Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 122
Filter
1.
Front Immunol ; 13: 984553, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2142012

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 plasma viremia has been associated with severe disease and death in COVID-19. However, the effects of viremia on immune responses in blood cells remain unclear. The current study comprehensively examined transcriptional signatures of PBMCs involving T cells, B cells, NK cells, monocytes, myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs), and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) respectively, from three different groups including individuals with moderate (nM), or severe disease with (vS) or without (nS) detectable plasma viral load. Whole transcriptome analysis demonstrated that all seven immune cell subsets were associated with disease severity regardless of cell type. Supervised clustering analysis demonstrated that mDCs and pDCs gene signatures could distinguish disease severity. Notably, transcriptional signatures of the vS group were enriched in pathways related to DNA repair, E2F targets, and G2M checkpoints; in contrast, transcriptional signatures of the nM group were enriched in interferon responses. Moreover, we observed an impaired induction of interferon responses accompanied by imbalanced cell-intrinsic immune sensing and an excessive inflammatory response in patients with severe disease (nS and vS). In sum, our study provides detailed insights into the systemic immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection and reveals profound alterations in seven major immune cells in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Viremia , Immunity, Innate , Interferons/metabolism
2.
Front Immunol ; 13: 940756, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141958

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) evades the host immune system through a variety of regulatory mechanisms. The genome of SARS-CoV-2 encodes 16 non-structural proteins (NSPs), four structural proteins, and nine accessory proteins that play indispensable roles to suppress the production and signaling of type I and III interferons (IFNs). In this review, we discussed the functions and the underlying mechanisms of different proteins of SARS-CoV-2 that evade the host immune system by suppressing the IFN-ß production and TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1)/interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3)/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)1 and STAT2 phosphorylation. We also described different viral proteins inhibiting the nuclear translocation of IRF3, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), and STATs. To date, the following proteins of SARS-CoV-2 including NSP1, NSP6, NSP8, NSP12, NSP13, NSP14, NSP15, open reading frame (ORF)3a, ORF6, ORF8, ORF9b, ORF10, and Membrane (M) protein have been well studied. However, the detailed mechanisms of immune evasion by NSP5, ORF3b, ORF9c, and Nucleocapsid (N) proteins are not well elucidated. Additionally, we also elaborated the perspectives of SARS-CoV-2 proteins.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Immune Evasion , Interferons/metabolism , Viral Proteins
3.
J Virol ; 96(18): e0096222, 2022 09 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2137410

ABSTRACT

Intestinal stem cells (ISCs) play an important role in tissue repair after injury. A recent report delineates the effect of transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) infection on the small intestine of recovered pigs. However, the mechanism behind the epithelium regeneration upon TGEV infection remains unclear. To address this, we established a TGEV infection model based on the porcine intestinal organoid monolayer. The results illustrated that the porcine intestinal organoid monolayer was susceptible to TGEV. In addition, the TGEV infection initiated the interferon and inflammatory responses following the loss of absorptive enterocytes and goblet cells. However, TGEV infection did not disturb epithelial integrity but induced the proliferation of ISCs. Furthermore, TGEV infection activated the Wnt/ß-catenin pathway by upregulating the accumulation and nuclear translocation of ß-catenin, as well as promoting the expression of Wnt target genes, such as C-myc, Cyclin D1, Mmp7, Lgr5, and Sox9, which were associated with the self-renewal of ISCs. Collectively, these data demonstrated that the TGEV infection activated the Wnt/ß-catenin pathway to promote the self-renewal of ISCs and resulted in intestinal epithelium regeneration. IMPORTANCE The intestinal epithelium is a physical barrier to enteric viruses and commensal bacteria. It plays an essential role in maintaining the balance between the host and intestinal microenvironment. In addition, intestinal stem cells (ISCs) are responsible for tissue repair after injury. Therefore, prompt self-renewal of intestinal epithelium will facilitate the rebuilding of the physical barrier and maintain gut health. In the manuscript, we found that the transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) infection did not disturb epithelial integrity but induced the proliferation of ISCs and facilitated epithelium regeneration. Detailed mechanism investigations revealed that the TGEV infection activated the Wnt/ß-catenin pathway to promote the self-renewal of ISCs and resulted in intestinal epithelium regeneration. These findings will contribute to understanding the mechanism of intestinal epithelial regeneration and reparation upon viral infection.


Subject(s)
Stem Cells , Transmissible gastroenteritis virus , Animals , Cyclin D1/metabolism , Interferons/metabolism , Intestinal Mucosa/cytology , Intestinal Mucosa/virology , Matrix Metalloproteinase 7 , Stem Cells/cytology , Stem Cells/virology , Swine , Transmissible gastroenteritis virus/metabolism , Wnt Proteins/metabolism , beta Catenin/metabolism
4.
J Virol ; 96(22): e0134122, 2022 Nov 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2097919

ABSTRACT

We observed the interference between two prevalent respiratory viruses, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and influenza A virus (IAV) (H1N1), and characterized its molecular underpinnings in alveolar epithelial cells (A549). We found that RSV induces higher levels of interferon beta (IFN-ß) production than IAV and that IFN-ß priming confers higher-level protection against infection with IAV than with RSV. Consequently, we focused on the sequential infection scheme of RSV and then IAV. Using A549 wild-type (WT), IFNAR1 knockout (KO), IFNLR1 KO, and IFNAR1-IFNLR1 double-KO cell lines, we found that both IFN-ß and IFN-λ are necessary for maximum protection against subsequent infection. Immunostaining revealed that preinfection with RSV partitions the cell population into a subpopulation susceptible to subsequent infection with IAV and an IAV-proof subpopulation. Strikingly, the susceptible cells turned out to be those already compromised and efficiently expressing RSV, whereas the bystander, interferon-primed cells are resistant to IAV infection. Thus, virus-virus exclusion at the cell population level is not realized through direct competition for a shared ecological niche (single cell) but rather is achieved with the involvement of specific cytokines induced by the host's innate immune response. IMPORTANCE Influenza A virus (IAV) and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) are common recurrent respiratory infectants that show a relatively high coincidence. We demonstrated that preinfection with RSV partitions the cell population into a subpopulation susceptible to subsequent infection with IAV and an IAV-proof subpopulation. The susceptible cells are those already compromised and efficiently expressing RSV, whereas the bystander cells are resistant to IAV infection. The cross-protective effect critically depends on IFN-ß and IFN-λ signaling and thus ensues when the proportion of cells preinfected with RSV is relatively low yet sufficient to trigger a pervasive antiviral state in bystander cells. Our study suggests that mild, but not severe, respiratory infections may have a short-lasting protective role against more dangerous respiratory viruses, including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza A virus , Influenza, Human , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Interferons/metabolism
5.
Front Immunol ; 13: 967737, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2080146

ABSTRACT

Monocytes are critical cells of the immune system but their role as effectors is relatively poorly understood, as they have long been considered only as precursors of tissue macrophages or dendritic cells. Moreover, it is known that this cell type is heterogeneous, but our understanding of this aspect is limited to the broad classification in classical/intermediate/non-classical monocytes, commonly based on their expression of only two markers, i.e. CD14 and CD16. We deeply dissected the heterogeneity of human circulating monocytes in healthy donors by transcriptomic analysis at single-cell level and identified 9 distinct monocyte populations characterized each by a profile suggestive of specialized functions. The classical monocyte subset in fact included five distinct populations, each enriched for transcriptomic gene sets related to either inflammatory, neutrophil-like, interferon-related, and platelet-related pathways. Non-classical monocytes included two distinct populations, one of which marked specifically by elevated expression levels of complement components. Intermediate monocytes were not further divided in our analysis and were characterized by high levels of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes. Finally, we identified one cluster included in both classical and non-classical monocytes, characterized by a strong cytotoxic signature. These findings provided the rationale to exploit the relevance of newly identified monocyte populations in disease evolution. A machine learning approach was developed and applied to two single-cell transcriptome public datasets, from gastrointestinal cancer and Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. The dissection of these datasets through our classification revealed that patients with advanced cancers showed a selective increase in monocytes enriched in platelet-related pathways. Of note, the signature associated with this population correlated with worse prognosis in gastric cancer patients. Conversely, after immunotherapy, the most activated population was composed of interferon-related monocytes, consistent with an upregulation in interferon-related genes in responder patients compared to non-responders. In COVID-19 patients we confirmed a global activated phenotype of the entire monocyte compartment, but our classification revealed that only cytotoxic monocytes are expanded during the disease progression. Collectively, this study unravels an unexpected complexity among human circulating monocytes and highlights the existence of specialized populations differently engaged depending on the pathological context.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gastrointestinal Neoplasms , Humans , Monocytes , Immunologic Factors/metabolism , Interferons/metabolism , HLA Antigens/metabolism
6.
Cell ; 185(21): 3857-3876, 2022 Oct 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2060512

ABSTRACT

The discovery of the Janus kinase (JAK)-signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) pathway arose from investigations of how cells respond to interferons (IFNs), revealing a paradigm in cell signaling conserved from slime molds to mammals. These discoveries revealed mechanisms underlying rapid gene expression mediated by a wide variety of extracellular polypeptides including cytokines, interleukins, and related factors. This knowledge has provided numerous insights into human disease, from immune deficiencies to cancer, and was rapidly translated to new drugs for autoimmune, allergic, and infectious diseases, including COVID-19. Despite these advances, major challenges and opportunities remain.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Janus Kinases , Animals , Cytokines/metabolism , Humans , Interferons/metabolism , Janus Kinases/metabolism , Mammals/metabolism , STAT Transcription Factors/genetics , STAT Transcription Factors/metabolism , Signal Transduction
7.
Viruses ; 14(10)2022 09 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2043983

ABSTRACT

In this study, we developed a novel, multiplex qPCR assay for simultaneous detection of RIG-1, MDA5, and IFIT-1 at the mRNA level. The assay was validated in A549 cells transfected with in vitro transcribed RNAs. Both exogenous RNA-GFP and self-amplifying (saRNA-GFP) induced significant expression of RIG-1, MDA5, IFIT-1, as well as type I and III interferons. In contrast, native RNA from intact A549 cells did not upregulate expression of these genes. Next, we evaluated RIG-1, MDA5, and IFIT-1 mRNA levels in the white blood cells of patients with influenza A virus (H3N2) or SARS-CoV-2. In acute phase (about 4 days after disease onset) both viruses induced these genes expression. Clinical observations of SARS-CoV-2 typically describe a two-step disease progression, starting with a mild-to-moderate presentation followed by a secondary respiratory worsening 9 to 12 days after the first onset of symptoms. It revealed that the expression of RIG-1, MDA5, and MxA was not increased after 2 and 3 weeks from the onset the disease, while for IFIT-1 it was observed the second peak at 21 day post infection. It is well known that RIG-1, MDA5, and IFIT-1 expression is induced by the action of interferons. Due to the ability of SOCS-1 to inhibit interferon-dependent signaling, and the distinct antagonism of SARS-CoV-2 in relation to interferon-stimulated genes expression, we assessed SOCS-1 mRNA levels in white blood cells. SARS-CoV-2 patients had increased SOCS-1 expression, while the influenza-infected group did not differ from heathy donors. Moreover, SOCS-1 mRNA expression remained stably elevated during the course of the disease. It can be assumed that augmented SOCS-1 expression is one of multiple mechanisms that allow SARS-CoV-2 to escape from the interferon-mediated immune response. Our results implicate SOCS-1 involvement in the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Interferons , Humans , Interferons/metabolism , Interferon-Induced Helicase, IFIH1/genetics , Interferon-Induced Helicase, IFIH1/metabolism , Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype/genetics , DEAD-box RNA Helicases/genetics , DEAD-box RNA Helicases/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , DEAD Box Protein 58/genetics , DEAD Box Protein 58/metabolism , RNA-Binding Proteins , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Antiviral Agents
8.
Trends Microbiol ; 30(8): 778-792, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1663909

ABSTRACT

The interferon (IFN) response is the major early innate immune response against invading viral pathogens and is even capable of mediating sterilizing antiviral immunity without the support of the adaptive immune system. Cumulative evidence suggests that the gut microbiota can modulate IFN responses, indirectly determining virological outcomes. This review outlines our current knowledge of the interactions between the gut microbiota and IFN responses and dissects the different mechanisms by which the gut microbiota may alter IFN expression to diverse viral infections. This knowledge offers a basis for translating experimental evidence from animal studies into the human context and identifies avenues for leveraging the gut microbiota-IFN-virus axis to improve control of viral infections and performance of viral vaccines.


Subject(s)
Microbiota , Virus Diseases , Animals , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Interferons/metabolism
9.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 4782, 2022 08 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1991594

ABSTRACT

The emergence of heavily mutated SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs) place the international community on high alert. In addition to numerous mutations that map in the spike protein of VOCs, expression of the viral accessory proteins ORF6 and ORF9b also elevate; both are potent interferon antagonists. Here, we present the crystal structures of Rae1-Nup98 in complex with the C-terminal tails (CTT) of SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV ORF6 to 2.85 Å and 2.39 Å resolution, respectively. An invariant methionine (M) 58 residue of ORF6 CTT extends its side chain into a hydrophobic cavity in the Rae1 mRNA binding groove, resembling a bolt-fitting-hole; acidic residues flanking M58 form salt-bridges with Rae1. Our mutagenesis studies identify key residues of ORF6 important for its interaction with Rae1-Nup98 in vitro and in cells, of which M58 is irreplaceable. Furthermore, we show that ORF6-mediated blockade of mRNA and STAT1 nucleocytoplasmic transport correlate with the binding affinity between ORF6 and Rae1-Nup98. Finally, binding of ORF6 to Rae1-Nup98 is linked to ORF6-induced interferon antagonism. Taken together, this study reveals the molecular basis for the antagonistic function of Sarbecovirus ORF6, and implies a strategy of using ORF6 CTT-derived peptides for immunosuppressive drug development.


Subject(s)
Active Transport, Cell Nucleus , SARS Virus , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Proteins , Interferons/metabolism , Nuclear Matrix-Associated Proteins/metabolism , Nucleocytoplasmic Transport Proteins/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Viral Proteins/chemistry
10.
J Clin Immunol ; 42(8): 1766-1777, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1990711

ABSTRACT

Haploinsufficiency of suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1) is a recently discovered autoinflammatory disorder with significant rheumatologic, immunologic, and hematologic manifestations. Here we report a case of SOCS1 haploinsufficiency in a 5-year-old child with profound arthralgias and immune-mediated thrombocytopenia unmasked by SARS-CoV-2 infection. Her clinical manifestations were accompanied by excessive B cell activity, eosinophilia, and elevated IgE levels. Uniquely, this is the first report of SOCS1 haploinsufficiency in the setting of a chromosomal deletion resulting in complete loss of a single SOCS1 gene with additional clinical findings of bone marrow hypocellularity and radiologic evidence of severe enthesitis. Immunologic profiling showed a prominent interferon signature in the patient's peripheral blood mononuclear cells, which were also hypersensitive to stimulation by type I and type II interferons. The patient showed excellent clinical and functional laboratory response to tofacitinib, a Janus kinase inhibitor that disrupts interferon signaling. Our case highlights the need to utilize a multidisciplinary diagnostic approach and consider a comprehensive genetic evaluation for inborn errors of immunity in patients with an atypical immune-mediated thrombocytopenia phenotype.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myelodysplastic Syndromes , Thrombocytopenia , Female , Humans , Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling 1 Protein/genetics , Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling 1 Protein/metabolism , Haploinsufficiency , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/metabolism , Bone Marrow , SARS-CoV-2 , Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling Proteins/genetics , Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling Proteins/metabolism , Interferons/metabolism
11.
Viruses ; 14(8)2022 08 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1987997

ABSTRACT

Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) is a recently discovered enteropathogenic coronavirus and has caused significant economic impacts on the pork industry. Although studies have partly uncovered the molecular mechanism of PDCoV-host interaction, it requires further research. In this study, we explored the roles of Stromal Antigen 2 (STAG2) in PDCoV infection. We found that STAG2-deficient cells inhibited infection with vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and PDCoV, whereas restoration of STAG2 expression in STAG2-depleted (STAG2-/-) IPEC-J2 cells line restored PDCoV infection, suggesting that STAG2 is involved in the PDCoV replication. Furthermore, we found that STAG2 deficiency results in robust interferon (IFN) expression. Subsequently, we found that STAG2 deficiency results in the activation of JAK-STAT signaling and the expression of IFN stimulated gene (ISG), which establish an antiviral state. Taken together, the depletion of STAG2 activates the JAK-STAT signaling and induces the expression of ISG, thereby inhibiting PDCoV replication. Our study provides new insights and potential therapeutic targets for unraveling the mechanism of PDCoV replication.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Swine Diseases , Animals , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Coronavirus/physiology , Deltacoronavirus , Interferons/metabolism , Swine
12.
Cytokine ; 158: 155997, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1982909

ABSTRACT

The recently discovered truncated, non-functional, ACE2 transcript (dACE2), but not the full-length ACE2 (f-lACE2), is induced by IFNs in differentiated airway cells. We measured expression of both ACE2 isoforms in SARS-CoV-2 positive and negative subjects, in relation to Interferon-stimulated genes. A significant activation of dACE2 transcript was found, in SARS-CoV-2 positive adults either hospitalized or not, showing a positive correlation with ISG15; f-lACE2 expression was weakly activated and not ISG-related. We confirmed a specific activation of dACE2 transcript in nasopharyngeal cells, related to the mucosal IFN response.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19 , Adult , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antiviral Agents , Humans , Interferons/metabolism , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Protein Isoforms/genetics , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Cell Death Dis ; 13(8): 684, 2022 Aug 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1977989

ABSTRACT

Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and interferons (IFNs) serve as essential antiviral defense against SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of the COVID-19 pandemic. Type III IFNs (IFN-λ) exhibit cell-type specific and long-lasting functions in auto-inflammation, tumorigenesis, and antiviral defense. Here, we identify the deubiquitinating enzyme USP22 as central regulator of basal IFN-λ secretion and SARS-CoV-2 infections in human intestinal epithelial cells (hIECs). USP22-deficient hIECs strongly upregulate genes involved in IFN signaling and viral defense, including numerous IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs), with increased secretion of IFN-λ and enhanced STAT1 signaling, even in the absence of exogenous IFNs or viral infection. Interestingly, USP22 controls basal and 2'3'-cGAMP-induced STING activation and loss of STING reversed STAT activation and ISG and IFN-λ expression. Intriguingly, USP22-deficient hIECs are protected against SARS-CoV-2 infection, viral replication, and the formation of de novo infectious particles, in a STING-dependent manner. These findings reveal USP22 as central host regulator of STING and type III IFN signaling, with important implications for SARS-CoV-2 infection and antiviral defense.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Interferon Type I , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , Ubiquitin Thiolesterase , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Humans , Interferon Type I/genetics , Interferons/metabolism , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Ubiquitin Thiolesterase/metabolism
14.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 50(15): 8700-8718, 2022 08 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1973223

ABSTRACT

FACT (FAcilitates Chromatin Transcription) is a heterodimeric protein complex composed of SUPT16H and SSRP1, and a histone chaperone participating in chromatin remodeling during gene transcription. FACT complex is profoundly regulated, and contributes to both gene activation and suppression. Here we reported that SUPT16H, a subunit of FACT, is acetylated in both epithelial and natural killer (NK) cells. The histone acetyltransferase TIP60 contributes to the acetylation of SUPT16H middle domain (MD) at lysine 674 (K674). Such acetylation of SUPT16H is recognized by bromodomain protein BRD4, which promotes protein stability of SUPT16H in both epithelial and NK cells. We further demonstrated that SUPT16H-BRD4 associates with histone modification enzymes (HDAC1, EZH2), and further regulates their activation status and/or promoter association as well as affects the relevant histone marks (H3ac, H3K9me3 and H3K27me3). BRD4 is known to profoundly regulate interferon (IFN) signaling, while such function of SUPT16H has never been explored. Surprisingly, our results revealed that SUPT16H genetic knockdown via RNAi or pharmacological inhibition by using its inhibitor, curaxin 137 (CBL0137), results in the induction of IFNs and interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs). Through this mechanism, depletion or inhibition of SUPT16H is shown to efficiently inhibit infection of multiple viruses, including Zika, influenza, and SARS-CoV-2. Furthermore, we demonstrated that depletion or inhibition of SUPT16H also causes the remarkable activation of IFN signaling in NK cells, which promotes the NK-mediated killing of virus-infected cells in a co-culture system using human primary NK cells. Overall, our studies unraveled the previously un-appreciated role of FACT complex in coordinating with BRD4 and regulating IFN signaling in both epithelial and NK cells, and also proposed the novel application of the FACT inhibitor CBL0137 to treat viral infections.


Subject(s)
Cell Cycle Proteins/metabolism , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Interferons/metabolism , Killer Cells, Natural/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Transcription Factors/metabolism , COVID-19 , DNA-Binding Proteins/genetics , Epithelial Cells/immunology , High Mobility Group Proteins/genetics , Humans , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Nuclear Proteins/genetics , Nuclear Proteins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Transcriptional Elongation Factors/genetics , Zika Virus/metabolism , Zika Virus Infection
15.
Cell Rep Med ; 3(6): 100652, 2022 06 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1960088

ABSTRACT

Disease recovery dynamics are often difficult to assess, as patients display heterogeneous recovery courses. To model recovery dynamics, exemplified by severe COVID-19, we apply a computational scheme on longitudinally sampled blood transcriptomes, generating recovery states, which we then link to cellular and molecular mechanisms, presenting a framework for studying the kinetics of recovery compared with non-recovery over time and long-term effects of the disease. Specifically, a decrease in mature neutrophils is the strongest cellular effect during recovery, with direct implications on disease outcome. Furthermore, we present strong indications for global regulatory changes in gene programs, decoupled from cell compositional changes, including an early rise in T cell activation and differentiation, resulting in immune rebalancing between interferon and NF-κB activity and restoration of cell homeostasis. Overall, we present a clinically relevant computational framework for modeling disease recovery, paving the way for future studies of the recovery dynamics in other diseases and tissues.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , NF-kappa B , Cell Differentiation , Humans , Interferons/metabolism , NF-kappa B/genetics , Neutrophils/metabolism , Signal Transduction
16.
Front Immunol ; 13: 919477, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1938621

ABSTRACT

The interferon-induced transmembrane protein 3 (IFITM3), a small molecule transmembrane protein induced by interferon, is generally conserved in vertebrates, which can inhibit infection by a diverse range of pathogenic viruses such as influenza virus. However, the precise antiviral mechanisms of IFITM3 remain unclear. At least four post-translational modifications (PTMs) were found to modulate the antiviral effect of IFITM3. These include positive regulation provided by S-palmitoylation of cysteine and negative regulation provided by lysine ubiquitination, lysine methylation, and tyrosine phosphorylation. IFITM3 S-palmitoylation is an enzymatic addition of a 16-carbon fatty acid on the three cysteine residues within or adjacent to its two hydrophobic domains at positions 71, 72, and 105, that is essential for its proper targeting, stability, and function. As S-palmitoylation is the only PTM known to enhance the antiviral activity of IFITM3, enzymes that add this modification may play important roles in IFN-induced immune responses. This study mainly reviews the research progresses on the antiviral mechanism of IFITM3, the regulation mechanism of S-palmitoylation modification on its subcellular localization, stability, and function, and the enzymes that mediate the S-palmitoylation modification of IFITM3, which may help elucidate the mechanism by which this IFN effector restrict virus replication and thus aid in the design of therapeutics targeted at pathogenic viruses.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , Lipoylation , Animals , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Cysteine , Interferons/metabolism , Lysine/metabolism , RNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism
17.
Mucosal Immunol ; 15(5): 952-963, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1937414

ABSTRACT

Children are less likely than adults to suffer severe symptoms when infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), while influenza A H1N1 severity is comparable across ages except for the very young or elderly. Airway epithelial cells play a vital role in the early defence against viruses via their barrier and immune functions. We investigated viral replication and immune responses in SARS-CoV-2-infected bronchial epithelial cells from healthy paediatric (n = 6; 2.5-5.6 years old) and adult (n = 4; 47-63 years old) subjects and compared cellular responses following infection with SARS-CoV-2 or Influenza A H1N1. While infection with either virus triggered robust transcriptional interferon responses, including induction of type I (IFNB1) and type III (IFNL1) interferons, markedly lower levels of interferons and inflammatory proteins (IL-6, IL-8) were released following SARS-CoV-2 compared to H1N1 infection. Only H1N1 infection caused disruption of the epithelial layer. Interestingly, H1N1 infection resulted in sustained upregulation of SARS-CoV-2 entry factors FURIN and NRP1. We did not find any differences in the epithelial response to SARS-CoV-2 infection between paediatric and adult cells. Overall, SARS-CoV-2 had diminished potential to replicate, affect morphology and evoke immune responses in bronchial epithelial cells compared to H1N1.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza, Human , Child, Preschool , Epithelial Cells , Humans , Immunity , Influenza, Human/metabolism , Interferons/metabolism , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Replication/physiology
18.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 2442, 2022 05 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1890176

ABSTRACT

Interferon restricts SARS-CoV-2 replication in cell culture, but only a handful of Interferon Stimulated Genes with antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2 have been identified. Here, we describe a functional CRISPR/Cas9 screen aiming at identifying SARS-CoV-2 restriction factors. We identify DAXX, a scaffold protein residing in PML nuclear bodies known to limit the replication of DNA viruses and retroviruses, as a potent inhibitor of SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV replication in human cells. Basal expression of DAXX is sufficient to limit the replication of SARS-CoV-2, and DAXX over-expression further restricts infection. DAXX restricts an early, post-entry step of the SARS-CoV-2 life cycle. DAXX-mediated restriction of SARS-CoV-2 is independent of the SUMOylation pathway but dependent on its D/E domain, also necessary for its protein-folding activity. SARS-CoV-2 infection triggers the re-localization of DAXX to cytoplasmic sites and promotes its degradation. Mechanistically, this process is mediated by the viral papain-like protease (PLpro) and the proteasome. Together, these results demonstrate that DAXX restricts SARS-CoV-2, which in turn has evolved a mechanism to counteract its action.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , CRISPR-Cas Systems , Co-Repressor Proteins/genetics , Co-Repressor Proteins/metabolism , Humans , Interferons/metabolism , Molecular Chaperones/genetics , Molecular Chaperones/metabolism , Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex/metabolism
19.
J Virol ; 96(9): e0040022, 2022 05 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1807320

ABSTRACT

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is a highly pathogenic enteric coronavirus that causes high mortality in piglets. Interferon (IFN) responses are the primary defense mechanism against viral infection; however, viruses always evolve elaborate strategies to antagonize the antiviral action of IFN. Previous study showed that PEDV nonstructural protein 7 (nsp7), a component of the viral replicase polyprotein, can antagonize ploy(I:C)-induced type I IFN production. Here, we found that PEDV nsp7 also antagonized IFN-α-induced JAK-STAT signaling and the production of IFN-stimulated genes. PEDV nsp7 did not affect the protein and phosphorylation levels of JAK1, Tyk2, STAT1, and STAT2 or the formation of the interferon-stimulated gene factor 3 (ISGF3) complex. However, PEDV nsp7 prevented the nuclear translocation of STAT1 and STAT2. Mechanistically, PEDV nsp7 interacted with the DNA binding domain of STAT1/STAT2, which sequestered the interaction between karyopherin α1 (KPNA1) and STAT1, thereby blocking the nuclear transport of ISGF3. Collectively, these data reveal a new mechanism developed by PEDV to inhibit type I IFN signaling pathway. IMPORTANCE In recent years, an emerging porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) variant has gained attention because of serious outbreaks of piglet diarrhea in China and the United States. Coronavirus nonstructural protein 7 (nsp7) has been proposed to act with nsp8 as part of an RNA primase to generate RNA primers for viral RNA synthesis. However, accumulating evidence indicates that coronavirus nsp7 can also antagonize type I IFN production. Our present study extends previous findings and demonstrates that PEDV nsp7 also antagonizes IFN-α-induced IFN signaling by competing with KPNA1 for binding to STAT1, thereby enriching the immune regulation function of coronavirus nsp7.


Subject(s)
Janus Kinase 1 , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus , STAT1 Transcription Factor , Signal Transduction , Viral Nonstructural Proteins , alpha Karyopherins , Animals , Cell Line , Interferons/metabolism , Janus Kinase 1/metabolism , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/genetics , STAT1 Transcription Factor/metabolism , Swine , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/genetics , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism , alpha Karyopherins/metabolism
20.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0266412, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793503

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the cause of the coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic, was identified in late 2019 and caused >5 million deaths by February 2022. To date, targeted antiviral interventions against COVID-19 are limited. The spectrum of SARS-CoV-2 infection ranges from asymptomatic to fatal disease. However, the reasons for varying outcomes to SARS-CoV-2 infection are yet to be elucidated. Here we show that an endogenously activated interferon lambda (IFNλ1) pathway leads to resistance against SARS-CoV-2 infection. Using a well-differentiated primary nasal epithelial cell (WD-PNEC) culture model derived from multiple adult donors, we discovered that susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection, but not respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection, varied. One of four donors was resistant to SARS-CoV-2 infection. High baseline IFNλ1 expression levels and associated interferon stimulated genes correlated with resistance to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Inhibition of the JAK/STAT pathway in WD-PNECs with high endogenous IFNλ1 secretion resulted in higher SARS-CoV-2 titres. Conversely, prophylactic IFNλ treatment of WD-PNECs susceptible to infection resulted in reduced viral titres. An endogenously activated IFNλ response, possibly due to genetic differences, may be one explanation for the differences in susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection in humans. Importantly, our work supports the continued exploration of IFNλ as a potential pharmaceutical against SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Humans , Interferons/metabolism , Interferons/pharmacology , Janus Kinases/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , STAT Transcription Factors/metabolism , Signal Transduction
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL