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1.
Transl Res ; 244: 47-55, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1783792

ABSTRACT

Type I interferon (IFN) is critical in our defense against viral infections. Increased type I IFN pathway activation is a genetic risk factor for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and a number of common risk alleles contribute to the high IFN trait. We hypothesized that these common gain-of-function IFN pathway alleles may be associated with protection from mortality in acute COVID-19. We studied patients admitted with acute COVID-19 (756 European-American and 398 African-American ancestry). Ancestral backgrounds were analyzed separately, and mortality after acute COVID-19 was the primary outcome. In European-American ancestry, we found that a haplotype of interferon regulatory factor 5 (IRF5) and alleles of protein kinase cGMP-dependent 1 (PRKG1) were associated with mortality from COVID-19. Interestingly, these were much stronger risk factors in younger patients (OR = 29.2 for PRKG1 in ages 45-54). Variants in the IRF7 and IRF8 genes were associated with mortality from COVID-19 in African-American subjects, and these genetic effects were more pronounced in older subjects. Combining genetic information with blood biomarker data such as C-reactive protein, troponin, and D-dimer resulted in significantly improved predictive capacity, and in both ancestral backgrounds the risk genotypes were most relevant in those with positive biomarkers (OR for death between 14 and 111 in high risk genetic/biomarker groups). This study confirms the critical role of the IFN pathway in defense against COVID-19 and viral infections, and supports the idea that some common SLE risk alleles exert protective effects in antiviral immunity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic , Aged , Alleles , Antiviral Agents , COVID-19/genetics , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Humans , Interferon Regulatory Factors/genetics , Interferon Regulatory Factors/metabolism , Interferon-alpha/genetics , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/genetics , Middle Aged , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
2.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(8)2022 02 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1671749

ABSTRACT

Type I interferons (IFN-I) exert pleiotropic biological effects during viral infections, balancing virus control versus immune-mediated pathologies, and have been successfully employed for the treatment of viral diseases. Humans express 12 IFN-alpha (α) subtypes, which activate downstream signaling cascades and result in distinct patterns of immune responses and differential antiviral responses. Inborn errors in IFN-I immunity and the presence of anti-IFN autoantibodies account for very severe courses of COVID-19; therefore, early administration of IFN-I may be protective against life-threatening disease. Here we comprehensively analyzed the antiviral activity of all IFNα subtypes against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) to identify the underlying immune signatures and explore their therapeutic potential. Prophylaxis of primary human airway epithelial cells (hAEC) with different IFNα subtypes during SARS-CoV-2 infection uncovered distinct functional classes with high, intermediate, and low antiviral IFNs. In particular, IFNα5 showed superior antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2 infection in vitro and in SARS-CoV-2-infected mice in vivo. Dose dependency studies further displayed additive effects upon coadministration with the broad antiviral drug remdesivir in cell culture. Transcriptomic analysis of IFN-treated hAEC revealed different transcriptional signatures, uncovering distinct, intersecting, and prototypical genes of individual IFNα subtypes. Global proteomic analyses systematically assessed the abundance of specific antiviral key effector molecules which are involved in IFN-I signaling pathways, negative regulation of viral processes, and immune effector processes for the potent antiviral IFNα5. Taken together, our data provide a systemic, multimodular definition of antiviral host responses mediated by defined IFN-I. This knowledge will support the development of novel therapeutic approaches against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Interferon-alpha/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Transcriptome , Virus Replication/drug effects , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cloning, Molecular , Disease Models, Animal , Escherichia coli/genetics , Escherichia coli/metabolism , Gene Expression Profiling , Gene Expression Regulation , Genetic Vectors/chemistry , Genetic Vectors/metabolism , Humans , Interferon-alpha/genetics , Interferon-alpha/immunology , Mice , Protein Isoforms/classification , Protein Isoforms/genetics , Protein Isoforms/immunology , Protein Isoforms/pharmacology , Recombinant Proteins/classification , Recombinant Proteins/genetics , Recombinant Proteins/immunology , Recombinant Proteins/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Signal Transduction , Vero Cells
3.
Front Immunol ; 12: 735866, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1590052

ABSTRACT

Bats are the only mammals with self-powered flight and account for 20% of all extant mammalian diversity. In addition, they harbor many emerging and reemerging viruses, including multiple coronaviruses, several of which are highly pathogenic in other mammals, but cause no disease in bats. How this symbiotic relationship between bats and viruses exists is not yet fully understood. Existing evidence supports a specific role for the innate immune system, in particular type I interferon (IFN) responses, a major component of antiviral immunity. Previous studies in bats have shown that components of the IFN pathway are constitutively activated at the transcriptional level. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the type I IFN response in bats is also constitutively activated at the protein level. For this, we utilized highly sensitive Single Molecule (Simoa) digital ELISA assays, previously developed for humans that we adapted to bat samples. We prospectively sampled four non-native chiroptera species from French zoos. We identified a constitutive expression of IFNα protein in the circulation of healthy bats, and concentrations that are physiologically active in humans. Expression levels differed according to the species examined, but were not associated with age, sex, or health status suggesting constitutive IFNα protein expression independent of disease. These results confirm a unique IFN response in bat species that may explain their ability to coexist with multiple viruses in the absence of pathology. These results may help to manage potential zoonotic viral reservoirs and potentially identify new anti-viral strategies.


Subject(s)
Chiroptera/blood , Immunity, Innate , Interferon-alpha/blood , Viruses/immunology , Animals , Cell Line , Chiroptera/genetics , Chiroptera/immunology , Chiroptera/virology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Gene Expression Regulation , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Interferon-alpha/genetics , Species Specificity , Symbiosis , Transcription, Genetic , Viruses/pathogenicity
4.
Clin Immunol ; 233: 108888, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1517099

ABSTRACT

Human interferon alpha (hIFN-α) administration constitutes the current FDA approved therapy for chronic Hepatitis B and C virus infections. Additionally, hIFN-α treatment efficacy was recently demonstrated in patients with COVID-19. Thus, hIFN-α constitutes a therapeutic alternative for those countries where vaccination is inaccessible and for people who did not respond effectively to vaccination. However, hIFN-α2b exhibits a short plasma half-life resulting in the occurrence of severe side effects. To optimize the cytokine's pharmacokinetic profile, we developed a hyperglycosylated IFN, referred to as GMOP-IFN. Given the significant number of reports showing neutralizing antibodies (NAb) formation after hIFN-α administration, here we applied the DeFT (De-immunization of Functional Therapeutics) approach to develop functional, de-immunized versions of GMOP-IFN. Two GMOP-IFN variants exhibited significantly reduced ex vivo immunogenicity and null antiproliferative activity, while preserving antiviral function. The results obtained in this work indicate that the new de-immunized GMOP-IFN variants constitute promising candidates for antiviral therapy.


Subject(s)
Hepatitis B, Chronic/immunology , Hepatitis C, Chronic/immunology , Interferon-alpha/immunology , Recombinant Proteins/immunology , Adult , Amino Acid Sequence , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antiviral Agents/immunology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , CHO Cells , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Cattle , Cell Line , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Cells, Cultured , Cricetinae , Cricetulus , Drug Stability , HEK293 Cells , Hepatitis B, Chronic/drug therapy , Hepatitis B, Chronic/virology , Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy , Hepatitis C, Chronic/virology , Humans , Interferon-alpha/genetics , Interferon-alpha/pharmacology , Recombinant Proteins/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
5.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 5(1): 221, 2020 10 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387195
7.
Eur J Immunol ; 51(4): 989-994, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1187983

ABSTRACT

Low concentrations of type-I interferon (IFN) in blood seem to be associated with more severe forms of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, following the type-I interferon response (IR) in early stage disease is a major challenge. We evaluated detection of a molecular interferon signature on a FilmArray® system, which includes PCR assays for four interferon stimulated genes. We analyzed three types of patient populations: (i) children admitted to a pediatric emergency unit for fever and suspected infection, (ii) ICU-admitted patients with severe COVID-19, and (iii) healthcare workers with mild COVID-19. The results were compared to the reference tools, that is, molecular signature assessed with Nanostring® and IFN-α2 quantification by SIMOA® (Single MOlecule Array). A strong correlation was observed between the IR measured by the FilmArray®, Nanostring®, and SIMOA® platforms (r-Spearman 0.996 and 0.838, respectively). The FilmArray® panel could be used in the COVID-19 pandemic to evaluate the IR in 45-min with 2 min hand-on-time at hospitalization and to monitor the IR in future clinical trials.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Interferon-alpha/blood , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/immunology , Child , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Interferon Type I/blood , Interferon Type I/genetics , Interferon-alpha/genetics , Male
8.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 3040, 2021 02 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1107304

ABSTRACT

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) and porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) cause an enteric disease characterized by diarrhea clinically indistinguishable. Both viruses are simultaneously detected in clinical cases, but a study involving the co-infection has not been reported. The study was therefore conducted to investigate the disease severity following a co-infection with PEDV and PDCoV. In the study, 4-day-old pigs were orally inoculated with PEDV and PDCoV, either alone or in combination. Following challenge, fecal score was monitored on a daily basis. Fecal swabs were collected and assayed for the presence of viruses. Three pigs per group were necropsied at 3 and 5 days post inoculation (dpi). Microscopic lesions and villous height to crypt depth (VH:CD) ratio, together with the presence of PEDV and PDCoV antigens, were evaluated in small intestinal tissues. Expressions of interferon alpha (IFN-α) and interleukin 12 (IL12) were investigated in small intestinal mucosa. The findings indicated that coinoculation increased the disease severity, demonstrated by significantly prolonged fecal score and virus shedding and decreasing VH:CD ratio in the jejunum compared with pigs inoculated with either PEDV or PDCoV alone. Notably, in single-inoculated groups, PEDV and PDCoV antigens were detected only in villous enterocytes wile in the coinoculated group, PDCoV antigen was detected in both villous enterocytes and crypts. IFN-α and IL12 were significantly up-regulated in coinoculated groups in comparison with single-inoculated groups. In conclusion, co-infection with PEDV and PDCoV exacerbate clinical signs and have a synergetic on the regulatory effect inflammatory cytokines compared to a single infection with either virus.


Subject(s)
Deltacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Diarrhea/genetics , Interferon-alpha/genetics , Interleukin-12/genetics , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/pathogenicity , Animals , Coinfection/genetics , Coinfection/veterinary , Coinfection/virology , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Deltacoronavirus/genetics , Deltacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Diarrhea/veterinary , Diarrhea/virology , Feces/virology , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/genetics , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Swine , Swine Diseases/genetics , Swine Diseases/virology
9.
J Exp Med ; 218(4)2021 04 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066211

ABSTRACT

Yellow fever virus (YFV) live attenuated vaccine can, in rare cases, cause life-threatening disease, typically in patients with no previous history of severe viral illness. Autosomal recessive (AR) complete IFNAR1 deficiency was reported in one 12-yr-old patient. Here, we studied seven other previously healthy patients aged 13 to 80 yr with unexplained life-threatening YFV vaccine-associated disease. One 13-yr-old patient had AR complete IFNAR2 deficiency. Three other patients vaccinated at the ages of 47, 57, and 64 yr had high titers of circulating auto-Abs against at least 14 of the 17 individual type I IFNs. These antibodies were recently shown to underlie at least 10% of cases of life-threatening COVID-19 pneumonia. The auto-Abs were neutralizing in vitro, blocking the protective effect of IFN-α2 against YFV vaccine strains. AR IFNAR1 or IFNAR2 deficiency and neutralizing auto-Abs against type I IFNs thus accounted for more than half the cases of life-threatening YFV vaccine-associated disease studied here. Previously healthy subjects could be tested for both predispositions before anti-YFV vaccination.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Autoantibodies/immunology , Autoimmune Diseases , COVID-19 , Genetic Diseases, Inborn , Interferon-alpha , Receptor, Interferon alpha-beta , SARS-CoV-2 , Yellow Fever Vaccine , Yellow fever virus , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Autoimmune Diseases/genetics , Autoimmune Diseases/immunology , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , Female , Genetic Diseases, Inborn/genetics , Genetic Diseases, Inborn/immunology , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Interferon-alpha/genetics , Interferon-alpha/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Receptor, Interferon alpha-beta/deficiency , Receptor, Interferon alpha-beta/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccines, Attenuated/genetics , Vaccines, Attenuated/immunology , Yellow Fever Vaccine/adverse effects , Yellow Fever Vaccine/genetics , Yellow Fever Vaccine/immunology , Yellow fever virus/genetics , Yellow fever virus/immunology
10.
J Exp Med ; 217(12)2020 12 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-726090

ABSTRACT

Type I interferons (IFN-I) are a major antiviral defense and are critical for the activation of the adaptive immune system. However, early viral clearance by IFN-I could limit antigen availability, which could in turn impinge upon the priming of the adaptive immune system. In this study, we hypothesized that transient IFN-I blockade could increase antigen presentation after acute viral infection. To test this hypothesis, we infected mice with viruses coadministered with a single dose of IFN-I receptor-blocking antibody to induce a short-term blockade of the IFN-I pathway. This resulted in a transient "spike" in antigen levels, followed by rapid antigen clearance. Interestingly, short-term IFN-I blockade after coronavirus, flavivirus, rhabdovirus, or arenavirus infection induced a long-lasting enhancement of immunological memory that conferred improved protection upon subsequent reinfections. Short-term IFN-I blockade also improved the efficacy of viral vaccines. These findings demonstrate a novel mechanism by which IFN-I regulate immunological memory and provide insights for rational vaccine design.


Subject(s)
Immunogenicity, Vaccine/immunology , Interferon Type I/antagonists & inhibitors , Interferon-alpha/immunology , Receptor, Interferon alpha-beta/immunology , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Zika Virus Infection/immunology , Zika Virus/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Blocking/immunology , Antibodies, Blocking/pharmacology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antigen Presentation/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , Dendritic Cells/immunology , Disease Models, Animal , Gene Expression/immunology , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Immunologic Memory , Interferon-alpha/genetics , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Knockout , Receptor, Interferon alpha-beta/genetics , Transfection , Zika Virus Infection/virology
11.
Nat Rev Immunol ; 20(10): 585-586, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-713702
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