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1.
Arch Virol ; 166(8): 2285-2289, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1826502

ABSTRACT

Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are considered multipotent progenitors with the capacity to differentiate into mesoderm-like cells in many species. The immunosuppressive properties of MSCs are important for downregulating inflammatory responses. Turkey coronavirus (TCoV) is the etiological agent of a poult mortality syndrome that affects intestinal epithelial cells. In this study, poult MSCs were isolated, characterized, and infected with TCoV after in vitro culture. The poult-derived MSCs showed fibroblast-like morphology and the ability to undergo differentiation into mesodermal-derived cells and to support virus replication. Infection with TCoV resulted in cytopathic effects and the loss of cell viability. TCoV antigens and new viral progeny were detected at high levels, as were transcripts of the pro-inflammatory factors INFγ, IL-6, and IL-8. These findings suggest that the cytokine storm phenomenon is not restricted to one genus of the family Coronaviridae and that MSCs cannot always balance the process.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus, Turkey/physiology , Cytokines/metabolism , Virus Replication , Animals , Cell Differentiation , Cell Survival , Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral , Interferon-gamma/metabolism , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Interleukin-8/metabolism , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/cytology , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/metabolism , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/virology , Turkeys , Up-Regulation
2.
Immunity ; 55(3): 423-441.e9, 2022 03 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1693372

ABSTRACT

Cell death plays an important role during pathogen infections. Here, we report that interferon-γ (IFNγ) sensitizes macrophages to Toll-like receptor (TLR)-induced death that requires macrophage-intrinsic death ligands and caspase-8 enzymatic activity, which trigger the mitochondrial apoptotic effectors, BAX and BAK. The pro-apoptotic caspase-8 substrate BID was dispensable for BAX and BAK activation. Instead, caspase-8 reduced pro-survival BCL-2 transcription and increased inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), thus facilitating BAX and BAK signaling. IFNγ-primed, TLR-induced macrophage killing required iNOS, which licensed apoptotic caspase-8 activity and reduced the BAX and BAK inhibitors, A1 and MCL-1. The deletion of iNOS or caspase-8 limited SARS-CoV-2-induced disease in mice, while caspase-8 caused lethality independent of iNOS in a model of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. These findings reveal that iNOS selectively licenses programmed cell death, which may explain how nitric oxide impacts disease severity in SARS-CoV-2 infection and other iNOS-associated inflammatory conditions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Caspase 8/metabolism , Interferon-gamma/metabolism , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/immunology , Macrophages/immunology , Mitochondria/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Animals , Caspase 8/genetics , Cells, Cultured , Cytotoxicity, Immunologic , Humans , Interferon-gamma/genetics , Macrophage Activation , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Knockout , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II/metabolism , Pathogen-Associated Molecular Pattern Molecules/immunology , Signal Transduction , bcl-2 Homologous Antagonist-Killer Protein/genetics , bcl-2 Homologous Antagonist-Killer Protein/metabolism , bcl-2-Associated X Protein/genetics , bcl-2-Associated X Protein/metabolism
3.
Cells ; 11(3)2022 02 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686620

ABSTRACT

Necroptosis, a form of programmed lytic cell death, has emerged as a driving factor in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury (ALI). As ALI is often associated with a cytokine storm, we determined whether pro-inflammatory cytokines modulate the susceptibility of lung cells to necroptosis and which mediators dominate to control necroptosis. In this study, we pretreated/primed mouse primary lung epithelial and endothelial cells with various inflammatory mediators and assessed cell type-dependent responses to different necroptosis inducers and their underlying mechanisms. We found that interferon-γ (IFNγ) as low as 1 ng/mL preferentially promoted necroptosis and accelerated the release of damage-associated molecular patterns from primary alveolar and airway epithelial cells but not lung microvascular endothelial cells. Type-I IFNα was about fifty-fold less effective than IFNγ. Conversely, TNFα or agonists of Toll-like receptor-3 (TLR3), TLR4, TLR7 and TLR9 had a minor effect. The enhanced necroptosis in IFNγ-activated lung epithelial cells was dependent on IFNγ signaling and receptor-interacting protein kinase-3. We further showed that necroptosis effector mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein (MLKL) was predominantly induced by IFNγ, contributing to the enhanced necroptosis in lung epithelial cells. Collectively, our findings indicate that IFNγ is a potent enhancer of lung epithelial cell susceptibility to necroptosis.


