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1.
Lancet ; 399(10339): 1941-1953, 2022 05 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1873342

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Solidarity trial among COVID-19 inpatients has previously reported interim mortality analyses for four repurposed antiviral drugs. Lopinavir, hydroxychloroquine, and interferon (IFN)-ß1a were discontinued for futility but randomisation to remdesivir continued. Here, we report the final results of Solidarity and meta-analyses of mortality in all relevant trials to date. METHODS: Solidarity enrolled consenting adults (aged ≥18 years) recently hospitalised with, in the view of their doctor, definite COVID-19 and no contraindication to any of the study drugs, regardless of any other patient characteristics. Participants were randomly allocated, in equal proportions between the locally available options, to receive whichever of the four study drugs (lopinavir, hydroxychloroquine, IFN-ß1a, or remdesivir) were locally available at that time or no study drug (controls). All patients also received the local standard of care. No placebos were given. The protocol-specified primary endpoint was in-hospital mortality, subdivided by disease severity. Secondary endpoints were progression to ventilation if not already ventilated, and time-to-discharge from hospital. Final log-rank and Kaplan-Meier analyses are presented for remdesivir, and are appended for all four study drugs. Meta-analyses give weighted averages of the mortality findings in this and all other randomised trials of these drugs among hospital inpatients. Solidarity is registered with ISRCTN, ISRCTN83971151, and ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04315948. FINDINGS: Between March 22, 2020, and Jan 29, 2021, 14 304 potentially eligible patients were recruited from 454 hospitals in 35 countries in all six WHO regions. After the exclusion of 83 (0·6%) patients with a refuted COVID-19 diagnosis or encrypted consent not entered into the database, Solidarity enrolled 14 221 patients, including 8275 randomly allocated (1:1) either to remdesivir (ten daily infusions, unless discharged earlier) or to its control (allocated no study drug although remdesivir was locally available). Compliance was high in both groups. Overall, 602 (14·5%) of 4146 patients assigned to remdesivir died versus 643 (15·6%) of 4129 assigned to control (mortality rate ratio [RR] 0·91 [95% CI 0·82-1·02], p=0·12). Of those already ventilated, 151 (42·1%) of 359 assigned to remdesivir died versus 134 (38·6%) of 347 assigned to control (RR 1·13 [0·89-1·42], p=0·32). Of those not ventilated but on oxygen, 14·6% assigned to remdesivir died versus 16·3% assigned to control (RR 0·87 [0·76-0·99], p=0·03). Of 1730 not on oxygen initially, 2·9% assigned to remdesivir died versus 3·8% assigned to control (RR 0·76 [0·46-1·28], p=0·30). Combining all those not ventilated initially, 11·9% assigned to remdesivir died versus 13·5% assigned to control (RR 0·86 [0·76-0·98], p=0·02) and 14·1% versus 15·7% progressed to ventilation (RR 0·88 [0·77-1·00], p=0·04). The non-prespecified composite outcome of death or progression to ventilation occurred in 19·6% assigned to remdesivir versus 22·5% assigned to control (RR 0·84 [0·75-0·93], p=0·001). Allocation to daily remdesivir infusions (vs open-label control) delayed discharge by about 1 day during the 10-day treatment period. A meta-analysis of mortality in all randomised trials of remdesivir versus no remdesivir yielded similar findings. INTERPRETATION: Remdesivir has no significant effect on patients with COVID-19 who are already being ventilated. Among other hospitalised patients, it has a small effect against death or progression to ventilation (or both). FUNDING: WHO.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , COVID-19 , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Adult , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Interferon beta-1a/therapeutic use , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Oxygen/administration & dosage , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Treatment Outcome , World Health Organization
2.
Mult Scler Relat Disord ; 62: 103800, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1783664

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: The persistence of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV)-2 pandemic, partly due to the appearance of highly infectious variants, has made booster vaccinations necessary for vulnerable groups. Here, we present data regarding the decline of the SARS-CoV-2 BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine-induced humoral immune response in a monocentric cohort of MS patients. METHODS: 96 MS patients undergoing eight different DMTs, all without previous SARS-CoV-2 infection, were evaluated for anti-Spike IgG levels, 21 days (T1) and 5-6 months (T2) after the second SARS-CoV-2 BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine dose. The anti-Spike IgG titre from MS subjects was compared with 21 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (HC). RESULTS: When compared with SARS-CoV-2 IgG levels at T2 in HC, we observed comparable levels in interferon-ß 1a-, dimethyl fumarate-, teriflunomide- and natalizumab-treated MS subjects, but an impaired humoral response in MS subjects undergoing glatiramer acetate-, cladribine-, fingolimod- and ocrelizumab-treatments. Moreover, comparison between SARS-CoV-2 IgG Spike titre at T1 and T2 revealed a faster decline of the humoral response in patients undergoing dimethyl fumarate-, interferon-ß 1a- and glatiramer acetate-therapies, while those receiving teriflunomide and natalizumab showed higher persistence compared to healthy controls. CONCLUSION: The prominent decline in humoral response in MS subjects undergoing dimethyl fumarate-, interferon-ß 1a- and glatiramer acetate-therapies should be considered when formulating booster regimens as these subjects would benefit of early booster vaccinations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Multiple Sclerosis , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 Vaccines , Dimethyl Fumarate/therapeutic use , Glatiramer Acetate/therapeutic use , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/therapeutic use , Interferon beta-1a/therapeutic use , Multiple Sclerosis/drug therapy , Natalizumab/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Synthetic
3.
J Med Virol ; 94(4): 1488-1493, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1718393

