 and HDAC2. In addition, we found that HDAC2 plays an inhibitory role in the regulation of IFNß and IFN-induced promoters, but our results indicate that HDAC2 is not involved in NSP5-mediated inhibition of IFNß gene expression. Taken together, our data show that NSP5 interacts with HDAC2 but NSP5 inhibits the IFNß gene expression and interferon-signaling pathway in an HDAC2-independent manner. IMPORTANCE SARS-CoV-2 has developed multiple strategies to antagonize the host antiviral response, such as blocking the IFN signaling pathway, which favors the replication and spreading of the virus. A recent SARS-CoV-2 protein interaction mapping revealed that the main viral protease NSP5 interacts with the host epigenetic factor HDAC2, but the interaction was not confirmed experimentally and its biological importance remains unclear. Here, we not only verified the interaction of HDAC2 with NSP5, but we also found that HDAC2 also binds to IRF3, and NSP5 can disrupt the IRF3-HDAC2 complex. Furthermore, our results show that NSP5 can efficiently repress the IFN signaling pathway regardless of whether viral infections, RNA, or DNA sensors activated it. However, our data indicate that HDAC2 is not involved in NSP5-mediated inhibition of IFNß promoter induction and IFNß gene expression.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Interferon Type I , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Histone Deacetylase 2/metabolism , Interleukin-6 , Signal Transduction , Interferon-beta/genetics , Interferon-beta/metabolism , Interferons , Viral Proteins/genetics , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Peptide Hydrolases/metabolism , DNA , RNA , Viral Proteases , Interferon Type I/metabolism
7.
J Exp Med ; 219(11)2022 11 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2037304

ABSTRACT

Autoantibodies neutralizing type I interferons (IFNs) can underlie critical COVID-19 pneumonia and yellow fever vaccine disease. We report here on 13 patients harboring autoantibodies neutralizing IFN-α2 alone (five patients) or with IFN-ω (eight patients) from a cohort of 279 patients (4.7%) aged 6-73 yr with critical influenza pneumonia. Nine and four patients had antibodies neutralizing high and low concentrations, respectively, of IFN-α2, and six and two patients had antibodies neutralizing high and low concentrations, respectively, of IFN-ω. The patients' autoantibodies increased influenza A virus replication in both A549 cells and reconstituted human airway epithelia. The prevalence of these antibodies was significantly higher than that in the general population for patients <70 yr of age (5.7 vs. 1.1%, P = 2.2 × 10-5), but not >70 yr of age (3.1 vs. 4.4%, P = 0.68). The risk of critical influenza was highest in patients with antibodies neutralizing high concentrations of both IFN-α2 and IFN-ω (OR = 11.7, P = 1.3 × 10-5), especially those <70 yr old (OR = 139.9, P = 3.1 × 10-10). We also identified 10 patients in additional influenza patient cohorts. Autoantibodies neutralizing type I IFNs account for ∼5% of cases of life-threatening influenza pneumonia in patients <70 yr old.


Subject(s)
Autoantibodies , Influenza, Human , Interferon Type I , Pneumonia , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , Humans , Influenza, Human/complications , Influenza, Human/immunology , Interferon Type I/immunology , Interferon Type I/metabolism , Pneumonia/complications , Pneumonia/immunology , Yellow Fever Vaccine/adverse effects
8.
Viruses ; 14(8)2022 08 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2024292

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Sex hormones are widely recognised to act as protective factors against several viral infections. Specifically, females infected by the hepatitis C virus display higher clearance rates and reduced disease progression than those found in males. Through modulation of particle release and spread, 17ß-oestradiol controls HCV's life cycle. We investigated the mechanism(s) behind oestrogen's antiviral effect. METHODS: We used cell culture-derived hepatitis C virus in in vitro assays to evaluate the effect of 17ß-oestradiol on the innate immune response. Host immune responses were evaluated by enumerating gene transcripts via RT-qPCR in cells exposed to oestrogen in the presence or absence of viral infection. Antiviral effects were determined by focus-forming unit assay or HCV RNA quantification. RESULTS: Stimulation of 17ß-oestradiol triggers a pre-activated antiviral state in hepatocytes, which can be maintained for several hours after the hormone is removed. This induction results in the elevation of several innate immune genes, such as interferon alpha and beta, tumour necrosis factor, toll-like receptor 3 and interferon regulatory factor 5. We demonstrated that this pre-activation of immune response signalling is not affected by a viral presence, and the antiviral state can be ablated using an interferon-alpha/beta receptor alpha inhibitor. Finally, we proved that the oestrogen-induced stimulation is essential to generate an antiviral microenvironment mediated by activation of type I interferons. CONCLUSION: Resulting in viral control and suppression, 17ß-oestradiol induces an interferon-mediated antiviral state in hepatocytes. Oestrogen-stimulated cells modulate the immune response through secretion of type I interferon, which can be countered by blocking interferon-alpha/beta receptor alpha signalling.