Subject(s)
Interferon-gamma , Necroptosis , Animals , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Interferon-gamma/metabolism , Interferon-gamma/pharmacology , Lung/pathology , Mice , Protein Kinases/metabolism
4.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 1727, 2022 02 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1671625

ABSTRACT

As the first dose of Gam-COVID-Vac, is currently used as a single dose vaccine in some countries, we investigated the immunogenicity of this at 4 weeks (327 naïve individuals). 88.7% seroconverted, with significantly lower seroconversion rates in those over 60 years (p = 0.004) and significantly lower than previously seen with AZD1222 (p = 0.018). 82.6% developed ACE2 receptor blocking antibodies, although levels were significantly lower than following natural infection (p = 0.0009) and a single dose of AZD1222 (p < 0.0001). Similar titres of antibodies were observed to the receptor binding domain of WT, B.1.1.7 and B.1.617.2 compared to AZD1222, while the levels for B.1.351 were significantly higher (p = 0.006) for Gam-COVID-Vac. 30% developed ex vivo IFNγ ELISpot responses (significantly lower than AZD1222), and high frequency of CD107a expressing T cells along with memory B cell responses. Although single dose of Gam-COVID-Vac was highly immunogenic, administration of a second dose is likely to be beneficial.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunization , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/administration & dosage , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Female , Humans , Interferon-gamma/metabolism , Lymphocytes/immunology , Lymphocytes/metabolism , Lymphocytes/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Seroconversion , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Young Adult
5.
Nat Immunol ; 23(3): 380-385, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1671602

ABSTRACT

Delayed dosing intervals are a strategy to immunize a greater proportion of the population. In an observational study, we compared humoral and cellular responses in health care workers receiving two doses of BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) vaccine at standard (3- to 6-week) and delayed (8- to 16-week) intervals. In the delayed-interval group, anti-receptor-binding domain antibody titers were significantly enhanced compared to the standard-interval group. The 50% plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT50) and PRNT90 titers against wild-type (ancestral) severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and Alpha, Beta and Delta variants were higher in the delayed-interval group. Spike-specific polyfunctional CD4+ and CD8+ T cells expressing interferon-γ and interleukin-2 were comparable between the two groups. Here, we show that the strategy of delaying second doses of mRNA vaccination may lead to enhanced humoral immune responses, including improved virus neutralization against wild-type and variant SARS-CoV-2 viruses. This finding has potentially important implications as vaccine implementation continues across a greater proportion of the global population.


Subject(s)
/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Adult , Cells, Cultured , Female , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , Immunization, Secondary , Interferon-gamma/metabolism , Interleukin-2/metabolism , Male , Middle Aged , Vaccination
6.
J Med Chem ; 65(3): 2558-2570, 2022 02 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1655430

ABSTRACT

Safe and effective vaccines against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and its variants are the best approach to successfully combat the COVID-19 pandemic. The receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the viral spike protein is a major target to develop candidate vaccines. α-Galactosylceramide (αGalCer), a potent invariant natural killer T cell (iNKT) agonist, was site-specifically conjugated to the N-terminus of the RBD to form an adjuvant-protein conjugate, which was anchored on the liposome surface. This is the first time that an iNKT cell agonist was conjugated to the protein antigen. Compared to the unconjugated RBD/αGalCer mixture, the αGalCer-RBD conjugate induced significantly stronger humoral and cellular responses. The conjugate vaccine also showed effective cross-neutralization to all variants of concern (B.1.1.7/alpha, B.1.351/beta, P.1/gamma, B.1.617.2/delta, and B.1.1.529/omicron). These results suggest that the self-adjuvanting αGalCer-RBD has great potential to be an effective COVID-19 vaccine candidate, and this strategy might be useful for designing various subunit vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , Galactosylceramides/therapeutic use , Peptide Fragments/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccines, Conjugate/therapeutic use , Adjuvants, Immunologic/chemistry , Adjuvants, Immunologic/therapeutic use , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/chemistry , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Female , Galactosylceramides/chemistry , Galactosylceramides/immunology , Immunity, Humoral/drug effects , Immunity, Innate/drug effects , Interferon-gamma/metabolism , Liposomes/chemistry , Liposomes/immunology , Liposomes/therapeutic use , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Peptide Fragments/chemistry , Peptide Fragments/immunology , Protein Domains , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/therapeutic use , Vaccines, Conjugate/chemistry , Vaccines, Conjugate/immunology
7.
Viruses ; 14(1)2022 01 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1631201

