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1.
J Transl Med ; 20(1): 270, 2022 06 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1902395

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Heart failure (HF) is a global leading cause of mortality despite implementation of guideline directed therapy which warrants a need for novel treatment strategies. Proof-of-concept clinical trials of anakinra, a recombinant human Interleukin-1 (IL-1) receptor antagonist, have shown promising results in patients with HF. METHOD: We designed a single center, randomized, placebo controlled, double-blind phase II randomized clinical trial. One hundred and two adult patients hospitalized within 2 weeks of discharge due to acute decompensated HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) and systemic inflammation (high sensitivity of C-reactive protein > 2 mg/L) will be randomized in 2:1 ratio to receive anakinra or placebo for 24 weeks. The primary objective is to determine the effect of anakinra on peak oxygen consumption (VO2) measured at cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPX) after 24 weeks of treatment, with placebo-corrected changes in peak VO2 at CPX after 24 weeks (or longest available follow up). Secondary exploratory endpoints will assess the effects of anakinra on additional CPX parameters, structural and functional echocardiographic data, noninvasive hemodynamic, quality of life questionnaires, biomarkers, and HF outcomes. DISCUSSION: The current trial will assess the effects of IL-1 blockade with anakinra for 24 weeks on cardiorespiratory fitness in patients with recent hospitalization due to acute decompensated HFrEF. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial was registered prospectively with ClinicalTrials.gov on Jan 8, 2019, identifier NCT03797001.


Subject(s)
Heart Failure , Adult , Double-Blind Method , Humans , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/pharmacology , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/therapeutic use , Interleukin-1 , Quality of Life , Stroke Volume/physiology , Treatment Outcome
2.
Mol Cell Biochem ; 477(3): 711-726, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1616202

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus pandemic has emerged as one of the significant medical-health challenges of the current century. The World Health Organization has named this new virus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Since the first detection of SARS-CoV-2 in November 2019 in Wuhan, China, physicians, researchers, and others have made it their top priority to find drugs and cures that can effectively treat patients and reduce mortality rates. The symptoms of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) include fever, dry cough, body aches, and anosmia. Various therapeutic compounds have been investigated and applied to mitigate the symptoms in COVID-19 patients and cure the disease. Degenerative virus analyses of the infection incidence and COVID-19 have demonstrated that SARS-CoV-2 penetrates the pulmonary alveoli's endothelial cells through Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors on the membrane, stimulates various signaling pathways and causes excessive secretion of cytokines. The continuous triggering of the innate and acquired immune system, as well as the overproduction of pro-inflammatory factors, cause a severe condition in the COVID-19 patients, which is called "cytokine storm". It can lead to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in critical patients. Severe and critical COVID-19 cases demand oxygen therapy and mechanical ventilator support. Various drugs, including immunomodulatory and immunosuppressive agents (e.g., monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and interleukin antagonists) have been utilized in clinical trials. However, the studies and clinical trials have documented diverging findings, which seem to be due to the differences in these drugs' possible mechanisms of action. These drugs' mechanism of action generally includes suppressing or modulating the immune system, preventing the development of cytokine storm via various signaling pathways, and enhancing the blood vessels' diameter in the lungs. In this review article, multiple medications from different drug families are discussed, and their possible mechanisms of action are also described.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/immunology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Immunomodulating Agents/pharmacology , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Azetidines/immunology , Azetidines/pharmacology , COVID-19/etiology , Dexamethasone/immunology , Dexamethasone/pharmacology , Famotidine/immunology , Famotidine/pharmacology , Humans , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/immunology , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Infliximab/immunology , Infliximab/pharmacology , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/immunology , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/pharmacology , Melatonin/immunology , Melatonin/pharmacology , Purines/immunology , Purines/pharmacology , Pyrazoles/immunology , Pyrazoles/pharmacology , Sulfonamides/immunology , Sulfonamides/pharmacology
3.
Indian J Pharmacol ; 53(3): 226-228, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282691

ABSTRACT

Although many potent drugs have been used for cytokine storm, mortality is high for patients with coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), which is followed up in the intensive care unit. Interferons (IFNs) are the major cytokines of the antiviral defense system released from many cell types. However, IFN-γ plays a key role in both primary and secondary cytokine storms. If the cytokine storm is not treated urgently, it will be fatal; therefore, it should be treated immediately. Anakinra, an interleukin-1 (IL-1) antagonist, tocilizumab, an IL-6 antagonist, and Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors are successfully used in cytokine storm caused by COVID-19. However, sometimes, despite these treatments, the patient's clinical course does not improve. Emapalumab (Eb) is the human immunoglobulin G1 monoclonal antibody and is a potent and noncompetitive antagonist of IFN-γ. Eb can be life saving for cytokine storm caused by COVID-19, which is resistant to anakinra, tocilizumab, and JAK inhibitors.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/therapeutic use , Janus Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal/pharmacology , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/pharmacology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/pharmacology , Antirheumatic Agents/pharmacology , Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/epidemiology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Disease Progression , Drug Resistance, Viral , Humans , Interferon-gamma/antagonists & inhibitors , Interferon-gamma/immunology , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/pharmacology , Interleukins/antagonists & inhibitors , Interleukins/immunology , Janus Kinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Recurrence
4.
Crit Care ; 24(1): 688, 2020 12 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-967530

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A subset of critically ill COVID-19 patients develop a hyperinflammatory state. Anakinra, a recombinant interleukin-1 receptor antagonist, is known to be effective in several hyperinflammatory diseases. We investigated the effects of anakinra on inflammatory parameters and clinical outcomes in critically ill, mechanically ventilated COVID-19 patients with clinical features of hyperinflammation. METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, 21 critically ill COVID-19 patients treated with anakinra were compared to a group of standard care. Serial data of clinical inflammatory parameters and concentrations of multiple circulating cytokines were determined and aligned on start day of anakinra in the treatment group, and median start day of anakinra in the control group. Analysis was performed for day - 10 to + 10 relative to alignment day. Clinical outcomes were analyzed during 28 days. Additionally, three sensitivity analyses were performed: (1) using propensity score-matched groups, (2) selecting patients who did not receive corticosteroids, and (3) using a subset of the control group aimed to match the criteria (fever, elevated ferritin) for starting anakinra treatment. RESULTS: Baseline patient characteristics and clinical parameters on ICU admission were similar between groups. As a consequence of bias by indication, plasma levels of aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT) (p = 0.0002), ferritin (p = 0.009), and temperature (p = 0.001) were significantly higher in the anakinra group on alignment day. Following treatment, no relevant differences in kinetics of circulating cytokines were observed between both groups. Decreases of clinical parameters, including temperature (p = 0.03), white blood cell counts (p = 0.02), and plasma levels of ferritin (p = 0.003), procalcitonin (p = 0.001), creatinine (p = 0.01), and bilirubin (p = 0.007), were more pronounced in the anakinra group. No differences in duration of mechanical ventilation or ICU length of stay were observed between groups. Sensitivity analyses confirmed these results. CONCLUSIONS: Anakinra is effective in reducing clinical signs of hyperinflammation in critically ill COVID-19 patients. A randomized controlled trial is warranted to draw conclusion about the effects of anakinra on clinical outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/therapeutic use , Receptors, Interleukin-1/antagonists & inhibitors , Aged , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cohort Studies , Critical Illness/therapy , Female , Humans , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/adverse effects , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/pharmacology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Prospective Studies , Receptors, Interleukin-1/therapeutic use , Statistics, Nonparametric
5.
Theranostics ; 11(1): 316-329, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-922935

ABSTRACT

Severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is characterized by systemic hyper-inflammation, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and multiple organ failure. Cytokine storm refers to a set of clinical conditions caused by excessive immune reactions and has been recognized as a leading cause of severe COVID-19. While comparisons have been made between COVID-19 cytokine storm and other kinds of cytokine storm such as hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis and cytokine release syndrome, the pathogenesis of cytokine storm has not been clearly elucidated yet. Recent studies have shown that impaired response of type-1 IFNs in early stage of COVID-19 infection played a major role in the development of cytokine storm, and various cytokines such as IL-6 and IL-1 were involved in severe COVID-19. Furthermore, many clinical evidences have indicated the importance of anti-inflammatory therapy in severe COVID-19. Several approaches are currently being used to treat the observed cytokine storm associated with COVID-19, and expectations are especially high for new cytokine-targeted therapies, such as tocilizumab, anakinra, and baricitinib. Although a number of studies have been conducted on anti-inflammatory treatments for severe COVID-19, no specific recommendations have been made on which drugs should be used for which patients and when. In this review, we provide an overview of cytokine storm in COVID-19 and treatments currently being used to address it. In addition, we discuss the potential therapeutic role of extracorporeal cytokine removal to treat the cytokine storm associated with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokines/metabolism , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/pharmacology , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Azetidines/pharmacology , Azetidines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Clinical Trials as Topic , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytokines/antagonists & inhibitors , Cytokines/immunology , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/pharmacology , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/pharmacology , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/therapeutic use , Janus Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors , Janus Kinases/metabolism , Purines/pharmacology , Purines/therapeutic use , Pyrazoles/pharmacology , Pyrazoles/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , STAT Transcription Factors/antagonists & inhibitors , STAT Transcription Factors/metabolism , Severity of Illness Index , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Signal Transduction/immunology , Sulfonamides/pharmacology , Sulfonamides/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome
6.
Front Immunol ; 11: 1518, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-644235

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a member of the genus Betacoronavirus within the family Coronaviridae. It is an enveloped single-stranded positive-sense RNA virus. Since December of 2019, a global expansion of the infection has occurred with widespread dissemination of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). COVID-19 often manifests as only mild cold-like symptomatology, but severe disease with complications occurs in 15% of cases. Respiratory failure occurs in severe disease that can be accompanied by a systemic inflammatory reaction characterized by inflammatory cytokine release. In severe cases, fatality is caused by the rapid development of severe lung injury characteristic of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Although ARDS is a complication of SARS-CoV-2 infection, it is not viral replication or infection that causes tissue injury; rather, it is the result of dysregulated hyperinflammation in response to viral infection. This pathology is characterized by intense, rapid stimulation of the innate immune response that triggers activation of the Nod-like receptor family, pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome pathway and release of its products including the proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-1ß. Here we review the literature that describes the pathogenesis of severe COVID-19 and NLRP3 activation and describe an important role in targeting this pathway for the treatment of severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Inflammasomes/antagonists & inhibitors , Inflammasomes/metabolism , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/antagonists & inhibitors , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/metabolism , Furans , Heterocyclic Compounds, 4 or More Rings/pharmacology , Heterocyclic Compounds, 4 or More Rings/therapeutic use , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Indenes , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/pharmacology , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/therapeutic use , Interleukin-1beta/antagonists & inhibitors , Interleukin-1beta/metabolism , Mice , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Pyroptosis/drug effects , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Sesquiterpenes, Guaiane/pharmacology , Sesquiterpenes, Guaiane/therapeutic use , Sulfonamides , Sulfones/pharmacology , Sulfones/therapeutic use
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