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1.
Lancet ; 399(10337): 1775, 2022 05 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1819633
2.
BMC Geriatr ; 22(1): 105, 2022 02 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1666630

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Brazil is among the countries hit hardest by COVID-19, and older adults are among the vulnerable groups. Intergenerational coresidence and interdependence among family members, both prevalent in Brazil, likely increase social and physical contact and thus potential infection. METHODS: Using nationally representative data from the COVID-19 module of the Brazilian National Household Sample Survey (Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios), collected between July and November of 2020, we examined the association between living arrangements and exposure to and testing for COVID-19 among 63,816 Brazilians aged 60 years and older. We examine whether living arrangements influence self-reported COVID-19 symptoms as an indicator of subjective health assessment, testing as an indicator of health care service use, and a positive COVID-19 test result as an objective indicator of exposure to the disease. RESULTS: Living arrangements shape older adults' vulnerabilities to COVID-19 exposure and testing. Specifically, those living alone were more likely to report having symptoms and having had a test for COVID-19. However, older adults in multigenerational and skipped generation households were more likely than solo-dwellers to test positive for COVID-19. Those with symptoms were more likely to test, regardless of their living arrangement. Among older adults without symptoms, those living alone had a higher probability of testing than those living in multigenerational or skipped-generation households. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, our findings suggest that coresidence with younger family members puts older adults' health at risk in the context of COVID-19. As younger Brazilians are increasingly vulnerable to COVID-19 and experiencing severe outcomes, policy makers need to be more attentive to the health needs of households that comprise older and younger cohorts, which are also more prevalent in poor and marginalized segments of the population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Intergenerational Relations , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 23595, 2021 12 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1561096

ABSTRACT

At a time when the COVID-19 pandemic has been ongoing for more than a year, young people have been the subject of vigilant scrutiny and criticism regarding their active engagement in social activities. We posed the question of whether young people's response to COVID-19 was different from that of other generations and analyzed awareness and behavior to investigate this question. Specifically, we examined internet searches for information on COVID-19 and credit card consumption in South Korea among young people in their 20s and compared them to a reference group of people in their 50s. Our research has confirmed that there was no statistically significant difference between young people and the reference group in this regard. Furthermore, in the 25 sub-sectors of industry we examined, young people's consumption activities recovered significantly faster than the reference group in only three sub-sectors. This study demonstrated that young people showed stronger interest than the reference group in their response to COVID-19, and that they cooperated with the government's social distancing policy by reducing their activities. Through this study, we presented a scientific approach for evaluating young people in regard to their response to COVID-19, offering useful implications for designing appropriate policies for public health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Intergenerational Relations , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Awareness , COVID-19/virology , Databases, Factual , Humans , Middle Aged , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Young Adult
6.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(16)2021 08 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1376830

ABSTRACT

Festive leisure provides experiences that can generate intergenerational well-being. The study aimed to examine the festive leisure activities shared by grandparents and grandchildren, and the link with times, spaces, motives, and well-being that these activities bring to both generations. A cross-sectional telematic survey was carried out with 357 grandparents living in the northern part of Spain, who had grandchildren aged between 6 and 12 years. Both a descriptive and inferential analysis was performed. A high proportion of grandparents and grandchildren share festive activities, which occur on weekends and holiday periods. Private spaces, such as bars, cafeterias, and restaurants are the ones chosen for going out to eat or drink, and open public spaces like parks, squares, and streets are dedicated to traditional festivals, and are excellent scenarios for coexistence and intergenerational social interaction. The reasons that drive this practice are associated with the strengthening of emotional ties and family intimacy. Grandparents consider the practice of shared festive leisure to be beneficial for their personal development because they perceive that, thanks to this leisure, they improve their creativity, physical condition, their happiness and fun, the relationship with their grandchildren, and develop new manual and technical skills.