ABSTRACT

γδ T cells are innate cells able to quickly eliminate pathogens or infected/tumoral cells by their antiviral and adjuvancy activities. The role of γδ T cells during Dengue Viral Infection (DENV) infection is not fully elucidated. Nevertheless, human primary γδ T cells have been shown to kill in vitro DENV-infected cells, thus highlighting their possible antiviral function. The aim of this work was to characterize the phenotype and function of Vδ2 T cells in DENV patients. Fifteen DENV patients were enrolled for this study and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were used to analyze Vδ2-T-cell frequency, differentiation profile, activation/exhaustion status, and functionality by multiparametric flow cytometry. Our data demonstrated that DENV infection was able to significantly reduce Vδ2-T-cell frequency and to increase their activation (CD38 and HLA-DR) and exhaustion markers (PD-1 and TIM-3). Furthermore, Vδ2 T cells showed a reduced capability to produce IFN-γ after phosphoantigenic stimulation that can be associated to TIM-3 expression. Several studies are needed to depict the possible clinical impact of γδ-T-cell impairment on disease severity and to define the antiviral and immunoregulatory activities of γδ T cells in the first phases of infection.


Subject(s)
Dengue/immunology , Hepatitis A Virus Cellular Receptor 2/metabolism , Interferon-gamma/metabolism , Intraepithelial Lymphocytes/immunology , Adaptation, Physiological , Adult , Flow Cytometry , Hepatitis A Virus Cellular Receptor 2/genetics , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/immunology , Lymphocyte Activation/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology
8.
Elife ; 112022 01 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1622818

ABSTRACT

Despite tremendous progress in the understanding of COVID-19, mechanistic insight into immunological, disease-driving factors remains limited. We generated maVie16, a mouse-adapted SARS-CoV-2, by serial passaging of a human isolate. In silico modeling revealed how only three Spike mutations of maVie16 enhanced interaction with murine ACE2. maVie16 induced profound pathology in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice, and the resulting mouse COVID-19 (mCOVID-19) replicated critical aspects of human disease, including early lymphopenia, pulmonary immune cell infiltration, pneumonia, and specific adaptive immunity. Inhibition of the proinflammatory cytokines IFNγ and TNF substantially reduced immunopathology. Importantly, genetic ACE2-deficiency completely prevented mCOVID-19 development. Finally, inhalation therapy with recombinant ACE2 fully protected mice from mCOVID-19, revealing a novel and efficient treatment. Thus, we here present maVie16 as a new tool to model COVID-19 for the discovery of new therapies and show that disease severity is determined by cytokine-driven immunopathology and critically dependent on ACE2 in vivo.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Interferon-gamma/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adaptive Immunity/immunology , Animals , Disease Models, Animal , Interferon-gamma/metabolism , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
9.
J Exp Med ; 219(2)2022 02 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1594167

ABSTRACT

In rare instances, pediatric SARS-CoV-2 infection results in a novel immunodysregulation syndrome termed multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). We compared MIS-C immunopathology with severe COVID-19 in adults. MIS-C does not result in pneumocyte damage but is associated with vascular endotheliitis and gastrointestinal epithelial injury. In MIS-C, the cytokine release syndrome is characterized by IFNγ and not type I interferon. Persistence of patrolling monocytes differentiates MIS-C from severe COVID-19, which is dominated by HLA-DRlo classical monocytes. IFNγ levels correlate with granzyme B production in CD16+ NK cells and TIM3 expression on CD38+/HLA-DR+ T cells. Single-cell TCR profiling reveals a skewed TCRß repertoire enriched for TRBV11-2 and a superantigenic signature in TIM3+/CD38+/HLA-DR+ T cells. Using NicheNet, we confirm IFNγ as a central cytokine in the communication between TIM3+/CD38+/HLA-DR+ T cells, CD16+ NK cells, and patrolling monocytes. Normalization of IFNγ, loss of TIM3, quiescence of CD16+ NK cells, and contraction of patrolling monocytes upon clinical resolution highlight their potential role in MIS-C immunopathogenesis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Hepatitis A Virus Cellular Receptor 2/metabolism , Interferon-gamma/metabolism , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Monocytes/metabolism , Receptors, IgG/metabolism , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Adolescent , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/pathology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Blood Vessels/pathology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Cell Proliferation , Child , Cohort Studies , Complement Activation , Cytokines/metabolism , Enterocytes/pathology , Female , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , Inflammation/pathology , Interferon Type I/metabolism , Interleukin-15/metabolism , Lymphocyte Activation/immunology , Male , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Superantigens/metabolism , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/pathology
10.
EBioMedicine ; 73: 103679, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1595805

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The immunogenicity of a two-dose mRNA COVID-19 vaccine regimen is low in kidney transplant (KT) recipients. Here, we provide a thorough assessment of the immunogenicity of a three-dose COVID-19 vaccine regimen in this population. METHODS: We performed a prospective longitudinal study in sixty-one KT recipients given three doses of the BNT162b2 COVID-19 vaccine. We performed semi-structured pharmacovigilance interviews and monitored donor-specific antibodies and kidney function. We compared levels of anti-spike IgG, pseudo-neutralization activity against vaccine homologous and heterologous variants, frequency of spike-specific interferon (IFN)-γ-secreting cells, and antigen-induced cytokine production 28 days after the second and third doses. FINDINGS: Reactions to vaccine were mild. One patient developed donor-specific anti-HLA antibodies after the second dose which could be explained by non-adherence to immunosuppressive therapy. Spike-specific IgG seroconversion raised from 44·3% (n=27) after the second dose to 62·3% (n=38) after the third dose (p<0·05). The mean level of spike-specific IgG increased from 1620 (SD, 3460) to 8772 (SD, 16733) AU/ml (p<0·0001). Serum neutralizing activity increased after the third dose for all variants of concern tested including the Delta variant (p<0·0001). The frequency of spike-specific IFN-γ-secreting cells increased from 19·9 (SD, 56·0) to 64·0 (SD, 76·8) cells/million PBMCs after the third dose (p<0·0001). A significant increase in IFN-γ responses was also observed in patients who remained seronegative after three doses (p<0·0001). INTERPRETATION: A third dose of the BNT162b2 vaccine increases both cross-variant neutralizing antibody and cellular responses in KT recipients with an acceptable tolerability profile. FUNDING: Nice University Hospital, University Cote d'Azur.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Kidney Transplantation , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Autoantibodies/blood , /adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Female , Graft Rejection/prevention & control , HLA Antigens/immunology , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Interferon-gamma/metabolism , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/cytology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/metabolism , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
11.
Lancet Oncol ; 22(12): 1681-1691, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1586209

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with cancer have an increased risk of complications from SARS-CoV-2 infection. Vaccination to prevent COVID-19 is recommended, but data on the immunogenicity and safety of COVID-19 vaccines for patients with solid tumours receiving systemic cancer treatment are scarce. Therefore, we aimed to assess the impact of immunotherapy, chemotherapy, and chemoimmunotherapy on the immunogenicity and safety of the mRNA-1273 (Moderna Biotech, Madrid, Spain) COVID-19 vaccine as part of the Vaccination Against COVID in Cancer (VOICE) trial. METHODS: This prospective, multicentre, non-inferiority trial was done across three centres in the Netherlands. Individuals aged 18 years or older with a life expectancy of more than 12 months were enrolled into four cohorts: individuals without cancer (cohort A [control cohort]), and patients with solid tumours, regardless of stage and histology, treated with immunotherapy (cohort B), chemotherapy (cohort C), or chemoimmunotherapy (cohort D). Participants received two mRNA-1273 vaccinations of 100 µg in 0·5 mL intramuscularly, 28 days apart. The primary endpoint, analysed per protocol (excluding patients with a positive baseline sample [>10 binding antibody units (BAU)/mL], indicating previous SARS-CoV-2 infection), was defined as the SARS-CoV-2 spike S1-specific IgG serum antibody response (ie, SARS-CoV-2-binding antibody concentration of >10 BAU/mL) 28 days after the second vaccination. For the primary endpoint analysis, a non-inferiority design with a margin of 10% was used. We also assessed adverse events in all patients who received at least one vaccination, and recorded solicited adverse events in participants who received at least one vaccination but excluding those who already had seroconversion (>10 BAU/mL) at baseline. This study is ongoing and is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04715438. FINDINGS: Between Feb 17 and March 12, 2021, 791 participants were enrolled and followed up for a median of 122 days (IQR 118 to 128). A SARS-CoV-2-binding antibody response was found in 240 (100%; 95% CI 98 to 100) of 240 evaluable participants in cohort A, 130 (99%; 96 to >99) of 131 evaluable patients in cohort B, 223 (97%; 94 to 99) of 229 evaluable patients in cohort C, and 143 (100%; 97 to 100) of 143 evaluable patients in cohort D. The SARS-CoV-2-binding antibody response in each patient cohort was non-inferior compared with cohort A. No new safety signals were observed. Grade 3 or worse serious adverse events occurred in no participants in cohort A, three (2%) of 137 patients in cohort B, six (2%) of 244 patients in cohort C, and one (1%) of 163 patients in cohort D, with four events (two of fever, and one each of diarrhoea and febrile neutropenia) potentially related to the vaccination. There were no vaccine-related deaths. INTERPRETATION: Most patients with cancer develop, while receiving chemotherapy, immunotherapy, or both for a solid tumour, an adequate antibody response to vaccination with the mRNA-1273 COVID-19 vaccine. The vaccine is also safe in these patients. The minority of patients with an inadequate response after two vaccinations might benefit from a third vaccination. FUNDING: ZonMw, The Netherlands Organisation for Health Research and Development.


Subject(s)
/adverse effects , Antineoplastic Agents/immunology , Immunotherapy , Neoplasms/therapy , Vaccination/adverse effects , /administration & dosage , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cohort Studies , Combined Modality Therapy , Female , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Immunomodulation , Injections, Intramuscular , Interferon-gamma/metabolism , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/immunology , Netherlands , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Surveys and Questionnaires
12.
Front Immunol ; 12: 783725, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1554650

ABSTRACT

Interferons (IFNs) are cytokines that possess antiviral, antiproliferative, and immunomodulatory actions. IFN-α and IFN-ß are two major family members of type-I IFNs and are used to treat diseases, including hepatitis and multiple sclerosis. Emerging evidence suggests that type-I IFN receptors (IFNARs) are also expressed by microglia, astrocytes, and neurons in the central and peripheral nervous systems. Apart from canonical transcriptional regulations, IFN-α and IFN-ß can rapidly suppress neuronal activity and synaptic transmission via non-genomic regulation, leading to potent analgesia. IFN-γ is the only member of the type-II IFN family and induces central sensitization and microglia activation in persistent pain. We discuss how type-I and type-II IFNs regulate pain and infection via neuro-immune modulations, with special focus on neuroinflammation and neuro-glial interactions. We also highlight distinct roles of type-I IFNs in the peripheral and central nervous system. Insights into IFN signaling in nociceptors and their distinct actions in physiological vs. pathological and acute vs. chronic conditions will improve our treatments of pain after surgeries, traumas, and infections.


Subject(s)
Acute Pain/immunology , Chronic Pain/immunology , Interferon Type I/metabolism , Interferon-gamma/metabolism , /immunology , Acute Pain/pathology , Animals , Chronic Pain/pathology , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Neuroglia/cytology , Neuroglia/immunology , Neuroglia/pathology , Nociceptors/immunology , Nociceptors/metabolism , Receptors, Interferon/metabolism , Signal Transduction/immunology , Spinal Cord/cytology , Spinal Cord/immunology , Spinal Cord/pathology
13.
Cell Immunol ; 371: 104454, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1509640

ABSTRACT

Immune dysregulation is commonly observed in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) induces severe lung inflammation and innate immune cell dysregulation. However, the precise interaction between SARS-CoV-2 and the innate immune system is currently unknown. To understand the interaction between SARS-CoV-2 and natural killer (NK) cells, several SARS-CoV-2 S protein peptides capable of binding to the NKG2D receptor were screened by in silico analysis. Among them, two peptides, cov1 and cov2, bound to NK cells and NKG2D receptors. These cov peptides increased NK cytotoxicity toward lung cancer cells, stimulated interferon gamma (IFN-γ) production by NK cells, and likely mediated these responses through the phosphorylation of Vav1, a key downstream-signaling molecule of NKG2D and NK activation genes. The direct interaction between SARS-CoV-2 and NK cells is a novel finding, and modulation of this interaction has potential clinical application as a therapeutic target for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , NK Cell Lectin-Like Receptor Subfamily K/immunology , Peptides/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Amino Acid Sequence , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line, Tumor , Cytotoxicity, Immunologic/immunology , Humans , Interferon-gamma/immunology , Interferon-gamma/metabolism , Killer Cells, Natural/metabolism , Lung/immunology , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Lymphocyte Activation/immunology , NK Cell Lectin-Like Receptor Subfamily K/metabolism , Peptides/metabolism , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Signal Transduction/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
14.
Nutrients ; 13(11)2021 Nov 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512522

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We aimed to establish an acute treatment protocol to increase serum vitamin D, evaluate the effectiveness of vitamin D3 supplementation, and reveal the potential mechanisms in COVID-19. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the data of 867 COVID-19 cases. Then, a prospective study was conducted, including 23 healthy individuals and 210 cases. A total of 163 cases had vitamin D supplementation, and 95 were followed for 14 days. Clinical outcomes, routine blood biomarkers, serum levels of vitamin D metabolism, and action mechanism-related parameters were evaluated. RESULTS: Our treatment protocol increased the serum 25OHD levels significantly to above 30 ng/mL within two weeks. COVID-19 cases (no comorbidities, no vitamin D treatment, 25OHD <30 ng/mL) had 1.9-fold increased risk of having hospitalization longer than 8 days compared with the cases with comorbidities and vitamin D treatment. Having vitamin D treatment decreased the mortality rate by 2.14 times. The correlation analysis of specific serum biomarkers with 25OHD indicated that the vitamin D action in COVID-19 might involve regulation of INOS1, IL1B, IFNg, cathelicidin-LL37, and ICAM1. CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin D treatment shortened hospital stay and decreased mortality in COVID-19 cases, even in the existence of comorbidities. Vitamin D supplementation is effective on various target parameters; therefore, it is essential for COVID-19 treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamin D/administration & dosage , Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides/blood , Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides/genetics , Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides/metabolism , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Dietary Supplements , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Humans , Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1/blood , Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1/genetics , Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1/metabolism , Interferon-gamma/blood , Interferon-gamma/genetics , Interferon-gamma/metabolism , Interleukin-1beta/blood , Interleukin-1beta/genetics , Interleukin-1beta/metabolism , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II/blood , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II/genetics , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II/metabolism , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Vitamin D/blood , Vitamin D/pharmacology , Vitamins/administration & dosage , Vitamins/pharmacology
15.
Front Immunol ; 12: 739757, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1505515

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) exhibits a sex bias with males showing signs of more severe disease and hospitalizations compared with females. The mechanisms are not clear but differential immune responses, particularly the initial innate immune response, between sexes may be playing a role. The early innate immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 have not been studied because of the gap in timing between the patient becoming infected, showing symptoms, and getting the treatment. The primary objective of the present study was to compare the response of dendritic cells (DCs) and monocytes from males and females to SARS-CoV-2, 24 h after infection. To investigate this, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from healthy young individuals were stimulated in vitro with the virus. Our results indicate that PBMCs from females upregulated the expression of HLA-DR and CD86 on pDCs and mDCs after stimulation with the virus, while the activation of these cells was not significant in males. Monocytes from females also displayed increased activation than males. In addition, females secreted significantly higher levels of IFN-α and IL-29 compared with males at 24 h. However, the situation was reversed at 1 week post stimulation and males displayed high levels of IFN-α production compared with females. Further investigations revealed that the secretion of CXCL-10, a chemokine associated with lung complications, was higher in males than females at 24 h. The PBMCs from females also displayed increased induction of CTLs. Altogether, our results suggest that decreased activation of pDCs, mDCs, and monocytes and the delayed and prolonged IFN-α secretion along with increased CXCL-10 secretion may be responsible for the increased morbidity and mortality of males to COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Dendritic Cells/immunology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Adaptive Immunity , Adult , Chemokine CXCL1/metabolism , Female , HLA-DR Antigens/metabolism , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Interferon-gamma/metabolism , Male , Middle Aged , Sex Characteristics , Up-Regulation , Young Adult
16.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 8(23): e2100118, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1482096

ABSTRACT

Recently, viral infectious diseases, including COVID-19 and Influenza, are the subjects of major concerns worldwide. One strategy for addressing these concerns focuses on nasal vaccines, which have great potential for achieving successful immunization via safe, easy, and affordable approaches. However, conventional nasal vaccines have major limitations resulting from fast removal when pass through nasal mucosa and mucociliary clearance hindering their effectiveness. Herein a nanoparticulate vaccine (NanoVac) exhibiting photochemical immunomodulation and constituting a new self-assembled immunization system of a photoactivatable polymeric adjuvant with influenza virus hemagglutinin for efficient nasal delivery and antigen-specific immunity against pathogenic influenza viruses is described. NanoVac increases the residence period of antigens and further enhances by spatiotemporal photochemical modulation in the nasal cavity. As a consequence, photochemical immunomodulation of NanoVacs successfully induces humoral and cellular immune responses followed by stimulation of mature dendritic cells, plasma cells, memory B cells, and CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, resulting in secretion of antigen-specific immunoglobulins, cytokines, and CD8+ T cells. Notably, challenge with influenza virus after nasal immunization with NanoVacs demonstrates robust prevention of viral infection. Thus, this newly designed vaccine system can serve as a promising strategy for developing vaccines that are active against current hazardous pathogen outbreaks and pandemics.


Subject(s)
Hemagglutinins/chemistry , Influenza Vaccines/administration & dosage , Light , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/prevention & control , Adjuvants, Immunologic/administration & dosage , Administration, Inhalation , Animals , Antigens/administration & dosage , Antigens/chemistry , Antigens/immunology , Dendritic Cells/cytology , Dendritic Cells/immunology , Dendritic Cells/metabolism , Hemagglutinins/administration & dosage , Hemagglutinins/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Immunity, Humoral , Influenza Vaccines/chemistry , Influenza Vaccines/immunology , Influenza, Human/immunology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Influenza, Human/virology , Interferon-gamma/metabolism , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/immunology , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/virology , Photosensitizing Agents/chemistry , Polymers/chemistry
17.
Biol Direct ; 16(1): 18, 2021 10 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477451

ABSTRACT

Skeletal muscle has an extraordinary regenerative capacity reflecting the rapid activation and effective differentiation of muscle stem cells (MuSCs). In the course of muscle regeneration, MuSCs are reprogrammed by immune cells. In turn, MuSCs confer immune cells anti-inflammatory properties to resolve inflammation and facilitate tissue repair. Indeed, MuSCs can exert therapeutic effects on various degenerative and inflammatory disorders based on their immunoregulatory ability, including effects primed by interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). At the molecular level, the tryptophan metabolites, kynurenine or kynurenic acid, produced by indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), augment the expression of TNF-stimulated gene 6 (TSG6) through the activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). In addition, insulin growth factor 2 (IGF2) produced by MuSCs can endow maturing macrophages oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS)-dependent anti-inflammatory functions. Herein, we summarize the current understanding of the immunomodulatory characteristics of MuSCs and the issues related to their potential applications in pathological conditions, including COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Immune System/physiology , Muscles/physiology , Regeneration/physiology , Stem Cells/cytology , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , Cell Adhesion Molecules/metabolism , Cell Differentiation , Cell Proliferation , Humans , Indoleamine-Pyrrole 2,3,-Dioxygenase/metabolism , Inflammation , Insulin-Like Growth Factor II/metabolism , Interferon-gamma/metabolism , Kynurenic Acid/metabolism , Kynurenine/metabolism , Macrophages/metabolism , Mice , Muscles/metabolism , Oxidative Phosphorylation , Receptors, Aryl Hydrocarbon/metabolism , Tryptophan/chemistry , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism
18.
J Immunol ; 207(10): 2405-2410, 2021 11 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1471046

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes severe acute respiratory syndrome. mRNA vaccines directed at the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein resulted in development of Abs and protective immunity. To determine the mechanism, we analyzed the kinetics of induction of circulating exosomes with SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and Ab following vaccination of healthy individuals. Results demonstrated induction of circulating exosomes expressing spike protein on day 14 after vaccination followed by Abs 14 d after the second dose. Exosomes with spike protein, Abs to SARS-CoV-2 spike, and T cells secreting IFN-γ and TNF-α increased following the booster dose. Transmission electron microscopy of exosomes also demonstrated spike protein Ags on their surface. Exosomes with spike protein and Abs decreased in parallel after four months. These results demonstrate an important role of circulating exosomes with spike protein for effective immunization following mRNA-based vaccination. This is further documented by induction of humoral and cellular immune responses in mice immunized with exosomes carrying spike protein.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/metabolism , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Exosomes/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , Animals , Blood Circulation , Cells, Cultured , Exosomes/immunology , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Immunization , Interferon-gamma/metabolism , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Vaccination
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(20)2021 Oct 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470894

ABSTRACT

Infection caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) in many cases is accompanied by the release of a large amount of proinflammatory cytokines in an event known as "cytokine storm", which is associated with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases and high mortality. The excessive production of proinflammatory cytokines is linked, inter alia, to the enhanced activity of receptors capable of recognizing the conservative regions of pathogens and cell debris, namely TLRs, TREM-1 and TNFR1. Here we report that peptides derived from innate immunity protein Tag7 inhibit activation of TREM-1 and TNFR1 receptors during acute inflammation. Peptides from the N-terminal fragment of Tag7 bind only to TREM-1, while peptides from the C-terminal fragment interact solely with TNFR1. Selected peptides are capable of inhibiting the production of proinflammatory cytokines both in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from healthy donors and in vivo in the mouse model of acute lung injury (ALI) by diffuse alveolar damage (DAD). Treatment with peptides significantly decreases the infiltration of mononuclear cells to lungs in animals with DAD. Our findings suggest that Tag7-derived peptides might be beneficial in terms of the therapy or prevention of acute lung injury, e.g., for treating COVID-19 patients with severe pulmonary lesions.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury/pathology , Cytokines/chemistry , Peptides/metabolism , Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type I/metabolism , Triggering Receptor Expressed on Myeloid Cells-1/metabolism , Acute Lung Injury/metabolism , Animals , Cytokines/genetics , Cytokines/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Interferon-gamma/genetics , Interferon-gamma/metabolism , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/cytology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/drug effects , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , Lung/metabolism , Lung/pathology , Lymphocyte Activation/drug effects , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred ICR , Peptides/chemistry , Peptides/pharmacology , Protein Binding , Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type I/antagonists & inhibitors , Triggering Receptor Expressed on Myeloid Cells-1/antagonists & inhibitors
20.
Front Immunol ; 12: 744206, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1459508

ABSTRACT

The effects of corticosteroid use on the reactogenicity and immunogenicity of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (ChAd) vaccine were evaluated. Healthcare workers (HCWs) who took low-dose corticosteroid agents around the time of the first dose of ChAd (ChAdPd group) were recruited and the reactogenicity and immunogenicity were compared with those of ChAd (ChAd group) and BNT162b2 vaccination (BNT group) of HCWs without corticosteroid exposure. The immunogenicity was measured three weeks after vaccination using quantitative anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (S) antibody electrochemiluminescence immunoassay and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) release assay. A total of 67 HCWs comprising 24 ChAd, 29 BNT, and 14 ChAdPd was included. The median total corticosteroid dose of the ChAdPd group was 30 mg prednisolone equivalents (interquartile range (IQR) 20-71.3 mg). HCWs in the ChAdPd group experienced significantly milder reactogenicity (median total score 7.5, IQR 4.0-18.0) compared to those in the ChAd group (median 23.0, IQR 8.0-43.0, P=0.012) but similar to that in the BNT group (median 5.0, IQR 3.0-9.0, P=0.067). The S antibody concentration of the ChAdPd group (62.4 ± 70.0 U/mL) was higher than that of the ChAd group, though without statistical significance (3.45 ± 57.6 U/mL, P=0.192). The cellular immune response was most robust in the ChAdPd group, with significantly higher IFN-γ concentration (5.363 ± 4.276 IU/mL), compared to the ChAd (0.978 ± 1.181 IU/mL, P=0.002) and BNT (1.656 ± 1.925 IU/mL, P=0.009) groups. This finding suggest that short-term corticosteroid reduces reactogenicity of the first dose of ChAd without hindering immunogenicity.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Immunogenicity, Vaccine/drug effects , Interferon-gamma/metabolism , Male , Middle Aged , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Time Factors , Vaccination
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