ABSTRACT

Interferons are an essential part of the innate immune system and have antiviral and immunomodulatory functions. We studied the effects of interferon ß-1a on the outcomes of severe cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This retrospective study was conducted on hospitalized COVID-19 patients in Loghman-Hakim hospital from February 20, 2020 to April 20, 2020, Tehran, Iran. Patients were selected from two groups, the first group received interferon ß-1a in addition to the standard treatment regimen, and the second group received standard care. The clinical progression of two groups during their hospital admission was compared. We studied a total number of 395 hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Out of this number, 111 patients (33.5%) died (31.3% of the interferon ß-1a group and 34.1% of the control group). The mortality rate indicated no statistically significant difference between groups (p-value = 0.348), however for patients who were hospitalized for more than a week, the rate of mortality was lower in the interferon ß-1a group (p-value = 0.014). The median hospital stay was statistically longer for patients treated by interferon ß-1a (p-value < 0.001). The results of this study showed that interferon ß-1a can improve the outcomes of hospitalized patients with severe COVID-19, but more adequately-powered randomized controlled trials should be conducted.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Interferon beta-1a/therapeutic use , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/mortality , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Humans , Iran , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
4.
Nat Med ; 28(1): 39-50, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1641982

ABSTRACT

Immune dysregulation is an important component of the pathophysiology of COVID-19. A large body of literature has reported the effect of immune-based therapies in patients with COVID-19, with some remarkable successes such as the use of steroids or anti-cytokine therapies. However, challenges in clinical decision-making arise from the complexity of the disease phenotypes and patient heterogeneity, as well as the variable quality of evidence from immunotherapy studies. This Review aims to support clinical decision-making by providing an overview of the evidence generated by major clinical trials of host-directed therapy. We discuss patient stratification and propose an algorithm to guide the use of immunotherapy strategies in the clinic. This will not only help guide treatment decisions, but may also help to design future trials that investigate immunotherapy in other severe infections.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , Complement Inactivating Agents/therapeutic use , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Immunomodulation , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Azetidines/therapeutic use , Bradykinin/analogs & derivatives , Bradykinin/therapeutic use , Bradykinin B2 Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , COVID-19/immunology , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Drug Combinations , Factor Xa Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Heparin/therapeutic use , Humans , Hydrocortisone/therapeutic use , Imatinib Mesylate/therapeutic use , Immunization, Passive , Interferon beta-1a/therapeutic use , Interferon beta-1b/therapeutic use , Interferon-gamma/therapeutic use , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/therapeutic use , Kallikrein-Kinin System , Piperidines/therapeutic use , Purines/therapeutic use , Pyrazoles/therapeutic use , Pyrimidines/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Sulfonamides/therapeutic use
5.
Mult Scler Relat Disord ; 58: 103455, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1586960

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Several concerns exist on the immunogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in multiple sclerosis (MS) subjects due to their immunomodulating disease modifying therapies (DMTs). Here we report a comparison of the humoral response to BNT162b2-mRNA coronavirus (COVID)-19 vaccine and the immunological phenotype in a cohort of 125 MS subjects undergoing different DMTs, with no history of SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: We collected serum and blood samples at the first day of vaccine (T0) and 21 days after the second vaccine dose (T1) from 125 MS subjects, undergoing eight different DMTs. Sera were tested using the Elecsys anti-SARS-CoV-2-IgG assay for the detection of IgG antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. The anti-spike IgG titres from MS subjects were compared with 24 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (HC). Percentage and absolute number of B and T lymphocytes were evaluated by cytofluorimetric analysis in the same study cohort. RESULTS: When compared with SARS-CoV-2 IgG levels in HC (n = 24, median 1089 (IQR 652.5-1625) U/mL), we observed an increased secretion of SARS-CoV-2 IgG in interferon-beta 1a (IFN)-treated MS subjects (n = 22, median 1916 (IQR 1024-2879) U/mL) and an impaired humoral response in MS subjects undergoing cladribine (CLAD) (n = 10, median 396.9 (IQR 37.52-790.9) U/mL), fingolimod (FTY) (n = 19, median 7.9 (IQR 4.8-147.6) U/mL) and ocrelizumab (OCRE) (n = 15, median 0.67 (IQR 0.4-5.9) U/mL) treatment. Moreover, analysis of geometric mean titre ratio (GMTR) between different DMT's groups of MS subjects revealed that, when compared with IFN-treated MS subjects, intrinsic antibody production was impaired in teriflunomide (TERI)-, natalizumab (NAT)-, CLAD-, FTY- and OCRE-, while preserved in DMF- and GA-treated MS subjects. CONCLUSION: Humoral response to BNT162b2-mRNA-vaccine was increased in IFN-treated MS subjects while clearly blunted in those under CLAD, FTY and OCRE treatment. This suggests that the DMTs could have a key role in the protection from SARS-CoV-2 related disease and complication in MS subjects, underlying a novel aspect that should be considered in the selection of the most appropriate therapy under COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Multiple Sclerosis , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Interferon beta-1a/therapeutic use , Multiple Sclerosis/drug therapy , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Vaccines, Synthetic
7.
Lancet Respir Med ; 9(12): 1365-1376, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1472211

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Functional impairment of interferon, a natural antiviral component of the immune system, is associated with the pathogenesis and severity of COVID-19. We aimed to compare the efficacy of interferon beta-1a in combination with remdesivir compared with remdesivir alone in hospitalised patients with COVID-19. METHODS: We did a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial at 63 hospitals across five countries (Japan, Mexico, Singapore, South Korea, and the USA). Eligible patients were hospitalised adults (aged ≥18 years) with SARS-CoV-2 infection, as confirmed by a positive RT-PCR test, and who met one of the following criteria suggestive of lower respiratory tract infection: the presence of radiographic infiltrates on imaging, a peripheral oxygen saturation on room air of 94% or less, or requiring supplemental oxygen. Patients were excluded if they had either an alanine aminotransferase or an aspartate aminotransferase concentration more than five times the upper limit of normal; had impaired renal function; were allergic to the study product; were pregnant or breast feeding; were already on mechanical ventilation; or were anticipating discharge from the hospital or transfer to another hospital within 72 h of enrolment. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive intravenous remdesivir as a 200 mg loading dose on day 1 followed by a 100 mg maintenance dose administered daily for up to 9 days and up to four doses of either 44 µg interferon beta-1a (interferon beta-1a group plus remdesivir group) or placebo (placebo plus remdesivir group) administered subcutaneously every other day. Randomisation was stratified by study site and disease severity at enrolment. Patients, investigators, and site staff were masked to interferon beta-1a and placebo treatment; remdesivir treatment was given to all patients without masking. The primary outcome was time to recovery, defined as the first day that a patient attained a category 1, 2, or 3 score on the eight-category ordinal scale within 28 days, assessed in the modified intention-to-treat population, defined as all randomised patients who were classified according to actual clinical severity. Safety was assessed in the as-treated population, defined as all patients who received at least one dose of the assigned treatment. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04492475. FINDINGS: Between Aug 5, 2020, and Nov 11, 2020, 969 patients were enrolled and randomly assigned to the interferon beta-1a plus remdesivir group (n=487) or to the placebo plus remdesivir group (n=482). The mean duration of symptoms before enrolment was 8·7 days (SD 4·4) in the interferon beta-1a plus remdesivir group and 8·5 days (SD 4·3) days in the placebo plus remdesivir group. Patients in both groups had a time to recovery of 5 days (95% CI not estimable) (rate ratio of interferon beta-1a plus remdesivir group vs placebo plus remdesivir 0·99 [95% CI 0·87-1·13]; p=0·88). The Kaplan-Meier estimate of mortality at 28 days was 5% (95% CI 3-7%) in the interferon beta-1a plus remdesivir group and 3% (2-6%) in the placebo plus remdesivir group (hazard ratio 1·33 [95% CI 0·69-2·55]; p=0·39). Patients who did not require high-flow oxygen at baseline were more likely to have at least one related adverse event in the interferon beta-1a plus remdesivir group (33 [7%] of 442 patients) than in the placebo plus remdesivir group (15 [3%] of 435). In patients who required high-flow oxygen at baseline, 24 (69%) of 35 had an adverse event and 21 (60%) had a serious adverse event in the interferon beta-1a plus remdesivir group compared with 13 (39%) of 33 who had an adverse event and eight (24%) who had a serious adverse event in the placebo plus remdesivir group. INTERPRETATION: Interferon beta-1a plus remdesivir was not superior to remdesivir alone in hospitalised patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. Patients who required high-flow oxygen at baseline had worse outcomes after treatment with interferon beta-1a compared with those given placebo. FUNDING: The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (USA).


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Interferon beta-1a/therapeutic use , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Adult , Aged , Alanine/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Double-Blind Method , Female , Humans , Japan , Male , Mexico , Middle Aged , Oxygen , Republic of Korea , SARS-CoV-2 , Singapore , Treatment Outcome , United States
8.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 101(Pt B): 108241, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1466416

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: IFNßs are known as one of the most promising drugs used for COVID-19 treatment. This study aimed to investigate the effects of treatment with INF-ß 1-a (interferon beta-1a) and IFN-ß 1-b (interferon beta-1b) on COVID-19 inpatients. METHODS: In this study, we retrospectively evaluated the clinical treatment outcomes of 100 patients with COVID-19 who received IFN-ß 1-a and IFN-ß 1-b during their hospitalization period. The rate of discharge from the hospital was considered equal to the clinical improvement and then evaluated as a primary outcome. Moreover, mortality, ICU admission and length of ICU stay, frequency of intubation and use of mechanical ventilation, duration of hospitalization, laboratory factors, and medications were assessed as secondary outcomes. RESULTS: The median discharge time of IFN-ß 1a recipients was approximately equal to that of IFN-ß 1-b recipients as 9 (5-10) days and 7 (5-11) days, respectively (HR = 2.43, P = 0.75). Mortality rate was also estimated as 10% among IFN-ß 1-a recipients and 14% among IFN-ß 1-b recipients, which was not statistically significant (p = 0.190). ICU hospitalization rate for the IFN-ß 1-a recipients and IFN-ß 1-b recipients was 26% and 36%, respectively. In addition, no significant difference was found between these two intervention groups in terms of ICU length of stay (1 (0-2) vs. 1 (0-4.25(, respectively,) P = 0.357). There was no significant difference between the two study groups in terms of frequency of mechanical ventilation and length of hospital stay. CONCLUSION: There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of shortening the disease time, clinical improvements and other outcomes.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Interferon beta-1a/therapeutic use , Interferon beta-1b/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Aged , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/therapeutic use , Atazanavir Sulfate/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Female , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Inpatients , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Discharge , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
9.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 99: 107969, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1307010

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The effectiveness of umifenovir against COVID-19 is controversial; therefore, clinical trials are crucial to evaluate its efficacy. METHODS: The study was conducted as a single-center, randomized, open-label clinical trial. Eligible moderate-severe hospitalized patients with confirmed SARS-Cov-2 infection were randomly segregated into intervention and control groups. The intervention group were treated with lopinavir/ritonavir (400 mg/100 mg bid for 10-14 days) + hydroxychloroquine (400 mg single dose) + interferon-ß1a (Subcutaneous injections of 44 µg (12,000 IU) on days 1, 3, 5) + umifenovir (200 mg trice daily for 10 days), and the control group received lopinavir/ritonavir (same dose) + hydroxychloroquine (same dose) + interferon-ß1a (same dose). RESULTS: Of 1180 patients with positive RT-PCRs and positive chest CT scans, 101 patients were finally included in the trial; 50 were assigned to receive IFNß1a + hydroxychloroquine + lopinavir/ritonavir group and 51 were managed to treat with IFNß1a + hydroxychloroquine + lopinavir/ritonavir + umifenovir. Since all patients received the intended treatment as scheduled, the analysis just included as the ITT population. Time to clinical improvement (TTCI) did not hold a statistically significant difference between intervention and control groups (median, 9 days for intervention group versus 7 days for the control group; P: 0.22). Besides, Hazard Ratio for TTCI in the Cox regression model was 0.75 (95% CI: 0.45-1.23, P:0.25) which also confirmed that there was no statistically significant difference between the treatment group and the control group. The mortality was not statistically significant between the two groups (38% in controls vs 33.3% treatment group). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings shed new lights on the facts that additional umifenovir has not been found to be effective in shortening the duration of SARS-CoV-2 in severe patients and improving the prognosis in non-ICU patients and mortality. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial was confirmed by the Ethics in Medical Research Committee of the Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences. signed informed consents were obtained from all the participants or their legally authorized representatives. This trial has been registered as ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04350684.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Indoles/therapeutic use , Adult , Aged , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine , Interferon beta-1a/therapeutic use , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , Ritonavir/therapeutic use
10.
CNS Drugs ; 35(7): 743-767, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1296980

ABSTRACT

Recombinant interferon (IFN) ß-1b was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration as the first disease-modifying therapy (DMT) for multiple sclerosis (MS) in 1993. Since that time, clinical trials and real-world observational studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of IFN therapies. The pivotal intramuscular IFN ß-1a phase III trial published in 1996 was the first to demonstrate that a DMT could reduce accumulation of sustained disability in MS. Patient adherence to treatment is higher with intramuscular IFN ß-1a, given once weekly, than with subcutaneous formulations requiring multiple injections per week. Moreover, subcutaneous IFN ß-1a is associated with an increased incidence of injection-site reactions and neutralizing antibodies compared with intramuscular administration. In recent years, revisions to MS diagnostic criteria have improved clinicians' ability to identify patients with MS and have promoted the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for diagnosis and disease monitoring. MRI studies show that treatment with IFN ß-1a, relative to placebo, reduces T2 and gadolinium-enhancing lesions and gray matter atrophy. Since the approval of intramuscular IFN ß-1a, a number of high-efficacy therapies have been approved for MS, though the benefit of these high-efficacy therapies should be balanced against the increased risk of serious adverse events associated with their long-term use. For some subpopulations of patients, including pregnant women, the safety profile of IFN ß formulations may provide a particular benefit. In addition, the antiviral properties of IFNs may indicate potential therapeutic opportunities for IFN ß in reducing the risk of viral infections such as COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Adjuvants, Immunologic/therapeutic use , Interferon beta-1a/therapeutic use , Multiple Sclerosis/drug therapy , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Injections, Intramuscular , Multiple Sclerosis/diagnostic imaging , Multiple Sclerosis/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
11.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 27(12): 1826-1837, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1242906

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the clinical, virological and safety outcomes of lopinavir/ritonavir, lopinavir/ritonavir-interferon (IFN)-ß-1a, hydroxychloroquine or remdesivir in comparison to standard of care (control) in coronavirus 2019 disease (COVID-19) inpatients requiring oxygen and/or ventilatory support. METHODS: We conducted a phase III multicentre, open-label, randomized 1:1:1:1:1, adaptive, controlled trial (DisCoVeRy), an add-on to the Solidarity trial (NCT04315948, EudraCT2020-000936-23). The primary outcome was the clinical status at day 15, measured by the WHO seven-point ordinal scale. Secondary outcomes included quantification of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in respiratory specimens and pharmacokinetic and safety analyses. We report the results for the lopinavir/ritonavir-containing arms and for the hydroxychloroquine arm, trials of which were stopped prematurely. RESULTS: The intention-to-treat population included 583 participants-lopinavir/ritonavir (n = 145), lopinavir/ritonavir-IFN-ß-1a (n = 145), hydroxychloroquine (n = 145), control (n = 148)-among whom 418 (71.7%) were male, the median age was 63 years (IQR 54-71), and 211 (36.2%) had a severe disease. The day-15 clinical status was not improved with the investigational treatments: lopinavir/ritonavir versus control, adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 0.83, (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.55-1.26, p 0.39), lopinavir/ritonavir-IFN-ß-1a versus control, aOR 0.69 (95%CI 0.45-1.04, p 0.08), and hydroxychloroquine versus control, aOR 0.93 (95%CI 0.62-1.41, p 0.75). No significant effect of investigational treatment was observed on SARS-CoV-2 clearance. Trough plasma concentrations of lopinavir and ritonavir were higher than those expected, while those of hydroxychloroquine were those expected with the dosing regimen. The occurrence of serious adverse events was significantly higher in participants allocated to the lopinavir/ritonavir-containing arms. CONCLUSION: In adults hospitalized for COVID-19, lopinavir/ritonavir, lopinavir/ritonavir-IFN-ß-1a and hydroxychloroquine improved neither the clinical status at day 15 nor SARS-CoV-2 clearance in respiratory tract specimens.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , COVID-19 , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Interferon beta-1a/therapeutic use , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Adult , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Combinations , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Treatment Outcome
12.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 8059, 2021 04 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1182867

ABSTRACT

Type 1 Interferons (IFNs) have been associated with positive effects on Coronaviruses. Previous studies point towards the superior potency of IFNß compared to IFNα against viral infections. We conducted a three-armed, individually-randomized, open-label, controlled trial of IFNß1a and IFNß1b, comparing them against each other and a control group. Patients were randomly assigned in a 1:1:1 ratio to IFNß1a (subcutaneous injections of 12,000 IU on days 1, 3, 6), IFNß1b (subcutaneous injections of 8,000,000 IU on days 1, 3, 6), or the control group. All three arms orally received Lopinavir/Ritonavir (400 mg/100 mg twice a day for ten days) and a single dose of Hydroxychloroquine 400 mg on the first day. Our utilized primary outcome measure was Time To Clinical Improvement (TTCI) defined as the time from enrollment to discharge or a decline of two steps on the clinical seven-step ordinal scale, whichsoever came first. A total of 60 severely ill patients with positive RT-PCR and Chest CT scans underwent randomization (20 patients to each arm). In the Intention-To-Treat population, IFNß1a was associated with a significant difference against the control group, in the TTCI; (HR; 2.36, 95% CI 1.10-5.17, P-value = 0.031) while the IFNß1b indicated no significant difference compared with the control; HR; 1.42, (95% CI 0.63-3.16, P-value = 0.395). The median TTCI for both of the intervention groups was five days vs. seven days for the control group. The mortality was numerically lower in both of the intervention groups (20% in the IFNß1a group and 30% in the IFNß1b group vs. 45% in the control group). There were no significant differences between the three arms regarding the adverse events. In patients with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, as compared with the base therapeutic regiment, the benefit of a significant reduction in TTCI was observed in the IFNß1a arm. This finding needs further confirmation in larger studies.Trial Registration Number: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04343768. (Submitted: 08/04/2020; First Online: 13/04/2020) (Registration Number: NCT04343768).


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Interferon beta-1a/therapeutic use , Interferon beta-1b/therapeutic use , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , RNA, Viral/analysis , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Thorax/diagnostic imaging , Treatment Outcome
14.
Trials ; 21(1): 939, 2020 Nov 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-992534

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pharmacological therapies of proven efficacy in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are still lacking. We have identified IFNß-1a as the most promising drug to be repurposed for COVID-19. The rationale relies on the evidence of IFNß anti-viral activity in vitro against SARS-CoV-2 and animal models resembling SARS-CoV-2 infection and on a recent clinical trial where IFNß was indicated as the key component of a successful therapeutic combination. METHODS: This is a randomized, controlled, open-label, monocentric, phase II trial (INTERCOP trial). One hundred twenty-six patients with positive swab detection of SARS-CoV-2, radiological signs of pneumonia, and mild-to-moderate disease will be randomized 2:1 to IFNß-1a in addition to standard of care vs standard of care alone. No other anti-viral drugs will be used as part of the regimens, both in the control and the intervention arms. IFNß-1a will be administered subcutaneously at the dose of 44 mcg (equivalent to 12 million international units) three times per week, at least 48 h apart, for a total of 2 weeks. The primary outcome is the time to negative conversion of SARS-CoV-2 nasopharyngeal swabs. Secondary outcomes include improvement or worsening in a clinical severity score measured on a 7-point ordinal scale (including transfer to intensive care unit and death), oxygen- and ventilator-free days, mortality, changes in pulmonary computed tomography severity score, hospital stay duration, reduction of viral load measured on nasopharyngeal swabs, number of serious adverse events, and changes in biochemical markers of organ dysfunction. Exploratory outcomes include blood cell counts, cytokine and inflammatory profile, peripheral mRNA expression profiles of interferon-stimulated genes, and antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 and to IFNß-1a. INTERCOP is the first study to specifically investigate the clinical benefits of IFNß-1a in COVID-19 patients. DISCUSSION: Potential implications of this trial are multifaceted: should the primary outcome be fulfilled and the treatment be safe, one may envisage that IFNß-1a be used to reduce the infectivity of patients with mild-to moderate disease. In case IFNß-1a reduced the duration of hospital stay and/or ameliorated the clinical status, it may become a cornerstone of COVID-19 treatment. TRIAL REGISTRATION: EudraCT 2020-002458-25. Registered on May 11, 2020 ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04449380.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Interferon beta-1a/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Adult , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Betacoronavirus/genetics , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Data Management , Female , Humans , Injections, Subcutaneous , Interferon beta-1a/administration & dosage , Italy/epidemiology , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Mortality/trends , Oxygen/administration & dosage , Oxygen/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome , Viral Load/drug effects
15.
N Engl J Med ; 384(6): 497-511, 2021 02 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-953632

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: World Health Organization expert groups recommended mortality trials of four repurposed antiviral drugs - remdesivir, hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir, and interferon beta-1a - in patients hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19). METHODS: We randomly assigned inpatients with Covid-19 equally between one of the trial drug regimens that was locally available and open control (up to five options, four active and the local standard of care). The intention-to-treat primary analyses examined in-hospital mortality in the four pairwise comparisons of each trial drug and its control (drug available but patient assigned to the same care without that drug). Rate ratios for death were calculated with stratification according to age and status regarding mechanical ventilation at trial entry. RESULTS: At 405 hospitals in 30 countries, 11,330 adults underwent randomization; 2750 were assigned to receive remdesivir, 954 to hydroxychloroquine, 1411 to lopinavir (without interferon), 2063 to interferon (including 651 to interferon plus lopinavir), and 4088 to no trial drug. Adherence was 94 to 96% midway through treatment, with 2 to 6% crossover. In total, 1253 deaths were reported (median day of death, day 8; interquartile range, 4 to 14). The Kaplan-Meier 28-day mortality was 11.8% (39.0% if the patient was already receiving ventilation at randomization and 9.5% otherwise). Death occurred in 301 of 2743 patients receiving remdesivir and in 303 of 2708 receiving its control (rate ratio, 0.95; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.81 to 1.11; P = 0.50), in 104 of 947 patients receiving hydroxychloroquine and in 84 of 906 receiving its control (rate ratio, 1.19; 95% CI, 0.89 to 1.59; P = 0.23), in 148 of 1399 patients receiving lopinavir and in 146 of 1372 receiving its control (rate ratio, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.79 to 1.25; P = 0.97), and in 243 of 2050 patients receiving interferon and in 216 of 2050 receiving its control (rate ratio, 1.16; 95% CI, 0.96 to 1.39; P = 0.11). No drug definitely reduced mortality, overall or in any subgroup, or reduced initiation of ventilation or hospitalization duration. CONCLUSIONS: These remdesivir, hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir, and interferon regimens had little or no effect on hospitalized patients with Covid-19, as indicated by overall mortality, initiation of ventilation, and duration of hospital stay. (Funded by the World Health Organization; ISRCTN Registry number, ISRCTN83971151; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04315948.).


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Interferon beta-1a/therapeutic use , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Aged , Alanine/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/mortality , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Intention to Treat Analysis , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Respiration, Artificial , Treatment Failure
16.
Trials ; 21(1): 880, 2020 Oct 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-892370

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We will investigate the effectiveness of high dose Interferon Beta 1a, compared to low dose Interferon Beta 1a (the base therapeutic regimen) in COVID-19 Confirmed Cases (Either RT-PCR or CT Scan Confirmed) with moderate to severe disease TRIAL DESIGN: This is a single center, open label, randomized, controlled, 2-arm parallel group (1:1 ratio), clinical trial. PARTICIPANTS: The eligibility criteria in this study is: age ≥ 18 years, oxygen saturation (SPO2) ≤ 93% or respiratory rate ≥ 24, at least one of the following manifestation: radiation contactless body temperature ≥37.8, Cough, shortness of breath, nasal congestion/ discharge, myalgia/arthralgia, diarrhea/vomiting, headache or fatigue on admission. The onset of the symptoms should be acute (≤ 14 days). The exclusion criteria include refusal to participate, using drugs with potential interaction with lopinavir/ritonavir or interferon-ß 1a, blood ALT/AST levels > 5 times the upper limit of normal on laboratory results, pregnant or lactating women, history of alcohol or drug addiction in the past 5 years, the patients who be intubated less than one hours after admission to hospital. This study will be undertaken at the Loghman Hakim Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences. INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: COVID- 19 confirmed patients (using the RT-PCR test or CT scan) will be randomly assigned to one of two groups. The intervention group (Arms1) will be treated with lopinavir / ritonavir (Kaletra) + high dose Interferon-ß 1a (Recigen) and the control group will be treated with lopinavir / ritonavir (Kaletra) + low dose Interferon-ß 1a (Recigen) (the base therapeutic regimen). Both groups will receive standard care consisting of the necessary oxygen support, non-invasive, or invasive mechanical ventilation. MAIN OUTCOMES: Primary outcome: Time to clinical improvement is our primary outcome measure. This is an improvement of two points on a seven-category ordinal scale (recommended by the World Health Organization: Coronavirus disease (COVID-2019) R&D. Geneva: World Health Organization) or discharge from the hospital, whichever comes first. SECONDARY OUTCOMES: mortality from the date of randomization until the last day of the study which will be the day all of the patients have had at least one of the following outcomes: 1) Improvement of two points on a seven-category ordinal scale. 2) Discharge from the hospital 3) Death. Improvement of SPO2 during the hospitalization, duration of hospitalization from date of randomization until the date of hospital discharge or death, whichever comes first. The incidence of new mechanical ventilation uses from the date of randomization until the last day of the study and the duration of it will be extracted. Please note that we are trying to add further secondary outcomes and this section of the protocol is still evolving. RANDOMIZATION: Eligible patients with confirmed SARS-Cov-2 infections will be randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to two therapeutic arms using permuted, block-randomization to balance the number of patients allocated to each group. The permuted block (three or six patients per block) randomization sequence will be generated, using Package 'randomizeR' in R software version 3.6.1. and placed in individual sealed and opaque envelopes by the statistician. The investigator will enroll the patients and only then open envelopes to assign patients to the different treatment groups. This method of allocation concealment will result in minimum selection and confounding biases. BLINDING (MASKING): The present research is open-label (no masking) of patients and health care professionals who are undertaking outcome assessment of the primary outcome - time to clinical improvement. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMISED (SAMPLE SIZE): Of the 100 patients randomised, 50 patients will be assigned to receive high dose Interferon beta-1a plus lopinavir/ritonavir (Kaletra), 50 patients will be assigned to receive low dose Interferon beta 1a plus lopinavir/ritonavir (Kaletra). TRIAL STATUS: Protocol version 1.2.1. Recruitment is finished, the start date of recruitment was on August 20th 2020, and the end date was on September 4th 2020. Last point of data collection will be the last day on which all of the 100 participants have had an outcome of clinical improvement or death, up to 14th days after hospitalization. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study was registered with National Institutes of Health Clinical trials ( www.clinicaltrials.gov ; identification number NCT04521400, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04521400 , registered August 18, 2020 and first available online August 20, 2020). FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest in expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Interferon beta-1a/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Adult , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19 , Case-Control Studies , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Combinations , Humans , Interferon beta-1a/administration & dosage , Lopinavir/administration & dosage , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Mortality/trends , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Pandemics , Patient Discharge , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Ritonavir/administration & dosage , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2
17.
BMJ Open ; 10(9): e041437, 2020 09 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-788160

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: To find effective and safe treatments for COVID-19, the WHO recommended to systemically evaluate experimental therapeutics in collaborative randomised clinical trials. As COVID-19 was spreading in Europe, the French national institute for Health and Medical Research (Inserm) established a transdisciplinary team to develop a multi-arm randomised controlled trial named DisCoVeRy. The objective of the trial is to evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of different investigational re-purposed therapeutics relative to Standard of Care (SoC) in patients hospitalised with COVID-19. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: DisCoVeRy is a phase III, open-label, adaptive, controlled, multicentre clinical trial in which hospitalised patients with COVID-19 in need of oxygen therapy are randomised between five arms: (1) a control group managed with SoC and four therapeutic arms with re-purposed antiviral agents: (2) remdesivir + SoC, (3) lopinavir/ritonavir + SoC, (4) lopinavir/ritonavir associated with interferon (IFN)-ß-1a + SoC and (5) hydroxychloroquine + SoC. The primary endpoint is the clinical status at Day 15 on the 7-point ordinal scale of the WHO Master Protocol (V.3.0, 3 March 2020). This trial involves patients hospitalised in conventional departments or intensive care units both from academic or non-academic hospitals throughout Europe. A sample size of 3100 patients (620 patients per arm) is targeted. This trial has begun on 22 March 2020. Since 5 April 2020, DisCoVeRy has been an add-on trial of the Solidarity consortium of trials conducted by the WHO in Europe and worldwide. On 8 June 2020, 754 patients have been included. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Inserm is the sponsor of DisCoVeRy. Ethical approval has been obtained from the institutional review board on 13 March 2020 (20.03.06.51744) and from the French National Agency for Medicines and Health Products (ANSM) on 9 March 2020. Results will be submitted for publication in peer-reviewed journals. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04315948 Eudra-CT 2020-000936-23.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Interferon beta-1a/therapeutic use , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Adult , Alanine/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Drug Combinations , Drug Therapy, Combination , Early Warning Score , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Length of Stay , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2 , Standard of Care , Treatment Outcome
18.
Antimicrob Agents Chemother ; 64(9)2020 08 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-663333

ABSTRACT

To the best of our knowledge, there is no published study on the use of interferon ß-1a (IFN ß-1a) in the treatment of severe COVID-19. In this randomized clinical trial, the efficacy and safety of IFN ß-1a were evaluated in patients with severe COVID-19. Forty-two patients in the interferon group received IFN ß-1a in addition to the national protocol medications (hydroxychloroquine plus lopinavir-ritonavir or atazanavir-ritonavir). Each 44-µg/ml (12 million IU/ml) dose of interferon ß-1a was subcutaneously injected three times weekly for two consecutive weeks. The control group consisted of 39 patients who received only the national protocol medications. The primary outcome of the study was time to reach clinical response. Secondary outcomes were duration of hospital stay, length of intensive care unit stay, 28-day mortality, effect of early or late administration of IFN on mortality, adverse effects, and complications during the hospitalization. Between 29 February and 3 April 2020, 92 patients were recruited, and a total of 42 patients in the IFN group and 39 patients in the control group completed the study. As the primary outcome, time to the clinical response was not significantly different between the IFN and the control groups (9.7 ± 5.8 versus 8.3 ± 4.9 days, respectively, P = 0.95). On day 14, 66.7% versus 43.6% of patients in the IFN group and the control group, respectively, were discharged (odds ratio [OR], 2.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05 to 6.37). The 28-day overall mortality was significantly lower in the IFN than the control group (19% versus 43.6%, respectively, P = 0.015). Early administration significantly reduced mortality (OR, 13.5; 95% CI, 1.5 to 118). Although IFN did not change the time to reach the clinical response, adding it to the national protocol significantly increased discharge rate on day 14 and decreased 28-day mortality. (This study is in the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials under identifier IRCT20100228003449N28.).


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Atazanavir Sulfate/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Interferon beta-1a/therapeutic use , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases/drug therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/immunology , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Cardiovascular Diseases/virology , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/immunology , Diabetes Mellitus/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus/virology , Drug Administration Schedule , Drug Combinations , Drug Therapy, Combination , Dyslipidemias/drug therapy , Dyslipidemias/immunology , Dyslipidemias/mortality , Dyslipidemias/virology , Female , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Intensive Care Units , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Neoplasms/immunology , Neoplasms/mortality , Neoplasms/virology , Pandemics , Patient Safety , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Survival Analysis , Treatment Outcome
19.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 85: 106688, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-548980

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recently, a new coronavirus spreads rapidly throughout the countries and resulted in a worldwide epidemic. Interferons have direct antiviral and immunomodulatory effects. Antiviral effects may include inhibition of viral replication, protein synthesis, virus maturation, or virus release from infected cells. Previous studies have shown that some coronaviruses are susceptible to interferons. The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic effects of IFN-ß-1a administration in COVID-19. METHODS: In this prospective non-controlled trial, 20 patients included. They received IFN-ß-1a at a dose of 44 µg subcutaneously every other day up to 10 days. All patients received conventional therapy including Hydroxychloroquine, and lopinavir/ritonavir. Demographic data, clinical symptoms, virological clearance, and imaging findings recorded during the study. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 58.55 ± 13.43 years. Fever resolved in all patients during first seven days. Although other symptoms decreased gradually. Virological clearance results showed a significant decrease within 10 days. Imaging studies showed significant recovery after 14-day period in all patients. The mean time of hospitalization was 16.8 ± 3.4 days. There were no deaths or significant adverse drug reactions in the 14-day period. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support the use of IFN-ß-1a in combination with hydroxychloroquine and lopinavir/ritonavir in the management of COVID-19. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: IRCT20151227025726N12.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Interferon beta-1a/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Drug Combinations , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/administration & dosage , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Injections, Subcutaneous , Interferon beta-1a/administration & dosage , Interferon beta-1a/pharmacology , Lopinavir/administration & dosage , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Prospective Studies , Ritonavir/administration & dosage , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
20.
Trials ; 21(1): 473, 2020 Jun 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-505716

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We will investigate the effectiveness of Interferon Beta 1a, compared to Interferon Beta 1b and the usual therapeutic regimen in COVID-19 in patients that have tested positive and are moderately to severely ill. TRIAL DESIGN: This is a single center, open label, randomized, controlled, parallel group, clinical trial that will be conducted at Loghman Hakim Medical Education Center in conjunction with Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences. PARTICIPANTS: Sixty COVID-19 confirmed cases (using the RT-PCR test) will be enrolled in the trial between April 9th to April 14th 2020. Patients will be randomly assigned to the intervention groups or the control group with the following eligibility criteria: ≥ 18 years of age AND (oxygen saturation (SPO2) ≤ 93% OR respiratory rate ≥ 24) AND at least one of the following: Contactless infrared forehead thermometer temperature of ≥37.8, cough, sputum production, nasal discharge, myalgia, headache or fatigue on admission, and time of onset of the symptoms should be acute (Days ≤ 14). Although Hydroxychloroquine will be administered in a single dose, patients with heart problems (prolonged QT or PR intervals, second- or third-degree heart block, and arrhythmias including torsade de pointes) will be excluded. Other exclusion criteria include using drugs with potential interaction with Hydroxychloroquine + Lopinavir/Ritonavir, Interferon-ß 1a, Interferon-ß 1b, pregnant or lactating women, history of alcohol or drug addiction in the past 5 years, blood ALT/AST levels > 5 times the upper limit of normal on laboratory results and refusal to participate. This study will be undertaken at the Loghman Hakim Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences and Health Services. INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: COVID-19 confirmed patients will be randomly assigned to one of three groups, with 20 patients in each. The first group (Arm 1) will receive Hydroxychloroquine + Lopinavir / Ritonavir (Kaletra) + Interferon-ß 1a (Recigen), the second group (Arm 2) will be administered Hydroxychloroquine + Lopinavir / Ritonavir (Kaletra) + Interferon-ß 1b (Ziferon), and the control group (Arm 3) will be treated by Hydroxychloroquine + Lopinavir / Ritonavir (Kaletra). MAIN OUTCOMES: Time to clinical improvement is our primary outcome measure. This is an improvement of two points on a seven-category ordinal scale (recommended by the World Health Organization: Coronavirus disease (COVID-2019) R&D. Geneva: World Health Organization) or discharge from the hospital, whichever comes first. Secondary outcomes include mortality from the date of randomization until the last day of the study which will be the day all of the patients have had at least one of the following outcomes: 1) Improvement of two points on a seven-category ordinal scale. 2) Discharge from the hospital 3) Death. If any patient dies, we have reached an important secondary outcome. SpO2 Improvement between the last and first day of hospitalization, using pulse-oximetry. Duration of hospitalization from date of randomization until the date of hospital discharge or date of death from any cause, whichever comes first. Incidence of new mechanical ventilation uses from date of randomization until the last day of the study. Please note that we are trying to add further secondary outcomes and this section of the protocol is still evolving. Statistical analysis will be performed by R version 3.6.1 software. We will use Kaplan-Meier to analyze the time to clinical improvement (compared with a log-rank test). Hazard ratios with 95% confidence intervals will be calculated using the Cox proportional-hazards model in crude and adjusted analysis. RANDOMIZATION: Eligible patients will be randomly assigned in a 1:1:1 ratio to receive either Interferon Beta 1a, Interferon Beta 1b or standard care only. Patients will be randomly allocated to three therapeutic arms using permuted, block-randomization to balance the number of patients allocated to each group. The permuted block (three or six patients per block) randomization sequence will be generated, using Package 'randomizeR' in R software version 3.6.1. and placed in individual sealed and opaque envelopes by the statistician. The investigator will enroll the patients and only then open envelopes to assign patients to the different treatment groups. This method of allocation concealment will result in minimum selection and confounding biases. BLINDING (MASKING): The present research is open-label (no masking) of patients and health care professionals who are undertaking outcome assessment of the primary outcome - time to clinical improvement. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMIZED (SAMPLE SIZE): Of the 60 patients who underwent randomization, 20 patients were assigned to receive Interferon beta-1a, 20 patients were assigned to receive Interferon beta 1b plus standard care and the rest of patients were assigned to receive the standard care alone. TRIAL STATUS: Protocol version 1.2.1. Recruitment is finished, the start date of recruitment was on 9th April 2020 and the end date was on 14th April 2020. Last point of data collection will be the last day on which all of the 60 participants have had an outcome of clinical improvement or death, completing the study's follow-up time window. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study was registered with National Institutes of Health Clinical trials (www.clinicaltrials.gov; identification number NCT04343768, registered April 8, 2020 and first available online April 13, 2020). FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest in expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Interferon beta-1a/therapeutic use , Interferon beta-1b/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Drug Combinations , Drug Therapy, Combination , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Interferon beta-1a/adverse effects , Interferon beta-1b/adverse effects , Iran , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
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