Subject(s)
Hepatitis C , Interferon Type I , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Estradiol/metabolism , Estradiol/pharmacology , Estradiol/therapeutic use , Estrogens/metabolism , Estrogens/pharmacology , Estrogens/therapeutic use , Female , Hepacivirus/genetics , Hepatitis C/drug therapy , Hepatocytes/metabolism , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Interferon Type I/metabolism , Interferon-alpha/pharmacology , Male , Virus Replication
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(17)2022 Aug 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2006040

ABSTRACT

Type III and type I interferon have similar mechanisms of action, and their different receptors lead to different distributions in tissue. On mucosal surfaces, type III interferon exhibits strong antiviral activity. Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is an economically important enteropathogenic coronavirus, which can cause a high incidence rate and mortality in piglets. Here, we demonstrate that porcine interferon lambda 1 (pIFNL1) and porcine interferon lambda 3 (pIFNL3) can inhibit the proliferation of vesicular stomatitis virus with an enhanced green fluorescent protein (VSV-EGFP) in different cells, and also show strong antiviral activity when PEDV infects Vero cells. Both forms of pIFNLs were shown to be better than porcine interferon alpha (pIFNα), the antiviral activity of pIFNL1 is lower than that of pIFNL3. Therefore, our results provide experimental evidence for the inhibition of PEDV infection by pIFNLs, which may provide a promising treatment for the prevention and treatment of Porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) in piglets.


Subject(s)
Interferon Type I , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus , Swine Diseases , Animals , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Interferon Type I/metabolism , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/physiology , Swine , Vero Cells
10.
J Exp Med ; 219(2)2022 02 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1984990

ABSTRACT

In rare instances, pediatric SARS-CoV-2 infection results in a novel immunodysregulation syndrome termed multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). We compared MIS-C immunopathology with severe COVID-19 in adults. MIS-C does not result in pneumocyte damage but is associated with vascular endotheliitis and gastrointestinal epithelial injury. In MIS-C, the cytokine release syndrome is characterized by IFNγ and not type I interferon. Persistence of patrolling monocytes differentiates MIS-C from severe COVID-19, which is dominated by HLA-DRlo classical monocytes. IFNγ levels correlate with granzyme B production in CD16+ NK cells and TIM3 expression on CD38+/HLA-DR+ T cells. Single-cell TCR profiling reveals a skewed TCRß repertoire enriched for TRBV11-2 and a superantigenic signature in TIM3+/CD38+/HLA-DR+ T cells. Using NicheNet, we confirm IFNγ as a central cytokine in the communication between TIM3+/CD38+/HLA-DR+ T cells, CD16+ NK cells, and patrolling monocytes. Normalization of IFNγ, loss of TIM3, quiescence of CD16+ NK cells, and contraction of patrolling monocytes upon clinical resolution highlight their potential role in MIS-C immunopathogenesis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Hepatitis A Virus Cellular Receptor 2/metabolism , Interferon-gamma/metabolism , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Monocytes/metabolism , Receptors, IgG/metabolism , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Adolescent , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/pathology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Blood Vessels/pathology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Cell Proliferation , Child , Cohort Studies , Complement Activation , Cytokines/metabolism , Enterocytes/pathology , Female , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , Inflammation/pathology , Interferon Type I/metabolism , Interleukin-15/metabolism , Lymphocyte Activation/immunology , Male , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Superantigens/metabolism , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/pathology
11.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(32): e2204539119, 2022 08 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1960627

