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1.
Pain Pract ; 22(4): 453-462, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1677368

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite the wide variety of Covid-19 symptoms, pain and the related mechanisms underlying unsettled nociceptive status are still under-prioritized. Understanding the complex network of Covid-19-related pain may result in new lines of study. It is unknown whether patient's immunological background influences pain in the acute phase of Covid-19, including musculoskeletal pain. Thus, we evaluated the blood levels of selected molecules that are upregulated in SARS-CoV-2 infection and analyzed a possible correlation with pain during Covid-19. METHODS: A cohort of 20 hospitalized patients with confirmed diagnoses for Covid-19 were evaluated in the context of pain. Visual analogic scale (VAS) was applied to quantitate pain level. Blood tests were used to determine the systemic levels of cytokines (IL-10 and IL-1ß), substance P, and leptin. The data were correlated when appropriate to determine the association between pain-related markers and assessed pain intensity. RESULTS: Our findings show that systemic levels of IL-10 have strong negative correlation with pain intensity on Covid-19 patients. Additionally, we also show that leptin systemic levels were increased in Covid-19 patients with pain, however, with moderate positive correlation between these events. IL-1ß and SP levels did not differ between Covid-19 patients with or without pain. Men reported less pain compared to women. No differences were found between genders in the levels of the molecules evaluated in patients with pain. CONCLUSION: IL-10 has been described over the years as an anti-inflammatory and analgesic cytokine. The present data support that low IL-10 levels might contribute to Covid-19-associated pain.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Interleukin-10/blood , COVID-19/complications , Cytokines , Female , Humans , Leptin , Male , Pain , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Cytokine ; 151: 155804, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1630370

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious respiratory disorder caused by a new coronavirus called SARS-CoV-2. The pathophysiology of severe COVID-19 is associated with a "cytokine storm". IL-32 is a key modulator in the pathogenesis of various clinical conditions and is mostly induced by IL-8. IL-32 modulates important inflammatory pathways (including TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1b), contributing to the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases. Il-32 was never evaluated before in COVID-19 patients stratifying as mild-moderate and severe patients. A total of 64 COVID-19 patients, 27 healthy controls were consecutively enrolled in the study. Serum concentrations of biomarkers including IL-1ß, IL-10, IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-6 were quantified by bead-based multiplex analysis and Serum concentration of IL-8 and IL-32 were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. Interestingly, among the blood parameters, neutrophil and lymphocyte counts were significantly lower in severe COVID-19 patients than in the other, on the contrary, CRP was significantly higher in severe patients than in other groups. The cytokines that best distinguished controls from COVID-19 patients were IL-8 and IL-32, while IL-6 resulted the better variables for discriminate severe group. The best model performance for severe group was obtained by the combination of IL-32, IL-6, IFN-γ, and CRP serum concentration showing an AUC = 0.83. A cut off of 15 pg/ml of IL-6 greatly discriminate survivor from death patients. New insights related to the cytokine storm in COVID-19 patients, highlighting different severity of disease infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Cytokines/blood , Interleukin-8/blood , Interleukins/blood , Lung/immunology , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/blood , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokines/immunology , Female , Humans , Interleukin-10/blood , Interleukin-10/immunology , Interleukin-8/immunology , Interleukins/immunology , Lymphocyte Count/methods , Lymphocytes/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Neutrophils/immunology , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
3.
Iran J Immunol ; 18(4): 331-337, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1594484

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: According to the World Health Organization, Mexico presents one of the highest mortality rates due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The "cytokine storm" phenomenon has been proposed as a pathological hallmark of severe COVID-19. OBJECTIVE: To determine the association of serum cytokine levels with COVID-19 severity. METHODS: We studied the cytokines IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, and the IFN-γ serum levels through flow cytometry in 56 COVID-19 patients (24 critical and 32 non-critical) from Northwest Mexico. RESULTS: We observed a significant increase in the IL-6 and the IL-10 levels in the sera of critical patients. These cytokines were also associated with mechanical ventilation necessity and death, IL-6 showing AUC values above 0.7 for both variables; and correlated with Na+, creatinine, and platelet levels. On the other hand, no association was found between IL-2, IL-4, TNF-α, and IFN-γ with tested variables. CONCLUSION: Our results corroborate previous observations regarding IL-6 and IL-10 involvement in the severity of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/physiopathology , Interleukin-10/metabolism , Interleukin-6/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/blood , Cytokine Release Syndrome/pathology , Female , Humans , Interleukin-10/blood , Interleukin-6/blood , Male , Mexico , Patient Acuity
4.
Front Immunol ; 12: 627844, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1573949

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The effective treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains unclear. We reported successful use of high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) in cases of severe COVID-19, but evidence from larger case series is still lacking. METHODS: A multi-center retrospective study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of IVIg administered within two weeks of disease onset at a total dose of 2 g/kg body weight, in addition to standard care. The primary endpoint was 28-day mortality. Efficacy of high-dose IVIg was assessed by using the Cox proportional hazards regression model and the Kaplan-Meier curve adjusted by inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) analysis, and IPTW after multiple imputation (MI) analysis. RESULTS: Overall, 26 patients who received high-dose IVIg with standard therapy and 89 patients who received standard therapy only were enrolled in this study. The IVIg group was associated with a lower 28-day mortality rate and less time to normalization of inflammatory markers including IL-6, IL-10, and ferritin compared with the control. The adjusted HR of 28-day mortality in high-dose IVIg group was 0.24 (95% CI 0.06-0.99, p<0.001) in IPTW model, and 0.27 (95% CI 0.10-0.57, p=0.031) in IPTW-MI model. In subgroup analysis, patients with no comorbidities or treated in the first week of disease were associated with more benefit from high-dose IVIg. CONCLUSIONS: High-dose IVIg administered in severe COVID-19 patients within 14 days of onset was linked to reduced 28-day mortality, more prominent with those having no comorbidities or treated at earlier stage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/administration & dosage , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/blood , China/epidemiology , Disease-Free Survival , Female , Ferritins/blood , Humans , Interleukin-10/blood , Interleukin-6/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate
5.
Viruses ; 13(12)2021 12 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572672

ABSTRACT

Uncontrolled inflammatory responses play a critical role in coronavirus disease (COVID-19). In this context, because the triggering-receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (TREM-1) is considered an intrinsic amplifier of inflammatory signals, this study investigated the role of soluble TREM-1 (sTREM-1) as a biomarker of the severity and mortality of COVID-19. Based on their clinical scores, we enrolled COVID-19 positive patients (n = 237) classified into mild, moderate, severe, and critical groups. Clinical data and patient characteristics were obtained from medical records, and their plasma inflammatory mediator profiles were evaluated with immunoassays. Plasma levels of sTREM-1 were significantly higher among patients with severe disease compared to all other groups. Additionally, levels of sTREM-1 showed a significant positive correlation with other inflammatory parameters, such as IL-6, IL-10, IL-8, and neutrophil counts, and a significant negative correlation was observed with lymphocyte counts. Most interestingly, sTREM-1 was found to be a strong predictive biomarker of the severity of COVID-19 and was related to the worst outcome and death. Systemic levels of sTREM-1 were significantly correlated with the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-8, which can release TREM-1 from the surface of peripheral blood cells. Our findings indicated that quantification of sTREM-1 could be used as a predictive tool for disease outcome, thus improving the timing of clinical and pharmacological interventions in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Leukocytes/metabolism , Matrix Metalloproteinase 8/metabolism , Severity of Illness Index , Triggering Receptor Expressed on Myeloid Cells-1/blood , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Brazil , Female , Humans , Inflammation , Interleukin-10/blood , Interleukin-6/blood , Interleukin-8/blood , Leukocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Neutrophils/metabolism , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Triggering Receptor Expressed on Myeloid Cells-1/metabolism , Young Adult
6.
Microvasc Res ; 140: 104303, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1568955

ABSTRACT

Systemic inflammatory response, as observed in sepsis and severe COVID-19, may lead to endothelial damage. Therefore, we aim to compare the extent of endothelial injury and its relationship to inflammation in both diseases. We included patients diagnosed with sepsis (SEPSIS group, n = 21), mild COVID-19 (MILD group, n = 31), and severe COVID-19 (SEVERE group, n = 24). Clinical and routine laboratory data were obtained, circulating cytokines (INF-γ, TNF-α, and IL-10) and endothelial injury markers (E-Selectin, Tissue Factor (TF) and von Willebrand factor (vWF)) were measured. Compared to the SEPSIS group, patients with severe COVID-19 present similar clinical and laboratory data, except for lower circulating IL-10 and E-Selectin levels. Compared to the MILD group, patients in the SEVERE group showed higher levels of TNF-α, IL-10, and TF. There was no clear relationship between cytokines and endothelial injury markers among the three studied groups; however, in SEVERE COVID-19 patients, there is a positive relationship between INF-γ with TF and a negative relationship between IL-10 and vWF. In conclusion, COVID-19 and septic patients have a similar pattern of cytokines and endothelial dysfunction markers. These findings highlight the importance of endothelium dysfunction in COVID-19 and suggest that endothelium should be better evaluated as a therapeutic target for the disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Endothelium, Vascular/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sepsis/pathology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/blood , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers , Blood Cell Count , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , E-Selectin/blood , Female , Humans , Interferon-gamma/blood , Interleukin-10/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Sepsis/blood , Sepsis/complications , Sepsis/physiopathology , Severity of Illness Index , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/etiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/physiopathology , Thromboplastin/analysis , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/analysis , von Willebrand Factor/analysis
7.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0260623, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1546962

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Cytokines are major mediators of COVID-19 pathogenesis and several of them are already being regarded as predictive markers for the clinical course and outcome of COVID-19 cases. A major pitfall of many COVID-19 cytokine studies is the lack of a benchmark sampling timing. Since cytokines and their relative change during an infectious disease course is quite dynamic, we evaluated the predictive value of serially measured cytokines for COVID-19 cases. METHODS: In this single-center, prospective study, a broad spectrum of cytokines were determined by multiplex ELISA assay in samples collected at admission and at the third day of hospitalization. Appropriateness of cytokine levels in predicting mortality were assessed by receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analyses for both sampling times in paralel to conventional biomarkers. RESULTS: At both sampling points, higher levels of IL-6, IL-7, IL-10, IL-15, IL-27 IP-10, MCP-1, and GCSF were found to be more predictive for mortality (p<0.05). Some of these cytokines, such as IL-6, IL-10, IL-7 and GCSF, had higher sensitivity and specificity in predicting mortality. AUC values of IL-6, IL-10, IL-7 and GCSF were 0.85 (0.65 to 0.92), 0.88 (0.73 to 0.96), 0.80 (0.63 to 0.91) and 0.86 (0.70 to 0.95), respectively at hospital admission. Compared to hospital admission, on the 3rd day of hospitalization serum levels of IL-6 and, IL-10 decreased significantly in the survivor group, unlike the non-survivor group (IL-6, p = 0.015, and IL-10, p = 0.016). CONCLUSION: Our study results suggest that single-sample-based cytokine analyzes can be misleading and that cytokine levels measured serially at different sampling times provide a more precise and accurate estimate for the outcome of COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Cytokines/blood , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/mortality , Chemokine CCL2/blood , Chemokine CXCL10/blood , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor/blood , Humans , Interleukin-10/blood , Interleukin-15/blood , Interleukin-27/blood , Interleukin-6/blood , Interleukin-7/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , Prospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
8.
J Med Virol ; 94(4): 1457-1464, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525468

ABSTRACT

Since the outbreak of COVID-19 in China, it has rapidly spread across many other countries. We evaluated antioxidant defense systems and inflammatory status related to the SARS-CoV2 infection in a population from southwestern Iran. Comorbidities and clinical symptoms of 104 subjects (comprising negative and positive-PCR COVID-19 outpatients) were assessed. Serum concentrations of glutathione reductase (GR) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) were measured using ELISA. In the positive-PCR group, follow-ups on clinical symptoms were carried out for 28 days at 7-day intervals. In the positive-PCR group, hypertension, diabetes, liver disease, chronic heart disease, and chronic kidney disease were the most common comorbidities. In the general category of symptoms, we found a significant difference between negative and positive-PCR groups, except regarding runny noses. In the pulmonary category, there was a significant difference between the two groups except in terms of chest pain. We also determined a significant difference in neurologic symptoms, except for ear pain, between negative and positive-PCR groups. We also found significantly lower levels of GR but higher levels of IL-10 in the positive-PCR group (p = 0.000 for both). In the positive-PCR group, serum levels of IL-10 (odds ratio = 0.914, p = 0.012) decreased the chances of neurological symptoms occurring over time. The antioxidant defense systems of positive-PCR outpatients failed as demonstrated by a reduction in the serum levels of GR. We also indicated a dysregulation in the immune response against COVID-19, characterized by changes in serum IL-10 levels.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis , Glutathione Reductase/blood , Interleukin-10/blood , COVID-19/blood , Comorbidity , Cross-Sectional Studies , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Humans , Iran , Male , Outpatients , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Symptom Assessment
9.
Cells ; 10(11)2021 11 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1523883

ABSTRACT

While the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and/or COVID-19 disease progression in the general population has been largely assessed, its impact on HIV-positive individuals remains unclear. We present clinical and immunological data collected in a cohort of HIV-infected young individuals during the first wave of COVID-19 pandemic. SARS-CoV-2 RNA, virus-specific antibodies, as well as the expression of factors involved in the anti-viral immune response were analyzed. Moreover, we set up an in vitro coinfection assay to study the mechanisms correlated to the coinfection process. Our results did not show any increased risk of severe COVID-19 in HIV-positive young individuals. In those subjects who contracted SARS-CoV-2 infection, an increase in IL-10 expression and production was observed. Furthermore, in the in vitro coinfection assay, we revealed a reduction in SARS-CoV-2 replication associated to an upregulation of IL-10. We speculate that IL-10 could play a crucial role in the course of SARS-CoV-2 infection in HIV-positive individuals. These results might help defining clinical management of HIV/SARS-CoV-2 co-infected young individuals, or putative indications for vaccination schedules in this population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Coinfection/immunology , HIV Infections/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/virology , Child , Child, Preschool , Coinfection/virology , HIV Infections/virology , Humans , Infant , Inflammation , Interleukin-10/blood , Interleukin-10/genetics , Male , RNA, Messenger/blood , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Young Adult
10.
Viruses ; 13(10)2021 10 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463839

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection in children can trigger cardiovascular manifestations potentially requiring an intensive treatment and defining a new entity named Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C), whose features partially overlap with Kawasaki Disease (KD). A cross-sectional study including all diagnoses of MIS-C and KD from April 2020 to May 2021 in our metropolitan area was conducted evaluating clinical, laboratory (including immunological response, cytokines, and markers of myocardial damage), and cardiac (coronary and non-coronary) features at onset of the diseases. Evolution of ventricular dysfunction, valve regurgitations, and coronary lesions was documented. The severity of the disease was also considered based on the need for inotropic support and ICU admission. Twenty-four MIS-C were diagnosed (14 boys, median age 82 months): 13/24 cases (54.17%) presented left ventricular dysfunction, 12/24 (50%) required inotropic support, and 10/24 (41.67%) developed coronary anomalies (CALs). All patients received steroids and IVIG at a median time of 5 days (IQR1:4, IQR3:6.5) from onset of fever and heart function normalized 6 days (IQR1: 5, IQR3: 7) after therapy, while CALs persisted in one. One patient (12.5%) required infliximab because of refractory disease and still presented CALs 18 days after therapy. During the same study period, 15 KD were diagnosed: none had ventricular dysfunction, while 7/15 (46.67%) developed CALs. Three out of 15 patients (20%) still presented CALs 46 days from onset. Compared to KD, MIS-C pts have significantly higher IL8 and similar lymphocytes subpopulations. Despite a more severe presentation and initial cardiac findings compared to KD, the myocardial injury in MIS-C has a rapid response to immunomodulatory treatment (median time 6 days), in terms of ventricular function, valve regurgitations, and troponin. Incidence of CALs is similar at onset, but it tends to regress in most of the cases of MIS-C differently than in KD where CALs persist in up to 40% in the subacute stage after treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/pathology , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/pathology , Myocardium/pathology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/pathology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/pathology , Adolescent , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Interleukin-10/blood , Interleukin-8/blood , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/diagnosis , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/virology
11.
Front Immunol ; 12: 693269, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389185

ABSTRACT

Chronic immune activation has been considered as the driving force for CD4+ T cell depletion in people infected with HIV-1. Interestingly, the normal immune profile of adult HIV-negative individuals living in Africa also exhibit chronic immune activation, reminiscent of that observed in HIV-1 infected individuals. It is characterized by increased levels of soluble immune activation markers, such as the cytokines interleukin (IL)-4, IL-10, TNF-α, and cellular activation markers including HLA-DR, CD-38, CCR5, coupled with reduced naïve and increased memory cells in CD4+ and CD8+ subsets. In addition, it is accompanied by low CD4+ T cell counts when compared to Europeans. There is also evidence that mononuclear cells from African infants secrete less innate cytokines than South and North Americans and Europeans in vitro. Chronic immune activation in Africans is linked to environmental factors such as parasitic infections and could be responsible for previously observed immune hypo-responsiveness to infections and vaccines. It is unclear whether the immunogenicity and effectiveness of anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccines will also be reduced by similar mechanisms. A review of studies investigating this phenomenon is urgently required as they should inform the design and delivery for vaccines to be used in African populations.


Subject(s)
CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Immunogenicity, Vaccine/immunology , Lymphocyte Activation/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , ADP-ribosyl Cyclase 1/blood , Africa , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , HLA-DR Antigens/blood , Humans , Interleukin-10/blood , Interleukin-4/blood , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/metabolism , Membrane Glycoproteins/blood , Receptors, CCR5/blood , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood
12.
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 404-406, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1377591

ABSTRACT

The presence of a complex immune dysregulation syndrome has been established in COVID-19 patients. We aimed to assess Th1/Th2 response in COVID-19 patients and its association with disease severity by performing a prospective cohort study in a tertiary hospital COVID-19 referral center. We report no difference between Th1/Th2 responses between patients with severe and mild disease, except for levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-10. Future larger studies should examine lung-specific versus systemic inflammatory responses, as well as, diverse immunotypes driving poor clinical outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Interleukin-10/blood , Interleukin-6/blood , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Th1 Cells/immunology , Th2 Cells/immunology , Female , Greece , Humans , Inflammation/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index
13.
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 154-160, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1370370

ABSTRACT

In this study, we investigated the role and relationship between the cytokine profile and protective vitamin D by measuring their serum levels in COVID-19 intensive care unit patients with severe illnesses. A total of 74 patients were included in our study. Patients were divided into two groups. Patients in the COVID-19 group (n = 31) and individuals without a history of serious illness or infection were used as the control group (n = 43). The serum concentrations of interleukin-1 (IL-1), IL-6, IL-10, IL-21, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Levels of serum vitamin D were detected with Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry methodologies. TNF-α, IL-1, IL-6, IL-10, IL-21, and vitamin D levels were measured in all patients. The serum cytokine levels in the COVID-19 patient group were significantly higher (151.59 ± 56.50, 140.37 ± 64.32, 249.02 ± 62.84, 129.04 ± 31.64, and 123.58 ± 24.49, respectively) than control groups. Serum vitamin D was also significantly low (6.82 ± 3.29) in patients in the COVID-19 group than the controls (21.96 ± 5.39). Regarding the correlation of vitamin D with cytokine levels, it was significantly variable. Our study shows that COVID-19 patients are associated with lower serum vitamin D and higher pro-inflammatory cytokines associated with increased virus presence. Our data provide more evidence of the anti-inflammatory effect of vitamin D on COVID-19 patients and the protective effects of vitamin D on risk were demonstrated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Cytokines/blood , Vitamin D/blood , Female , Humans , Inflammation , Interleukin-1/blood , Interleukin-10/blood , Interleukin-6/blood , Interleukins/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood
14.
Cell Transplant ; 30: 9636897211024942, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1285159

ABSTRACT

The aim of this clinical trial was to control the cytokine storm by administering mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to critically-ill COVID-19 patients, to evaluate the healing effect, and to systematically investigate how the treatment works. Patients with moderate and critical COVID-19 clinical manifestations were separated as Group 1 (moderate cases, n = 10, treated conventionally), Group 2 (critical cases, n = 10, treated conventionally), and Group 3 (critical cases, n = 10, treated conventionally plus MSCs transplantation therapy of three consecutive doses on treatment days 0, 3, and 6, (as 3 × 106 cells/kg, intravenously). The treatment mechanism of action was investigated with evaluation markers of the cytokine storm, via biochemical parameters, levels of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines, analyses of tissue regeneration via the levels of growth factors, apoptosis markers, chemokines, matrix metalloproteinases, and granzyme-B, and by the assessment of the immunomodulatory effects via total oxidant/antioxidant status markers and the levels of lymphocyte subsets. In the assessment of the overall mortality rates of all the cases, six patients in Group-2 and three patients in Group-3 died, and there was no loss in Group-1. Proinflammatory cytokines IFNγ, IL-6, IL-17A, IL-2, IL-12, anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-10, IL-13, IL-1ra, and growth factors TGF-ß, VEGF, KGF, and NGF levels were found to be significant in Group-3. When Group-2 and Group-3 were compared, serum ferritin, fibrinogen and CRP levels in Group-3 had significantly decreased. CD45 +, CD3 +, CD4 +, CD8 +, CD19 +, HLA-DR +, and CD16 + / CD56 + levels were evaluated. In the statistical comparison of the groups, significance was only determined in respect of neutrophils. The results demonstrated the positive systematic and cellular effects of MSCs application on critically ill COVID-19 patients in a versatile way. This effect plays an important role in curing and reducing mortality in critically ill patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Adult , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Critical Illness , Cytokines/blood , Female , Humans , Interferon-gamma/blood , Interleukin-10/blood , Interleukin-8/blood , Leukocyte Common Antigens/metabolism , Lymphocytes/cytology , Lymphocytes/metabolism , Male , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/cytology , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/metabolism , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome
15.
Pharmacol Res ; 159: 104946, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1279674

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has sparked a global pandemic, affecting more than 4 million people worldwide. The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) can cause acute lung injury (ALI) and even acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS); with a fatality of 7.0 %. Accumulating evidence suggested that the progression of COVID-19 is associated with lymphopenia and excessive inflammation, and a subset of severe cases might exhibit cytokine storm triggered by secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (sHLH). Furthermore, secondary bacterial infection may contribute to the exacerbation of COVID-19. We recommend using both IL-10 and IL-6 as the indicators of cytokine storm, and monitoring the elevation of procalcitonin (PCT) as an alert for initiating antibacterial agents. Understanding the dynamic progression of SARS-CoV-2 infection is crucial to determine an effective treatment strategy to reduce the rising mortality of this global pandemic.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/etiology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Cytokines/blood , Disease Progression , Humans , Interleukin-10/blood , Interleukin-6/blood , Lymphopenia/etiology , Lymphopenia/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Procalcitonin/blood , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Virol J ; 18(1): 117, 2021 06 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259206

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To date, specific cytokines associated with development of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and extrapulmonary multiple organ dysfunction (MOD) in COVID-19 patients have not been systematically described. We determined the levels of inflammatory cytokines in patients with COVID-19 and their relationships with ARDS and extrapulmonary MOD. METHODS: The clinical and laboratory data of 94 COVID-19 patients with and without ARDS were analyzed. The levels of inflammatory cytokines (interleukin 6 [IL-6], IL-8, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor α [TNF-α]) were measured on days 1, 3, and 5 following admission. Seventeen healthy volunteers were recruited as controls. Correlations in the levels of inflammatory cytokines with clinical and laboratory variables were analyzed, furthermore, we also explored the relationships of different cytokines with ARDS and extrapulmonary MOD. RESULTS: The ARDS group had higher serum levels of all 4 inflammatory cytokines than the controls, and these levels steadily increased after admission. The ARDS group also had higher levels of IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10 than the non-ARDS group, and the levels of these cytokines correlated significantly with coagulation parameters and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). The levels of IL-6 and TNF-α correlated with the levels of creatinine and urea nitrogen, and were also higher in ARDS patients with acute kidney injury (AKI). All 4 inflammatory cytokines had negative correlations with PaO2/FiO2. IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α had positive correlations with the APACHE-II score. Relative to survivors, non-survivors had higher levels of IL-6 and IL-10 at admission, and increasing levels over time. CONCLUSIONS: The cytokine storm apparently contributed to the development of ARDS and extrapulmonary MOD in COVID-19 patients. The levels of IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10 correlated with DIC, and the levels of IL-6 and TNF-α were associated with AKI. Relative to survivors, patients who died within 28 days had increased levels of IL-6 and IL-10.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Cytokine Release Syndrome/blood , Cytokines/blood , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/blood , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Aged , Blood Urea Nitrogen , COVID-19/pathology , Creatinine/blood , Cytokine Release Syndrome/diagnosis , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/blood , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/pathology , Female , Humans , Interleukin-10/blood , Interleukin-6/blood , Interleukin-8/blood , Male , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/pathology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood
17.
Platelets ; 32(8): 1092-1102, 2021 Nov 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1230987

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 has spread rapidly worldwide, causing the COVID-19 pandemic. Platelet activation and platelet-leukocyte complex formation are proposed to contribute to disease progression. Here, we report platelet and leukocyte activation during acute and convalescent COVID-19 in patients recruited between May-July 2020. Blood samples were analyzed by flow cytometry and ELISA using paired comparison between inclusion (day 0) and 28 days later. The majority of patients were mildly or moderately ill with significantly higher cytokine levels (IL-6 and IL-10) on day 0 as compared with day 28. Platelet activation and granule release were significantly higher on day 0 compared with day 28, as determined by ADP- or thrombin-induced surface CD62P expression, baseline released CD62P, and thrombin-induced platelet-monocyte complex formation. Monocyte activation and procoagulant status at baseline and post activation were heterogeneous but generally lower on day 0 compared with day 28. Baseline and thrombin- or fMLF-induced neutrophil activation and procoagulant status were significantly lower on day 0 compared with day 28. We demonstrate that during the acute phase of COVID-19 compared with the convalescent phase, platelets are more responsive while neutrophils are less responsive. COVID-19 is associated with thromboembolic events where platelet activation and interaction with leukocytes may play an important role.


Subject(s)
Blood Platelets , COVID-19 , Convalescence , Monocytes , Neutrophil Activation , Neutrophils , Platelet Activation , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Acute Disease , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Blood Platelets/metabolism , Blood Platelets/pathology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/pathology , Female , Flow Cytometry , Humans , Interleukin-10/blood , Interleukin-6/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Monocytes/metabolism , Monocytes/pathology , Neutrophils/metabolism , Neutrophils/pathology
18.
Ann Clin Biochem ; 58(5): 434-444, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1216860

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recently, studies on COVID-19 have focused on the epidemiology of the disease and clinical characteristics of patients, as well as on the risk factors associated with mortality during hospitalization in critical COVID-19 cases. However, few research has been performed on the prediction of disease progression in particular group of patients in the early stages of COVID-19. METHODS: The study included 338 patients with COVID-19 treated at two hospitals in Wuhan, China, from December 2019 to March 2020. Predictors of the progression of COVID-19 from mild to severe stages were selected by the logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: COVID-19 progression to severe and critical stages was confirmed in 78 (23.1%) patients. The average value of the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) was higher in patients in the disease progression group than in the improvement group. Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that elevated NLR, LDH and IL-10 were independent predictors of disease progression. The optimal cut-off value of NLR was 3.75. The values of the area under the curve, reflecting the accuracy of predicting COVID-19 progression by NLR was 0.739 (95%CI: 0.605-0.804). The risk model based on NLR, LDH and IL-10 had the highest area under the ROC curve. CONCLUSIONS: The performed analysis demonstrates that high concentrations of NLR, LDH and IL-10 were independent risk factors for predicting disease progression in patients at the early stage of COVID-19. The risk model combined with NLR, LDH and IL-10 improved the accuracy of the prediction of disease progression in patients in the early stages of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , China/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Interleukin-10/blood , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Logistic Models , Lymphocytes/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Neutrophils/immunology , Propensity Score , Risk Factors
19.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0250330, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1207631

ABSTRACT

The emergence of the novel coronavirus and then pandemic outbreak was coined 2019- nCoV or COVID-19 (or SARS-CoV-2 disease 2019). This disease has a mortality rate of about 3·7 percent, and successful therapy is desperately needed to combat it. The exact cellular mechanisms of COVID-19 need to be illustrated in detail. This study aimed to evaluate serum cytokines in COVID-19 patients. In this study, serum was collected from volunteer individuals, moderate COVID-19 patients, severe cases of COVID-19 patients, and patients who recovered from COVID-19 (n = 122). The serum concentrations of interleukins such as IL-1, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). The concentrations of IL-1 and TNF-α were did not differ significantly among groups. However, the concentration of IL-6 was significantly higher in moderate COVID-19 and severe cases of COVID-19 groups compared to control and recovered groups indicating it to be an independent predictor in the coronavirus disease. The levels of IFN-γ and IL-4 were significantly lower in the recovery group than the severe case of the COVID-19 group. In contrast, the level of IL-10 in recovered COVID-19 patients was significantly higher in compare to severe cases, COVID-19 patients. Varying levels of cytokines were detected in COVID-19 group than control group suggesting distinct immunoregulatory mechanisms involved in COVID-19 pathogenesis. However, additional investigations are needed to be to be performed to understand the exact cellular mechanism of this disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Cytokines/blood , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Interferon-gamma/blood , Interleukin-10/blood , Interleukin-4/blood , Interleukin-6/blood , Iraq/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood , Young Adult
20.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 97: 107685, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1188659

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The 2019 Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic poses a huge threat internationally; however, the role of the host immune system in the pathogenesis of COVID-19 is not well understood. METHODS: Cytokine and chemokine levels and characterisation of immune cell subsets from 20 COVID-19 cases after hospital admission (17 critically ill and 3 severe patients) and 16 convalescent patients were determined using a multiplex immunoassay and flow cytometry, respectively. RESULTS: IP-10, MCP-1, MIG, IL-6, and IL-10 levels were significantly higher in acute severe/critically ill patients with COVID-19, whereas were normal in patients who had reached convalescence. CD8 T cells in severe and critically ill COVID-19 patients expressed high levels of cytotoxic granules (granzyme B and perforin)and was hyperactivated as evidenced by the high proportions of CD38. Furthermore, the cytotoxic potential of natural killer (NK) cells, and the frequencies of myeloid dendritic cells and plasmacytoid dendritic cells was reduced in patients with severe and critical COVID-19; however, these dysregulations were found to be restored in convalescent phases. CONCLUSION: Thus, elicitation of the hyperactive cytokine-mediated inflammatory response, dysregulation of CD8 T and NK cells, and deficiency of host myeloid and plasmacytoid DCs, may contribute to COVID-19 pathogenesis and provide insights into potential therapeutic targets and strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Convalescence , Inflammation/etiology , ADP-ribosyl Cyclase 1/blood , Acute Disease , Adult , Aged , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/enzymology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Chemokine CCL2/blood , Chemokine CXCL10/blood , Chemokine CXCL9/blood , Critical Illness , Cytokine Release Syndrome/blood , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Dendritic Cells/immunology , Female , Granzymes/metabolism , Humans , Interleukin-10/blood , Interleukin-6/blood , Killer Cells, Natural/enzymology , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Male , Membrane Glycoproteins/blood , Middle Aged , Perforin/metabolism
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