Subject(s)
Alcoholism , Grandparents , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Intergenerational Relations , Leisure Activities
8.
N Engl J Med ; 384(16): 1488-1489, 2021 Apr 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1201895
9.
J Appl Gerontol ; 40(9): 923-933, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1192095

ABSTRACT

Involuntary job loss during the COVID-19 pandemic adds challenges, especially for custodial grandparents that are taking care of grandchildren. Grandparents are relatively vulnerable, and they need more attention and support when facing the negative impacts of COVID-19. This study analyzed cross-sectional survey data collected from 234 custodial grandparents via Qualtrics Panels in June 2020 in the United States. After using the propensity score weighting adjustment, results from logistic and ordinary least squares regression showed that compared with grandparents that did not lose their job during the pandemic, grandparents that did had more parenting stress and worse mental health. Moderation analysis also showed that social support was a significant moderator of the relationship between job loss and mental health, but not the relationship between job loss and parenting stress. The findings and implications are discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child Custody , Grandparents/psychology , Mental Health , Parenting/psychology , Stress, Psychological , COVID-19/economics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Child , Child Custody/economics , Child Custody/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Intergenerational Relations , Male , Middle Aged , Needs Assessment , Psychosocial Functioning , Social Support , Stress, Psychological/economics , Stress, Psychological/etiology , Unemployment , United States/epidemiology
10.
J Appl Gerontol ; 40(9): 953-957, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1177693

ABSTRACT

This study explored older adults' technology use patterns and attitudes toward virtual volunteering during the COVID-19 pandemic. A 22-item survey was administered to 229 volunteers in the St. Louis region who tutor children through the Oasis Intergenerational Tutoring program. Although most respondents are familiar with technology and expressed that they are likely to volunteer virtually, their responses varied significantly by age, education, gender, income, and school districts. Some tutors expressed that virtual volunteering may eliminate barriers to in-person volunteering, while others were concerned with establishing a personal connection with students online. These findings suggest that tutors anticipate both benefits and challenges with virtual volunteering and that efforts to engage older adults during the pandemic should factor in prior use of technology and ensure that different subgroups are not marginalized.


Subject(s)
Attitude , COVID-19 , Computer Literacy , Education, Distance/methods , Educational Technology/methods , Social Participation/psychology , Teaching , Volunteers/psychology , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Female , Humans , Intergenerational Relations , Interpersonal Relations , Male , Missouri , Teaching/psychology , Teaching/statistics & numerical data , Videoconferencing/instrumentation
11.
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 43(1): 25, 2021 Feb 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1092881

ABSTRACT

As witnessed over the last year, immunity emerged as one of most highly debated topics in the current Covid-19 pandemic. Countries around the globe have been debating whether herd immunity or lockdown is the best response, as the race continues for the development and rollout of effective vaccines against coronavirus and as the economic costs of implementing strict containment measures are weighed against public health costs. What became evident all the more is that immunity is precisely what bridges between biological life and political life in the current climate, be it in terms of the contentious notion of herd immunity, the geopolitical struggle for vaccines, or the possible emergence of "Covid-elite", i.e. holders of so-called "immunity passports". Immunity, as such, is certainly not only a matter of science and biology alone, but is inherently political in the way that pandemics themselves are often highly politicised. Drawing on the work of Roberto Esposito and other literature from the field of biopolitics and immunology, this paper provides a critical examination of the concept of immunity in light of the recent events, highlighting the intersections between the politics of defence and the politics of sacrifice which animate governments' immunitary responses to the Covid-19 pandemic. The paper ends with a discussion on the forms of solidarity and local initiatives that have been mobilised during the current pandemic and their potential for an affirmative form of biopolitics. Overall, the main aim of this paper is to provide a critical cultural and philosophical analysis of Covid-19 debates and responses and a nuanced account on the biopolitical effects of the current pandemic, highlighting the paradoxical nature of immunity which straddles at once negative practices of defence and sacrifice as well as affirmative forms of community and solidarity beyond state apparatuses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Community Participation , Global Health , Government , Immunity, Herd , Immunity , Politics , Armed Conflicts , Humans , Intergenerational Relations , Metaphor , Social Class , Vaccination Coverage
13.
Econ Hum Biol ; 41: 100953, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-996851

ABSTRACT

Available COVID-19 data shows higher shares of cases and deaths occur among Black Americans, but reporting of data by race is poor. This paper investigates disparities in county-level mortality rates across counties with higher and lower than national average Black population shares using nonlinear regression decomposition and estimates potential differential impact of social distancing measures. I find counties with Black population shares above the national share have mortality rates 2 to 3 times higher than in other counties. Observable differences in living conditions, health, and work characteristics reduce the disparity to approximately 1.25 to 1.65 overall, and explain 100% of the disparity at 21 days after the first case. Though higher rates of comorbidities in counties with higher Black population shares are an important predictor, living situation factors like single parenthood and population density are just as important. Higher rates of co-residence with grandchildren explain 11% of the 21 day disparity but do not appear important by 42 days, suggesting families may have been better able to protect vulnerable family members later in the epidemic. To analyze differential effects of social distancing measures use two approaches. First, I exploit the timing of interventions relative to the first case among counties that began their epidemic at the same time. Second, I use event study analysis to analyze within-county changes in mortality. Findings for social distancing measures are not always consistent across approaches. Overall, I find no evidence that school closures were less effective in counties with larger Black population shares, and some estimates suggest closures may have disproportionately helped more diverse counties and counties with high rates of grandparent and grandchild co-residence. Conversely, stay at home orders are less clearly associated with mortality in any counties, reaching peak unemployment did not reduce mortality in any models, and some estimates indicate reaching peak unemployment before the first case was associated with higher mortality rates, especially in more diverse counties.


Subject(s)
African Americans/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19/mortality , Intergenerational Relations , Physical Distancing , Comorbidity , Female , Health Status Disparities , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Schools/statistics & numerical data , Small-Area Analysis , Socioeconomic Factors , United States
14.
J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci ; 76(9): 1799-1807, 2021 10 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-968442

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The World Health Organization launched a recent global campaign to combat ageism, citing its ubiquity and insidious threat to health. The historical context that promoted this pernicious threat is understudied, and such studies lay the critical foundation for designing societal-level campaigns to combat it. We analyzed the trend and content of aging narratives over 210 years across multiple genres-newspaper, magazines, fiction, nonfiction books-and modeled the predictors of the observed trend. METHOD: A 600-million-word dataset was created from the Corpus of Historical American English and the Corpus of Contemporary American English to form the largest structured historical corpus with over 150,000 texts from multiple genres. Computational linguistics and statistical techniques were applied to study the trend, content, and predictors of aging narratives. RESULTS: Aging narratives have become more negative, in a linear fashion (p = .003), over 210 years. There are distinct shifts: From uplifting narratives of heroism and kinship in the 1800s to darker tones of illness, death, and burden in the 1900s across newspapers, magazines, and nonfiction books. Fiction defied this trend by portraying older adults positively through romantic courtship and war heroism. Significant predictors of ageism over 210 years are the medicalization of aging, loss of status, warmth, competence, and social ostracism. DISCUSSION: Though it is unrealistic to reverse the course of ageism, its declining trajectory can be ameliorated. Our unprecedented study lay the groundwork for a societal-level campaign to tackle ageism. The need to act is more pressing given the Covid-19 pandemic where older adults are constantly portrayed as vulnerable.


Subject(s)
Ageism , Aging , COVID-19 , Social Perception , Aged , Ageism/ethics , Ageism/prevention & control , Ageism/trends , Aging/physiology , Aging/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , History , Humans , Intergenerational Relations , Linear Models , Narrative Medicine/methods , Psychology , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Perception/ethics , Social Perception/psychology , Stereotyping
15.
Swiss Med Wkly ; 150: w20416, 2020 11 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-961773

ABSTRACT

AIMS OF THE STUDY: During the transitional phase between the two pandemic waves of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), infection rates were temporarily rising among younger persons only. However, following a temporal delay infections started to expand to older age groups. A comprehensive understanding of such transmission dynamics will be key for managing the pandemic in the time to come and to anticipate future developments. The present study thus extends the scope of previous SARS-CoV-2-related research in Switzerland by contributing to deeper insight into the potential impact of “social mixing” of different age groups on the spread of SARS-CoV-2 infections. METHODS: The present study examined persons aged 65 years and older with respect to possible SARS-CoV-2 exposure risks using longitudinal panel data from the Swiss COVID-19 Social Monitor. The study used data from two assessments (survey “May” and survey “August”). Survey “May” took place shortly after the release of the lockdown in Switzerland. Survey “August” was conducted in mid-August. To identify at-risk elderly persons, we conducted a combined factor/k-means clustering analysis of the survey data assessed in August in order to examine different patterns of adherence to recommended preventive measures. RESULTS: In summary, 270 (survey “May”) and 256 (survey “August”) persons aged 65 years and older were analysed for the present study. Adherence to established preventive measures was similar across the two surveys, whereas adherence pertaining to social contacts decreased substantially from survey “May” to survey “August”. The combined factor/k-means clustering analysis to identify at-risk elderly individuals yielded four distinct groups with regard to different patterns of adherence to recommended preventive measures: a larger group of individuals with many social contacts but high self-reported adherence to preventive measures (n = 86); a small group with many social contacts and overall lower adherence (n = 26); a group with comparatively few contacts and few social activities (n = 66); and a group which differed from the latter through fewer contacts but more social activities (n = 78). Sociodemographic characteristics and risk perception with regard to SARS-CoV-2 infections among the four groups did not differ in a relevant way across the four groups. CONCLUSIONS: Although many elderly persons continued to follow the recommended preventive measures during the transitional phase between the two pandemic waves, social mixing with younger persons constitutes a way for transmission of infections across age groups. Pandemic containment among all age groups thus remains essential to protect vulnerable populations, including the elderly.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Guideline Adherence , Social Behavior , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Cluster Analysis , Female , Humans , Intergenerational Relations , Male , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Switzerland/epidemiology
16.
Econ Hum Biol ; 39: 100934, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-912165

ABSTRACT

We study how patterns of intergenerational residence possibly influence fatalities from Covid-19. We use aggregate data on Covid-19 deaths, the share of young adults living with their parents, and a number of other statistics, for 29 European countries associated with the European Union and all US states. Controlling for population size, we find that more people died from Covid in countries or states with higher rates of intergenerational co-residence. This positive correlation persists even when controlling for date of first death, presence of lockdown, Covid tests per capita, hospital beds per capita, proportion of elderly, GDP per capita, government's political orientation, percentage urban, and rental prices. The positive association between co-residence and fatalities is led by the US.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Family Characteristics , Intergenerational Relations , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , Europe/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Population Density , SARS-CoV-2 , Socioeconomic Factors , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
17.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 17(18)2020 09 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-830991

ABSTRACT

Although up to 8% of European youngsters carry out high-intensity care for a family member, adolescent young carers (AYCs), especially those caring for their grandparents (GrPs), remain an under-researched group. This study aimed at addressing the current knowledge gap by carrying out an online survey in Italy, the Netherlands, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom. The analysis included a final sample of 817 AYCs aged 15-17 years old. AYCs of grandparents (GrPs) were compared to AYCs of other care recipients (OCRs), in order to identify any difference in positive and negative caregiving outcomes and exposure factors between the two groups. Linear or logistic regression models were built, and multivariate analyses were repeated, including a fixed effect on the country variable. AYCs of GrPs experienced more positive caregiving outcomes than AYCs of OCRs across all six countries. Being female or non-binary, and having a migration background, were associated with more negative outcomes, regardless of the relationship with the care recipient. Further research on intergenerational caregiving outcomes is recommended for shaping measures and policies, which preserve the intergenerational emotional bonds, whilst protecting AYCs from inappropriate responsibilities, undermining their mental health and well-being.


Subject(s)
Caregivers/psychology , Grandparents , Intergenerational Relations , Quality of Life , Adolescent , Adolescent Behavior , Europe , Female , Humans , Male , Surveys and Questionnaires
18.
Am J Public Health ; 110(9): 1279-1280, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-833074
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