ABSTRACT

Viruses evade the innate immune response by suppressing the production or activity of cytokines such as type I interferons (IFNs). Here we report the discovery of a mechanism by which the SARS-CoV-2 virus coopts an intrinsic cellular machinery to suppress the production of the key immunostimulatory cytokine IFN-ß. We reveal that the SARS-CoV-2 encoded nonstructural protein 2 (NSP2) directly interacts with the cellular GIGYF2 protein. This interaction enhances the binding of GIGYF2 to the mRNA cap-binding protein 4EHP, thereby repressing the translation of the Ifnb1 mRNA. Depletion of GIGYF2 or 4EHP significantly enhances IFN-ß production, which inhibits SARS-CoV-2 replication. Our findings reveal a target for rescuing the antiviral innate immune response to SARS-CoV-2 and other RNA viruses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Carrier Proteins , Interferon Type I , Viral Nonstructural Proteins , COVID-19/genetics , Carrier Proteins/metabolism , Cell Line , Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-4E/metabolism , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Interferon Type I/metabolism , Protein Biosynthesis , RNA, Messenger/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism , Virus Replication
12.
J Virol ; 96(13): e0061822, 2022 Jul 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1962091

ABSTRACT

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is the globally distributed alphacoronavirus that can cause lethal watery diarrhea in piglets, causing substantial economic damage. However, the current commercial vaccines cannot effectively the existing diseases. Thus, it is of great necessity to identify the host antiviral factors and the mechanism by which the host immune system responds against PEDV infection required to be explored. The current work demonstrated that the host protein, the far upstream element-binding protein 3 (FUBP3), could be controlled by the transcription factor TCFL5, which could suppress PEDV replication through targeting and degrading the nucleocapsid (N) protein of the virus based on selective autophagy. For the ubiquitination of the N protein, FUBP3 was found to recruit the E3 ubiquitin ligase MARCH8/MARCHF8, which was then identified, transported to, and degraded in autolysosomes via NDP52/CALCOCO2 (cargo receptors), resulting in impaired viral proliferation. Additionally, FUBP3 was found to positively regulate type-I interferon (IFN-I) signaling and activate the IFN-I signaling pathway by interacting and increasing the expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor-associated factor 3 (TRAF3). Collectively, this study showed a novel mechanism of FUBP3-mediated virus restriction, where FUBP3 was found to degrade the viral N protein and induce IFN-I production, aiming to hinder the replication of PEDV. IMPORTANCE PEDV refers to the alphacoronavirus that is found globally and has re-emerged recently, causing severe financial losses. In PEDV infection, the host activates various host restriction factors to maintain innate antiviral responses to suppress virus replication. Here, FUBP3 was detected as a new host restriction factor. FUBP3 was found to suppress PEDV replication via the degradation of the PEDV-encoded nucleocapsid (N) protein via E3 ubiquitin ligase MARCH8 as well as the cargo receptor NDP52/CALCOCO2. Additionally, FUBP3 upregulated the IFN-I signaling pathway by interacting with and increasing tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor-associated factor 3 (TRAF3) expression. This study further demonstrated that another layer of complexity could be added to the selective autophagy and innate immune response against PEDV infection are complicated.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Interferon Type I , Nucleocapsid Proteins , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus , Transcription Factors , Animals , Antiviral Agents , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Interferon Type I/genetics , Interferon Type I/metabolism , Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/physiology , Swine , TNF Receptor-Associated Factor 3 , Transcription Factors/metabolism , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases , Vero Cells
13.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 899546, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1952264

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is a global pandemic that has currently infected over 430 million individuals worldwide. With the variant strains of SARS-CoV-2 emerging, a region of high mutation rates in ORF8 was identified during the early pandemic, which resulted in a mutation from leucine (L) to serine (S) at amino acid 84. A typical feature of ORF8 is the immune evasion by suppressing interferon response; however, the mechanisms by which the two variants of ORF8 antagonize the type I interferon (IFN-I) pathway have not yet been clearly investigated. Here, we reported that SARS-CoV-2 ORF8L and ORF8S with no difference inhibit the production of IFN-ß, MDA5, RIG-I, ISG15, ISG56, IRF3, and other IFN-related genes induced by poly(I:C). In addition, both ORF8L and ORF8S proteins were found to suppress the nuclear translocation of IRF3. Mechanistically, the SARS-CoV-2 ORF8 protein interacts with HSP90B1, which was later investigated to induce the production of IFN-ß and IRF3. Taken together, these results indicate that SARS-CoV-2 ORF8 antagonizes the RIG-I/MDA-5 signaling pathway by targeting HSP90B1, which subsequently exhibits an inhibitory effect on the production of IFN-I. These functions appeared not to be influenced by the genotypes of ORF8L and ORF8S. Our study provides an explanation for the antiviral immune suppression of SARS-CoV-2 and suggests implications for the pathogenic mechanism and treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Interferon Type I , Membrane Glycoproteins , Viral Proteins , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Immune Evasion , Interferon Type I/metabolism , Interferon-beta/genetics , Membrane Glycoproteins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Signal Transduction , Viral Proteins/metabolism
14.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 852473, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1938605

