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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(9)2022 Apr 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1809944

ABSTRACT

The main aim of this study was to identify the most relevant cytokines which, when assessed in the earliest stages from hospital admission, may help to select COVID-19 patients with worse prognosis. A retrospective observational study was conducted in 415 COVID-19 patients (272 males; mean age 68 ± 14 years) hospitalized between May 2020 and March 2021. Within the first 72 h from hospital admission, patients were tested for a large panel of biomarkers, including C-reactive protein (CRP), Mid-regional proadrenomedullin (MR-proADM), Interferon-γ, interleukin 6 (IL-6), IL-1ß, IL-8, IL-10, soluble IL2-receptor-α (sIL2Rα), IP10 and TNFα. Extensive statistical analyses were performed (correlations, t-tests, ranking tests and tree modeling). The mortality rate was 65/415 (15.7%) and a negative outcome (death and/or orotracheal intubation) affected 98/415 (23.6%) of cases. Univariate tests showed the majority of biomarkers increased in severe patients, but ranking tests helped to select the best variables to put on decisional tree modeling which identified IL-6 as the first dichotomic marker with a cut-off of 114 pg/mL. Then, a good synergy was found between IL-10, MR-proADM, sIL2Rα, IP10 and CRP in increasing the predictive value in classifying patients at risk or not for a negative outcome. In conclusion, beside IL-6, a panel of other cytokines representing the degree of immunoparalysis and the anti-inflammatory response (IP10, sIL2Rα and IL-10) showed synergic role when combined to biomarkers of systemic inflammation and endothelial dysfunction (CRP, MR-proADM) and may also better explain disease pathogenesis and suggests targeted intervention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adrenomedullin , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/diagnosis , Chemokine CXCL10 , Cytokines , Humans , Interleukin-10 , Interleukin-6 , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies
2.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 108: 108773, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1796626

ABSTRACT

Acute lung injury (ALI) or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is one of the leading pulmonary inflammatory disorders causing significant morbidity and mortality. Vincamine is a novel phytochemical with promising anti-inflammatory properties. In the current work, the protective effect of vincamine was studied in vitro (Raw 264.7 macrophages) and in vivo against lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced ALI in Swiss albino mice. Vincamine significantly reduced nitrite and TNF-α release from the LPS stimulated macrophages and increased the levels of IL-10, indicating potent anti-inflammatory effects. It was observed that vincamine at the dose of 40 mg/kg, significantly reduced LPS induced inflammatory cell count in blood and in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. Further, vincamine exerted potent suppression of inflammation by reducing the expression of proinflammatory cytokines, while significantly increased (p < 0.001) the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10 and IL-22). Interestingly, histological changes were reversed in vincamine treated groups in a dose-dependent manner. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed significantly enhanced expression of NF-κB, TNF-α and COX-2 while reduced expression of Nrf-2 in disease control group, which were significantly (p < 0.001) ameliorated by vincamine. We, to the best of our knowledge, report for the first time that vincamine possesses protective potential against LPS induced inflammation and oxidative stress, possibly by inhibiting the NF-κB cascade, while positively regulating the Nrf-2 pathway. These findings are of potential relevance for COVID-19 management concerning the fact that lung injury and ARDS are its critical features.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury , COVID-19 , Catharanthus , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Vincamine , Acute Lung Injury/chemically induced , Acute Lung Injury/drug therapy , Acute Lung Injury/metabolism , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Catharanthus/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , Inflammation/drug therapy , Interleukin-10/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , Lung/pathology , Mice , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Vincamine/metabolism , Vincamine/pharmacology , Vincamine/therapeutic use
3.
Med (N Y) ; 3(4): 233-248.e6, 2022 04 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1783639

ABSTRACT

Background: Patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) develop a febrile pro-inflammatory cytokinemia with accelerated progression to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Here we report the results of a phase 2, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of intravenous (IV) plasma-purified alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) for moderate to severe ARDS secondary to COVID-19 (EudraCT 2020-001391-15). Methods: Patients (n = 36) were randomized to receive weekly placebo, weekly AAT (Prolastin, Grifols, S.A.; 120 mg/kg), or AAT once followed by weekly placebo. The primary endpoint was the change in plasma interleukin (IL)-6 concentration at 1 week. In addition to assessing safety and tolerability, changes in plasma levels of IL-1ß, IL-8, IL-10, and soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (sTNFR1) and clinical outcomes were assessed as secondary endpoints. Findings: Treatment with IV AAT resulted in decreased inflammation and was safe and well tolerated. The study met its primary endpoint, with decreased circulating IL-6 concentrations at 1 week in the treatment group. This was in contrast to the placebo group, where IL-6 was increased. Similarly, plasma sTNFR1 was substantially decreased in the treatment group while remaining unchanged in patients receiving placebo. IV AAT did not definitively reduce levels of IL-1ß, IL-8, and IL-10. No difference in mortality or ventilator-free days was observed between groups, although a trend toward decreased time on ventilator was observed in AAT-treated patients. Conclusions: In patients with COVID-19 and moderate to severe ARDS, treatment with IV AAT was safe, feasible, and biochemically efficacious. The data support progression to a phase 3 trial and prompt further investigation of AAT as an anti-inflammatory therapeutic. Funding: ECSA-2020-009; Elaine Galwey Research Bursary.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , alpha 1-Antitrypsin Deficiency , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Interleukin-10/therapeutic use , Interleukin-6/therapeutic use , Interleukin-8/therapeutic use , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , alpha 1-Antitrypsin/therapeutic use , alpha 1-Antitrypsin Deficiency/drug therapy
4.
Cytokine ; 154: 155874, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1773240

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 virus has infected and killed millions of people, but little is known about the risk factors that lead to the development of severe, mild or asymptomatic conditions after infection. The individual immune response and the balance of cytokines and chemokines have been shown to be important for the prognosis of patients. Additionally, it is essential to understand how the production of specific antibodies with viral neutralizing capacity is established. In this context, this study aimed to identify positive individuals for IgG anti-SARS-CoV-2 in a large population of blood donors (n = 7837) to establish their immune response profile and to evaluate its viral neutralization capacity. The prevalence found for IgG anti-SARS-CoV-2 was 5.6% (n = 441), with male blood donors (61.9%) being more prevalent among the positive ones. The results showed that positive individuals for IgG anti-SARS-CoV-2 have high serum concentrations of chemokines, TNF, IFN-γ and IL-10. The analyses showed that the positivity index for IgG anti-SARS-CoV-2 is associated with the neutralizing capacity of the antibodies, which, in turn, is significantly related to lower serum concentrations of CCL5 and CXCL10. The results allow us to hypothesize that the development and maintenance of IgG anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in infected individuals occurs in a pro-inflammatory microenvironment well regulated by IL-10 with great capacity for recruiting cells from the innate and adaptive immune systems.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral , Blood Donors , COVID-19 , Immunoglobulin G , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Chemokines , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Interferon-gamma , Interleukin-10 , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
5.
J Reprod Immunol ; 151: 103501, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1763858

ABSTRACT

While COVID-19 infection during pregnancy is common, fetal transmission is rare, suggesting that intrauterine mechanisms form an effective blockade against SARS-CoV-2. Key among these is the decidual immune environment of the placenta. We hypothesize that decidual leukocytes are altered by maternal SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnancy and that this decidual immune response is shaped by the timing of infection during gestation. To address this hypothesis, we collected decidua basalis tissues at delivery from women with symptomatic COVID-19 during second (2nd Tri COVID, n = 8) or third trimester (3rd Tri COVID, n = 8) and SARS-CoV-2-negative controls (Control, n = 8). Decidual natural killer (NK) cells, macrophages and T cells were evaluated using quantitative microscopy, and pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine mRNA expression was evaluated using quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR). When compared with the Control group, decidual tissues from 3rd Tri COVID exhibited significantly increased macrophages, NK cells and T cells, whereas 2nd Tri COVID only had significantly increased T cells. In evaluating decidual cytokine expression, we noted that IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and TNF-α were significantly correlated with macrophage cell abundance. However, in 2nd Tri COVID tissues, there was significant downregulation of IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and TNF-α. Taken together, these results suggest innate and adaptive immune responses are present at the maternal-fetal interface in maternal SARS-CoV-2 infections late in pregnancy, and that infections earlier in pregnancy show evidence of a resolving immune response. Further studies are warranted to characterize the full scope of intrauterine immune responses in pregnancies affected by maternal COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Cytokines/metabolism , Decidua , Female , Humans , Immunity , Interleukin-10/metabolism , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Interleukin-8/metabolism , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism
6.
Front Immunol ; 13: 796682, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731771

ABSTRACT

In the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), natural killer T (NKT) cells act as primary initiators of immune responses. However, a decrease of circulating NKT cells has been observed in COVID-19 different stages, of which the underlying mechanism remains to be elucidated. Here, by performing single-cell RNA sequencing analysis in three large cohorts of COVID-19 patients, we found that increased expression of Tim-3 promotes depletion of NKT cells during the progression stage of COVID-19, which is associated with disease severity and outcome of patients with COVID-19. Tim-3+ NKT cells also expressed high levels of CD147 and CD26, which are potential SARS-CoV-2 spike binding receptors. In the study, Tim-3+ NKT cells showed high enrichment of apoptosis, higher expression levels of mitochondrial genes and caspase genes, with a larger pseudo time value. In addition, Tim-3+ NKT cells in COVID-19 presented a stronger capacity to secrete IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-10 compared with healthy individuals, they also demonstrated high expression of co-inhibitory receptors such as PD-1, CTLA-4, and LAG-3. Moreover, we found that IL-12 secreted by dendritic cells (DCs) was positively correlated with up-regulated expression of Tim-3 in NKT cells in COVID-19 patients. Overall, this study describes a novel mechanism by which up-regulated Tim-3 expression induced the depletion and dysfunction of NKT cells in COVID-19 patients. These findings not only have possible implications for the prediction of severity and prognosis in COVID-19 but also provide a link between NKT cells and future new therapeutic strategies in SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Hepatitis A Virus Cellular Receptor 2/immunology , Natural Killer T-Cells/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Humans , Interferon-gamma/immunology , Interleukin-10/immunology , Interleukin-4/immunology , Signal Transduction/immunology
8.
Pain Pract ; 22(4): 453-462, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1677368

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite the wide variety of Covid-19 symptoms, pain and the related mechanisms underlying unsettled nociceptive status are still under-prioritized. Understanding the complex network of Covid-19-related pain may result in new lines of study. It is unknown whether patient's immunological background influences pain in the acute phase of Covid-19, including musculoskeletal pain. Thus, we evaluated the blood levels of selected molecules that are upregulated in SARS-CoV-2 infection and analyzed a possible correlation with pain during Covid-19. METHODS: A cohort of 20 hospitalized patients with confirmed diagnoses for Covid-19 were evaluated in the context of pain. Visual analogic scale (VAS) was applied to quantitate pain level. Blood tests were used to determine the systemic levels of cytokines (IL-10 and IL-1ß), substance P, and leptin. The data were correlated when appropriate to determine the association between pain-related markers and assessed pain intensity. RESULTS: Our findings show that systemic levels of IL-10 have strong negative correlation with pain intensity on Covid-19 patients. Additionally, we also show that leptin systemic levels were increased in Covid-19 patients with pain, however, with moderate positive correlation between these events. IL-1ß and SP levels did not differ between Covid-19 patients with or without pain. Men reported less pain compared to women. No differences were found between genders in the levels of the molecules evaluated in patients with pain. CONCLUSION: IL-10 has been described over the years as an anti-inflammatory and analgesic cytokine. The present data support that low IL-10 levels might contribute to Covid-19-associated pain.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/complications , Cytokines , Female , Humans , Interleukin-10 , Leptin , Male , Pain , SARS-CoV-2
9.
J Oral Biosci ; 64(1): 108-113, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1649575

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Understanding the role of certain salivary components, such as TNF-⍺, IL-6, IL-10, lactoferrin, lysozyme, IgG, IgA, and IgM, in airway defense during the ongoing SARS-CoV-2 pandemic is essential. The salivary immune barrier of patients with COVID-19 may play a role in their prognosis. The present study aims to evaluate the impact of SARS-CoV-2 on saliva composition. METHODS: A longitudinal study was carried out with male and female firefighters aged 24-48 years. The study sample (n = 34) was divided into 3 groups: asymptomatic volunteers with a negative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test for SARS-CoV-2 (group 1, Control, n = 21); patients with symptoms of COVID-19 of less than 7 days' duration and a diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection by PCR (group 2, COVID-19, n = 13); and recovered patients from group 2 who were free of COVID-19 symptoms for at least 2 months (group 3, post-COVID-19 recovery, n = 13). All groups underwent real-time PCR to detect the presence of SARS-CoV-2, as well as analysis of the salivary concentrations of TNF-⍺, IL-6, IL-10, lactoferrin, lysozyme, IgG, IgA, and IgM by the ELISA method. RESULTS: Lactoferrin concentrations were significantly decreased in the infected group (COVID-19) when compared to those not infected by SARS-CoV-2 (control) (p = 0.032). IgA concentrations were decreased in the COVID-19 and post-COVID-19 groups compared to the control group (p = 0.005 and p = 0.016, respectively). Comparison of the COVID-19 and post-COVID-19 groups also revealed an increase in IgM concentrations during acute SARS-CoV-2 infection (p = 0.010). CONCLUSION: SARS-CoV-2 alters the composition of the salivary immune barrier.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin A , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin M , Interleukin-10 , Interleukin-6 , Lactoferrin , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Muramidase , Saliva , Tumor Necrosis Factors/metabolism , Young Adult
10.
Cytokine ; 151: 155804, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1630370

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious respiratory disorder caused by a new coronavirus called SARS-CoV-2. The pathophysiology of severe COVID-19 is associated with a "cytokine storm". IL-32 is a key modulator in the pathogenesis of various clinical conditions and is mostly induced by IL-8. IL-32 modulates important inflammatory pathways (including TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1b), contributing to the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases. Il-32 was never evaluated before in COVID-19 patients stratifying as mild-moderate and severe patients. A total of 64 COVID-19 patients, 27 healthy controls were consecutively enrolled in the study. Serum concentrations of biomarkers including IL-1ß, IL-10, IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-6 were quantified by bead-based multiplex analysis and Serum concentration of IL-8 and IL-32 were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. Interestingly, among the blood parameters, neutrophil and lymphocyte counts were significantly lower in severe COVID-19 patients than in the other, on the contrary, CRP was significantly higher in severe patients than in other groups. The cytokines that best distinguished controls from COVID-19 patients were IL-8 and IL-32, while IL-6 resulted the better variables for discriminate severe group. The best model performance for severe group was obtained by the combination of IL-32, IL-6, IFN-γ, and CRP serum concentration showing an AUC = 0.83. A cut off of 15 pg/ml of IL-6 greatly discriminate survivor from death patients. New insights related to the cytokine storm in COVID-19 patients, highlighting different severity of disease infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Cytokines/blood , Interleukin-8/blood , Interleukins/blood , Lung/immunology , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/blood , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokines/immunology , Female , Humans , Interleukin-10/blood , Interleukin-10/immunology , Interleukin-8/immunology , Interleukins/immunology , Lymphocyte Count/methods , Lymphocytes/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Neutrophils/immunology , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
11.
Nutrients ; 14(2)2022 Jan 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1613925

ABSTRACT

Despite the ongoing vaccination efforts, there is still an urgent need for safe and effective treatments to help curb the debilitating effects of COVID-19 disease. This systematic review aimed to investigate the efficacy of supplemental curcumin treatment on clinical outcomes and inflammation-related biomarker profiles in COVID-19 patients. We searched PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, EMBASE, ProQuest, and Ovid databases up to 30 June 2021 to find studies that assessed the effects of curcumin-related compounds in mild to severe COVID-19 patients. Six studies were identified which showed that curcumin supplementation led to a significant decrease in common symptoms, duration of hospitalization and deaths. In addition, all of these studies showed that the intervention led to amelioration of cytokine storm effects thought to be a driving force in severe COVID-19 cases. This was seen as a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in proinflammatory cytokines such as IL1ß and IL6, with a concomitant significant (p < 0.05) increase in anti-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-10, IL-35 and TGF-α. Taken together, these findings suggested that curcumin exerts its beneficial effects through at least partial restoration of pro-inflammatory/anti-inflammatory balance. In conclusion, curcumin supplementation may offer an efficacious and safe option for improving COVID-19 disease outcomes. We highlight the point that future clinical studies of COVID-19 disease should employ larger cohorts of patients in different clinical settings with standardized preparations of curcumin-related compounds.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Curcumin/administration & dosage , Dietary Supplements , Hospitalization , Phytotherapy/methods , Curcumin/pharmacology , Cytokines/metabolism , Female , Humans , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Interleukin-10/metabolism , Interleukin-1beta/metabolism , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Interleukins/metabolism , Male , Patient Acuity , Transforming Growth Factor alpha/metabolism , Treatment Outcome
12.
Iran J Immunol ; 18(4): 331-337, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1594484

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: According to the World Health Organization, Mexico presents one of the highest mortality rates due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The "cytokine storm" phenomenon has been proposed as a pathological hallmark of severe COVID-19. OBJECTIVE: To determine the association of serum cytokine levels with COVID-19 severity. METHODS: We studied the cytokines IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, and the IFN-γ serum levels through flow cytometry in 56 COVID-19 patients (24 critical and 32 non-critical) from Northwest Mexico. RESULTS: We observed a significant increase in the IL-6 and the IL-10 levels in the sera of critical patients. These cytokines were also associated with mechanical ventilation necessity and death, IL-6 showing AUC values above 0.7 for both variables; and correlated with Na+, creatinine, and platelet levels. On the other hand, no association was found between IL-2, IL-4, TNF-α, and IFN-γ with tested variables. CONCLUSION: Our results corroborate previous observations regarding IL-6 and IL-10 involvement in the severity of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/physiopathology , Interleukin-10/metabolism , Interleukin-6/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/blood , Cytokine Release Syndrome/pathology , Female , Humans , Interleukin-10/blood , Interleukin-6/blood , Male , Mexico , Patient Acuity
14.
Ann Med ; 53(1): 257-266, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574445

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To appraise effective predictors for COVID-19 mortality in a retrospective cohort study. METHODS: A total of 1270 COVID-19 patients, including 984 admitted in Sino French New City Branch (training and internal validation sets randomly split at 7:3 ratio) and 286 admitted in Optical Valley Branch (external validation set) of Wuhan Tongji hospital, were included in this study. Forty-eight clinical and laboratory features were screened with LASSO method. Further multi-tree extreme gradient boosting (XGBoost) machine learning-based model was used to rank importance of features selected from LASSO and subsequently constructed death risk prediction model with simple-tree XGBoost model. Performances of models were evaluated by AUC, prediction accuracy, precision, and F1 scores. RESULTS: Six features, including disease severity, age, levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), ferritin, and interleukin-10 (IL-10), were selected as predictors for COVID-19 mortality. Simple-tree XGBoost model conducted by these features can predict death risk accurately with >90% precision and >85% sensitivity, as well as F1 scores >0.90 in training and validation sets. CONCLUSION: We proposed the disease severity, age, serum levels of hs-CRP, LDH, ferritin, and IL-10 as significant predictors for death risk of COVID-19, which may help to identify the high-risk COVID-19 cases. KEY MESSAGES A machine learning method is used to build death risk model for COVID-19 patients. Disease severity, age, hs-CRP, LDH, ferritin, and IL-10 are death risk factors. These findings may help to identify the high-risk COVID-19 cases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Clinical Decision Rules , Hospitalization , Machine Learning , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Female , Ferritins/metabolism , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Interleukin-10/metabolism , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/metabolism , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
15.
Front Immunol ; 12: 627844, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1573949

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The effective treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains unclear. We reported successful use of high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) in cases of severe COVID-19, but evidence from larger case series is still lacking. METHODS: A multi-center retrospective study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of IVIg administered within two weeks of disease onset at a total dose of 2 g/kg body weight, in addition to standard care. The primary endpoint was 28-day mortality. Efficacy of high-dose IVIg was assessed by using the Cox proportional hazards regression model and the Kaplan-Meier curve adjusted by inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) analysis, and IPTW after multiple imputation (MI) analysis. RESULTS: Overall, 26 patients who received high-dose IVIg with standard therapy and 89 patients who received standard therapy only were enrolled in this study. The IVIg group was associated with a lower 28-day mortality rate and less time to normalization of inflammatory markers including IL-6, IL-10, and ferritin compared with the control. The adjusted HR of 28-day mortality in high-dose IVIg group was 0.24 (95% CI 0.06-0.99, p<0.001) in IPTW model, and 0.27 (95% CI 0.10-0.57, p=0.031) in IPTW-MI model. In subgroup analysis, patients with no comorbidities or treated in the first week of disease were associated with more benefit from high-dose IVIg. CONCLUSIONS: High-dose IVIg administered in severe COVID-19 patients within 14 days of onset was linked to reduced 28-day mortality, more prominent with those having no comorbidities or treated at earlier stage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/administration & dosage , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/blood , China/epidemiology , Disease-Free Survival , Female , Ferritins/blood , Humans , Interleukin-10/blood , Interleukin-6/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate
16.
Viruses ; 13(12)2021 12 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572672

ABSTRACT

Uncontrolled inflammatory responses play a critical role in coronavirus disease (COVID-19). In this context, because the triggering-receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (TREM-1) is considered an intrinsic amplifier of inflammatory signals, this study investigated the role of soluble TREM-1 (sTREM-1) as a biomarker of the severity and mortality of COVID-19. Based on their clinical scores, we enrolled COVID-19 positive patients (n = 237) classified into mild, moderate, severe, and critical groups. Clinical data and patient characteristics were obtained from medical records, and their plasma inflammatory mediator profiles were evaluated with immunoassays. Plasma levels of sTREM-1 were significantly higher among patients with severe disease compared to all other groups. Additionally, levels of sTREM-1 showed a significant positive correlation with other inflammatory parameters, such as IL-6, IL-10, IL-8, and neutrophil counts, and a significant negative correlation was observed with lymphocyte counts. Most interestingly, sTREM-1 was found to be a strong predictive biomarker of the severity of COVID-19 and was related to the worst outcome and death. Systemic levels of sTREM-1 were significantly correlated with the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-8, which can release TREM-1 from the surface of peripheral blood cells. Our findings indicated that quantification of sTREM-1 could be used as a predictive tool for disease outcome, thus improving the timing of clinical and pharmacological interventions in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Leukocytes/metabolism , Matrix Metalloproteinase 8/metabolism , Severity of Illness Index , Triggering Receptor Expressed on Myeloid Cells-1/blood , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Brazil , Female , Humans , Inflammation , Interleukin-10/blood , Interleukin-6/blood , Interleukin-8/blood , Leukocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Neutrophils/metabolism , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Triggering Receptor Expressed on Myeloid Cells-1/metabolism , Young Adult
17.
Viruses ; 13(12)2021 12 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572667

ABSTRACT

Pre-existing comorbidities such as obesity or metabolic diseases can adversely affect the clinical outcome of COVID-19. Chronic metabolic disorders are globally on the rise and often a consequence of an unhealthy diet, referred to as a Western Diet. For the first time in the Syrian hamster model, we demonstrate the detrimental impact of a continuous high-fat high-sugar diet on COVID-19 outcome. We observed increased weight loss and lung pathology, such as exudate, vasculitis, hemorrhage, fibrin, and edema, delayed viral clearance and functional lung recovery, and prolonged viral shedding. This was accompanied by an altered, but not significantly different, systemic IL-10 and IL-6 profile, as well as a dysregulated serum lipid response dominated by polyunsaturated fatty acid-containing phosphatidylethanolamine, partially recapitulating cytokine and lipid responses associated with severe human COVID-19. Our data support the hamster model for testing restrictive or targeted diets and immunomodulatory therapies to mediate the adverse effects of metabolic disease on COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects , Dietary Carbohydrates/adverse effects , Lipid Metabolism , Severity of Illness Index , Animals , COVID-19/pathology , Cricetinae , Cytokines/blood , Disease Models, Animal , Edema , Fibrin , Hemorrhage , Humans , Interleukin-10 , Interleukin-6 , Lipidomics , Lipids/blood , Liver/pathology , Lung/pathology , Male , Mesocricetus , Obesity , SARS-CoV-2 , Sugars , Vasculitis/pathology , Virus Shedding
18.
Microvasc Res ; 140: 104303, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1568955

ABSTRACT

Systemic inflammatory response, as observed in sepsis and severe COVID-19, may lead to endothelial damage. Therefore, we aim to compare the extent of endothelial injury and its relationship to inflammation in both diseases. We included patients diagnosed with sepsis (SEPSIS group, n = 21), mild COVID-19 (MILD group, n = 31), and severe COVID-19 (SEVERE group, n = 24). Clinical and routine laboratory data were obtained, circulating cytokines (INF-γ, TNF-α, and IL-10) and endothelial injury markers (E-Selectin, Tissue Factor (TF) and von Willebrand factor (vWF)) were measured. Compared to the SEPSIS group, patients with severe COVID-19 present similar clinical and laboratory data, except for lower circulating IL-10 and E-Selectin levels. Compared to the MILD group, patients in the SEVERE group showed higher levels of TNF-α, IL-10, and TF. There was no clear relationship between cytokines and endothelial injury markers among the three studied groups; however, in SEVERE COVID-19 patients, there is a positive relationship between INF-γ with TF and a negative relationship between IL-10 and vWF. In conclusion, COVID-19 and septic patients have a similar pattern of cytokines and endothelial dysfunction markers. These findings highlight the importance of endothelium dysfunction in COVID-19 and suggest that endothelium should be better evaluated as a therapeutic target for the disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Endothelium, Vascular/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sepsis/pathology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/blood , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers , Blood Cell Count , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , E-Selectin/blood , Female , Humans , Interferon-gamma/blood , Interleukin-10/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Sepsis/blood , Sepsis/complications , Sepsis/physiopathology , Severity of Illness Index , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/etiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/physiopathology , Thromboplastin/analysis , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/analysis , von Willebrand Factor/analysis
19.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 7222, 2021 12 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1565718

ABSTRACT

Multi-system Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) is a major complication of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in pediatric patients. Weeks after an often mild or asymptomatic initial infection with SARS-CoV-2 children may present with a severe shock-like picture and marked inflammation. Children with MIS-C present with varying degrees of cardiovascular and hyperinflammatory symptoms. Here we perform a comprehensive analysis of the plasma proteome of more than 1400 proteins in children with SARS-CoV-2. We hypothesize that the proteome would reflect heterogeneity in hyperinflammation and vascular injury, and further identify pathogenic mediators of disease. We show that protein signatures demonstrate overlap between MIS-C, and the inflammatory syndromes macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) and thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA). We demonstrate that PLA2G2A is an important marker of MIS-C that associates with TMA. We find that IFNγ responses are dysregulated in MIS-C patients, and that IFNγ levels delineate clinical heterogeneity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Endothelium, Vascular/physiopathology , Interferon-gamma/immunology , Proteome , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/pathology , Biomarkers , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , Case-Control Studies , Chemokine CXCL9 , Child , Group II Phospholipases A2 , Humans , Inflammation , Interleukin-10 , Proteomics , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/metabolism , Vascular Diseases
20.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0260623, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1546962

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Cytokines are major mediators of COVID-19 pathogenesis and several of them are already being regarded as predictive markers for the clinical course and outcome of COVID-19 cases. A major pitfall of many COVID-19 cytokine studies is the lack of a benchmark sampling timing. Since cytokines and their relative change during an infectious disease course is quite dynamic, we evaluated the predictive value of serially measured cytokines for COVID-19 cases. METHODS: In this single-center, prospective study, a broad spectrum of cytokines were determined by multiplex ELISA assay in samples collected at admission and at the third day of hospitalization. Appropriateness of cytokine levels in predicting mortality were assessed by receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analyses for both sampling times in paralel to conventional biomarkers. RESULTS: At both sampling points, higher levels of IL-6, IL-7, IL-10, IL-15, IL-27 IP-10, MCP-1, and GCSF were found to be more predictive for mortality (p<0.05). Some of these cytokines, such as IL-6, IL-10, IL-7 and GCSF, had higher sensitivity and specificity in predicting mortality. AUC values of IL-6, IL-10, IL-7 and GCSF were 0.85 (0.65 to 0.92), 0.88 (0.73 to 0.96), 0.80 (0.63 to 0.91) and 0.86 (0.70 to 0.95), respectively at hospital admission. Compared to hospital admission, on the 3rd day of hospitalization serum levels of IL-6 and, IL-10 decreased significantly in the survivor group, unlike the non-survivor group (IL-6, p = 0.015, and IL-10, p = 0.016). CONCLUSION: Our study results suggest that single-sample-based cytokine analyzes can be misleading and that cytokine levels measured serially at different sampling times provide a more precise and accurate estimate for the outcome of COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Cytokines/blood , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/mortality , Chemokine CCL2/blood , Chemokine CXCL10/blood , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor/blood , Humans , Interleukin-10/blood , Interleukin-15/blood , Interleukin-27/blood , Interleukin-6/blood , Interleukin-7/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , Prospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
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