ABSTRACT

Porcine sapelovirus (PSV) is the causative pathogen of reproductive obstacles, acute diarrhea, respiratory distress, or severe polioencephalomyelitis in swine. Nevertheless, the pathogenicity and pathogenic mechanism of PSV infection are not fully understood, which hinders disease prevention and control. In this study, we found that PSV was sensitive to type I interferon (IFN-ß). However, PSV could not activate the IFN-ß promoter and induce IFN-ß mRNA expression, indicating that PSV has evolved an effective mechanism to block IFN-ß production. Further study showed that PSV inhibited the production of IFN-ß by cleaving mitochondrial antiviral signaling (MAVS) and degrading melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5) and TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) through viral 3Cpro. In addition, our study demonstrated that PSV 3Cpro degrades MDA5 and TBK1 through its protease activity and cleaves MAVS through the caspase pathway. Collectively, our results revealed that PSV inhibits the production of type I interferon to escape host antiviral immunity through cleaving and degrading the adaptor molecules.


Subject(s)
Interferon Type I , Picornaviridae , Animals , Antiviral Agents , Cysteine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Interferon Type I/metabolism , Interferon-beta/metabolism , Swine , Viral Proteins/metabolism
15.
Viruses ; 14(6)2022 05 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911615

ABSTRACT

Paraoxonase-1 (PON1), an esterase with specifically paraoxonase activity, has been proven to be involved in inflammation and infection. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is still a major concern in pigs and causes severe economic losses to the swine industry worldwide. In this study, the role of PON1 was investigated in porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs) during PRRSV infection. The results showed that PRRSV replication downregulated PON1, and the knockdown of PON1 significantly decreased PRRSV replication. Similarly, PON1 overexpression could enhance PRRSV replication. Interestingly, we observed that PON1 interacted with PRRSV nonstructural protein 9 (Nsp9), the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, and the knockdown of PON1 lowered the RNA binding ability of Nsp9, suggesting that PON1 can facilitate Nsp9 function in viral replication. In addition, the knockdown of PON1 expression led to the amplification of type I interferon (IFN) genes and vice versa. In summary, our data demonstrate that PON1 facilitates PRRSV replication by interacting with Nsp9 and inhibiting the type I IFN signaling pathway. Hence, PON1 may be an additional component of the anti-PRRSV defenses.


Subject(s)
Interferon Type I , Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome , Porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus , Animals , Aryldialkylphosphatase/genetics , Aryldialkylphosphatase/metabolism , Cell Line , Interferon Type I/metabolism , Porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus/metabolism , Protein Binding , Swine , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism , Virus Replication
16.
Front Immunol ; 13: 859749, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1862606

ABSTRACT

In invertebrate cells, RNA interference (RNAi) acts as a powerful immune defense that stimulates viral gene knockdown thereby preventing infection. With this pathway, virally produced long dsRNA (dsRNA) is cleaved into short interfering RNA (siRNA) by Dicer and loaded into the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) which can then destroy/disrupt complementary viral mRNA sequences. Comparatively, in mammalian cells it is believed that the type I interferon (IFN) pathway is the cornerstone of the innate antiviral response. In these cells, dsRNA acts as a potent inducer of the IFN system, which is dependent on dsRNA length, but not sequence, to stimulate an antiviral state. Although the cellular machinery for RNAi is intact and functioning in mammalian cells, its role to trigger an antiviral response using long dsRNA (dsRNAi) remains controversial. Here we show that dsRNAi is not only functional but has a significant antiviral effect in IFN competent mammalian cells. We found that pre-soaking mammalian cells with concentrations of sequence specific dsRNA too low to induce IFN production could significantly inhibit vesicular stomatitis virus expressing green fluorescent protein (VSV-GFP), and the human coronaviruses (CoV) HCoV-229E and SARS-CoV-2 replication. This phenomenon was shown to be dependent on dsRNA length, was comparable in effect to transfected siRNAs, and could knockdown multiple sequences at once. Additionally, knockout cell lines revealed that functional Dicer was required for viral inhibition, revealing that the RNAi pathway was indeed responsible. These results provide the first evidence that soaking with gene-specific long dsRNA can generate viral knockdown in mammalian cells. We believe that this novel discovery provides an explanation as to why the mammalian lineage retained its RNAi machinery and why vertebrate viruses have evolved methods to suppress RNAi. Furthermore, demonstrating RNAi below the threshold of IFN induction has uses as a novel therapeutic platform, both antiviral and gene targeting in nature.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Interferon Type I , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Humans , Interferon Type I/metabolism , Mammals/genetics , RNA Interference , RNA, Double-Stranded , RNA, Small Interfering/genetics , RNA, Small Interfering/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2
17.
J Virol ; 96(10): e0007022, 2022 05 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1832352

ABSTRACT

In global infection and serious morbidity and mortality, porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) has been regarded as a dreadful porcine pathogen, but the existing commercial vaccines are not enough to fully protect against the epidemic strains. Therefore, it is of great necessity to feature the PEDV-host interaction and develop efficient countermeasures against viral infection. As an RNA/DNA protein, the trans-active response DNA binding protein (TARDBP) plays a variety of functions in generating and processing RNA, including transcription, splicing, transport, and mRNA stability, which have been reported to regulate viral replication. The current work aimed to detect whether and how TARDBP influences PEDV replication. Our data demonstrated that PEDV replication was significantly suppressed by TARDBP, regulated by KLF16, which targeted its promoter. We observed that through the proteasomal and autophagic degradation pathway, TARDBP inhibited PEDV replication via the binding as well as degradation of PEDV-encoded nucleocapsid (N) protein. Moreover, we found that TARDBP promoted autophagic degradation of N protein via interacting with MARCHF8, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, as well as NDP52, a cargo receptor. We also showed that TARDBP promoted host antiviral innate immune response by inducing interferon (IFN) expression through the MyD88-TRAF3-IRF3 pathway during PEDV infection. In conclusion, these data revealed a new antiviral role of TARDBP, effectively suppressing PEDV replication through degrading virus N protein via the proteasomal and autophagic degradation pathway and activating type I IFN signaling via upregulating the expression of MyD88. IMPORTANCE PEDV refers to the highly contagious enteric coronavirus that has quickly spread globally and generated substantial financial damage to the global swine industry. During virus infection, the host regulates the innate immunity and autophagy process to inhibit virus infection. However, the virus has evolved plenty of strategies with the purpose of limiting IFN-I production and autophagy processes. Here, we identified that TARDBP expression was downregulated via the transcription factor KLF16 during PEDV infection. TARDBP could inhibit PEDV replication through the combination as well as degradation of PEDV-encoded nucleocapsid (N) protein via proteasomal and autophagic degradation pathways and promoted host antiviral innate immune response by inducing IFN expression through the MyD88-TRAF3-IRF3 pathway. In sum, our data identify a novel antiviral function of TARDBP and provide a better grasp of the innate immune response and protein degradation pathway against PEDV infection.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , DNA-Binding Proteins , Interferon Type I , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus , Virus Replication , Animals , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , DNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Immunity, Innate , Interferon Regulatory Factor-3/metabolism , Interferon Type I/metabolism , Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88/metabolism , Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/genetics , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/physiology , RNA/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Swine , TNF Receptor-Associated Factor 3/metabolism
18.
Sci China Life Sci ; 65(10): 1971-1984, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1826874

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is characterized by a strong production of inflammatory cytokines such as TNF and IL-6, which underlie the severity of the disease. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for such a strong immune response remains unclear. Here, utilizing targeted tandem mass spectrometry to analyze serum metabolome and lipidome in COVID-19 patients at different temporal stages, we identified that 611 metabolites (of 1,039) were significantly altered in COVID-19 patients. Among them, two metabolites, agmatine and putrescine, were prominently elevated in the serum of patients; and 2-quinolinecarboxylate was changed in a biphasic manner, elevated during early COVID-19 infection but levelled off. When tested in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) and macrophages, these 3 metabolites were found to activate the NF-κB pathway that plays a pivotal role in governing cytokine production. Importantly, these metabolites were each able to cause strong increase of TNF and IL-6 levels when administered to wildtype mice, but not in the mice lacking NF-κB. Intriguingly, these metabolites have little effects on the activation of interferon regulatory factors (IRFs) for the production of type I interferons (IFNs) for antiviral defenses. These data suggest that circulating metabolites resulting from COVID-19 infection may act as effectors to elicit the peculiar systemic inflammatory responses, exhibiting severely strong proinflammatory cytokine production with limited induction of the interferons. Our study may provide a rationale for development of drugs to alleviate inflammation in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Agmatine , COVID-19 , Interferon Type I , Animals , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Cytokines/metabolism , Fibroblasts/metabolism , Interferon Regulatory Factors/metabolism , Interferon Type I/metabolism , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Mice , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Putrescine , SARS-CoV-2
19.
J Exp Med ; 219(6)2022 06 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1806201

ABSTRACT

Type I interferons (IFN-I) play a critical role in human antiviral immunity, as demonstrated by the exceptionally rare deleterious variants of IFNAR1 or IFNAR2. We investigated five children from Greenland, Canada, and Alaska presenting with viral diseases, including life-threatening COVID-19 or influenza, in addition to meningoencephalitis and/or hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis following live-attenuated viral vaccination. The affected individuals bore the same homozygous IFNAR2 c.157T>C, p.Ser53Pro missense variant. Although absent from reference databases, p.Ser53Pro occurred with a minor allele frequency of 0.034 in their Inuit ancestry. The serine to proline substitution prevented cell surface expression of IFNAR2 protein, small amounts of which persisted intracellularly in an aberrantly glycosylated state. Cells exclusively expressing the p.Ser53Pro variant lacked responses to recombinant IFN-I and displayed heightened vulnerability to multiple viruses in vitro-a phenotype rescued by wild-type IFNAR2 complementation. This novel form of autosomal recessive IFNAR2 deficiency reinforces the essential role of IFN-I in viral immunity. Further studies are warranted to assess the need for population screening.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Interferon Type I , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Child , Humans , Inheritance Patterns , Interferon Type I/genetics , Interferon Type I/metabolism , Receptor, Interferon alpha-beta
20.
J Virol ; 96(8): e0003722, 2022 04 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1779311

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) continues to pose an enormous threat to economic activity and public health worldwide. Previous studies have shown that the nonstructural protein 5 (nsp5, also called 3C-like protease) of alpha- and deltacoronaviruses cleaves Q231 of the NF-κB essential modulator (NEMO), a key kinase in the RIG-I-like receptor pathway, to inhibit type I interferon (IFN) production. In this study, we found that both SARS-CoV-2 nsp5 and SARS-CoV nsp5 cleaved NEMO at multiple sites (E152, Q205, and Q231). Notably, SARS-CoV-2 nsp5 exhibited a stronger ability to cleave NEMO than SARS-CoV nsp5. Sequence and structural alignments suggested that an S/A polymorphism at position 46 of nsp5 in SARS-CoV versus SARS-CoV-2 may be responsible for this difference. Mutagenesis experiments showed that SARS-CoV-2 nsp5 (S46A) exhibited poorer cleavage of NEMO than SARS-CoV-2 nsp5 wild type (WT), while SARS-CoV nsp5 (A46S) showed enhanced NEMO cleavage compared with the WT protein. Purified recombinant SARS-CoV-2 nsp5 WT and SARS-CoV nsp5 (A46S) proteins exhibited higher hydrolysis efficiencies than SARS-CoV-2 nsp5 (S46A) and SARS-CoV nsp5 WT proteins in vitro. Furthermore, SARS-CoV-2 nsp5 exhibited stronger inhibition of Sendai virus (SEV)-induced interferon beta (IFN-ß) production than SARS-CoV-2 nsp5 (S46A), while introduction of the A46S substitution in SARS-CoV nsp5 enhanced suppression of SEV-induced IFN-ß production. Taken together, these data show that S46 is associated with the catalytic activity and IFN antagonism by SARS-CoV-2 nsp5. IMPORTANCE The nsp5-encoded 3C-like protease is the main coronavirus protease, playing a vital role in viral replication and immune evasion by cleaving viral polyproteins and host immune-related molecules. We showed that both SARS-CoV-2 nsp5 and SARS-CoV nsp5 cleave the NEMO at multiple sites (E152, Q205, and Q231). This specificity differs from NEMO cleavage by alpha- and deltacoronaviruses, demonstrating the distinct substrate recognition of SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV nsp5. Compared with SARS-CoV nsp5, SARS-CoV-2 nsp5 encodes S instead of A at position 46. This substitution is associated with stronger catalytic activity, enhanced cleavage of NEMO, and increased interferon antagonism of SARS-CoV-2 nsp5. These data provide new insights into the pathogenesis and transmission of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus 3C Proteases , Interferon Type I , SARS Virus , SARS-CoV-2 , Antiviral Agents , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Humans , Immune Evasion/genetics , Interferon Type I/antagonists & inhibitors , Interferon Type I/metabolism , SARS Virus/enzymology , SARS Virus/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/immunology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology , Virus Replication/genetics
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL