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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(10)2023 May 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235659

ABSTRACT

The Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment analyzes the health and quality of life of the elderly. Basic and instrumental daily activities may be compromised due to neuroimmunoendocrine changes, and studies suggest that possible immunological changes occur during infections in the elderly. Thus, this study aimed to analyze cytokine and melatonin levels in serum and correlate the Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment in elderly patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. The sample consisted of 73 elderly individuals, 43 of whom were without infection and 30 of whom had positive diagnoses of COVID-19. Blood samples were collected to quantify cytokines by flow cytometry and melatonin by ELISA. In addition, structured and validated questionnaires were applied to assess basic (Katz) and instrumental (Lawton and Brody) activities. There was an increase in IL-6, IL-17, and melatonin in the group of elderly individuals with infection. In addition, a positive correlation was observed between melatonin and IL-6 and IL-17 in elderly patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Furthermore, there was a reduction in the score of the Lawton and Brody Scale in the infected elderly. These data suggest that the melatonin hormone and inflammatory cytokines are altered in the serum of the elderly with SARS-CoV-2 infection. In addition, there is a degree of dependence, mainly regarding the performance of daily instrumental activities, in the elderly. The considerable impact on the elderly person's ability to perform everyday tasks necessary for independent living is an extremely important result, and changes in cytokines and melatonin probably are associated with alterations in these daily activities of the elderly.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Melatonin , Humans , Aged , Interleukin-17 , Quality of Life , Interleukin-6 , Activities of Daily Living , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1001198, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2326316

ABSTRACT

Background: There is evidence that the adaptive or acquired immune system is one of the crucial variables in differentiating the course of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). This work aimed to analyze the immunopathological aspects of adaptive immunity that are involved in the progression of this disease. Methods: This is a systematic review based on articles that included experimental evidence from in vitro assays, cohort studies, reviews, cross-sectional and case-control studies from PubMed, SciELO, MEDLINE, and Lilacs databases in English, Portuguese, or Spanish between January 2020 and July 2022. Results: Fifty-six articles were finalized for this review. CD4+ T cells were the most resolutive in the health-disease process compared with B cells and CD8+ T lymphocytes. The predominant subpopulations of T helper lymphocytes (Th) in critically ill patients are Th1, Th2, Th17 (without their main characteristics) and regulatory T cells (Treg), while in mild cases there is an influx of Th1, Th2, Th17 and follicular T helper cells (Tfh). These cells are responsible for the secretion of cytokines, including interleukin (IL) - 6, IL-4, IL-10, IL-7, IL-22, IL-21, IL-15, IL-1α, IL-23, IL-5, IL-13, IL-2, IL-17, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), CXC motivating ligand (CXCL) 8, CXCL9 and tumor growth factor beta (TGF-ß), with the abovementioned first 8 inflammatory mediators related to clinical benefits, while the others to a poor prognosis. Some CD8+ T lymphocyte markers are associated with the severity of the disease, such as human leukocyte antigen (HLA-DR) and programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1). Among the antibodies produced by SARS-CoV-2, Immunoglobulin (Ig) A stood out due to its potent release associated with a more severe clinical form. Conclusions: It is concluded that through this study it is possible to have a brief overview of the main immunological biomarkers and their function during SARS-CoV-2 infection in particular cell types. In critically ill individuals, adaptive immunity is varied, aberrantly compromised, and late. In particular, the T-cell response is also an essential and necessary component in immunological memory and therefore should be addressed in vaccine formulation strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor , SARS-CoV-2 , Interleukin-10 , Interleukin-15 , Interleukin-17 , Interleukin-13 , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Cross-Sectional Studies , Critical Illness , Ligands , Interleukin-2 , Interleukin-4 , Interleukin-5 , Interleukin-7 , Adaptive Immunity , HLA-DR Antigens , Interleukin-23 , Inflammation Mediators , Transforming Growth Factor beta , Immunoglobulins
3.
Cells ; 12(9)2023 04 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2318072

ABSTRACT

As autophagy can promote or inhibit inflammation, we examined autophagy-inflammation interplay in COVID-19. Autophagy markers in the blood of 19 control subjects and 26 COVID-19 patients at hospital admission and one week later were measured by ELISA, while cytokine levels were examined by flow cytometric bead immunoassay. The antiviral IFN-α and proinflammatory TNF, IL-6, IL-8, IL-17, IL-33, and IFN-γ were elevated in COVID-19 patients at both time points, while IL-10 and IL-1ß were increased at admission and one week later, respectively. Autophagy markers LC3 and ATG5 were unaltered in COVID-19. In contrast, the concentration of autophagic cargo receptor p62 was significantly lower and positively correlated with TNF, IL-10, IL-17, and IL-33 at hospital admission, returning to normal levels after one week. The expression of SARS-CoV-2 proteins NSP5 or ORF3a in THP-1 monocytes caused an autophagy-independent decrease or autophagy-inhibition-dependent increase, respectively, of intracellular/secreted p62, as confirmed by immunoblot/ELISA. This was associated with an NSP5-mediated decrease in TNF/IL-10 mRNA and an ORF3a-mediated increase in TNF/IL-1ß/IL-6/IL-10/IL-33 mRNA levels. A genetic knockdown of p62 mimicked the immunosuppressive effect of NSP5, and a p62 increase in autophagy-deficient cells mirrored the immunostimulatory action of ORF3a. In conclusion, the proinflammatory autophagy receptor p62 is reduced inacute COVID-19, and the balance between autophagy-independent decrease and autophagy blockade-dependent increase of p62 levels could affect SARS-CoV-induced inflammation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Inflammation , Humans , Autophagy , COVID-19/pathology , Inflammation/metabolism , Interleukin-10/blood , Interleukin-17/blood , Interleukin-33/blood , Interleukin-6/blood , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue ; 35(1): 32-36, 2023 Jan.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2306016

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the epidemic characteristics and clinical key indicators of the patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 of the local Omicron variant epidemic, to understand the clinical characteristics of mild and severe patients, and to provide a scientific basis for the effective treatment and prevention of severe disease. METHODS: From January 2020 to March 2022, the clinical and laboratory data of COVID-19 patients admitted to the Fifth People's Hospital of Wuxi were retrospective analyzed, including virus gene subtypes, demographic information, clinical classification, main clinical symptoms, and key indicators of clinical testing, and the changes of clinical characteristics of the patients infected with SARS-CoV-2. RESULTS: A total of 150 patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection were admitted, 78, 52 and 20 in 2020, 2021 and 2022, including 10, 1 and 1 severe patient, and the main infected virus strains were L, Delta, and Omicron variants. The relapse rate of patients infected with the Omicron variant was as high as 15.0% (3/20), the incidence of diarrhea decreased to 10.0% (2/20), the incidence of severe disease decreased to 5.0% (1/20), and the number of hospitalization days of mild patients increased compared with 2020 (days: 20.43±1.78 vs. 15.84±1.12); respiratory symptoms were reduced, and the proportion of pulmonary lesions decreased to 10.5%; the virus titer of severely ill patients with SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant infection (day 3) was higher than that of L-type strain (Ct value: 23.92±1.16 vs. 28.19±1.54). The acute plasma cytokines interleukin (IL-6, IL-10) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were significantly lower in patients with severe Omicron variant new coronavirus infection than those with mild disease [IL-6 (ng/L): 3.92±0.24 vs. 6.02±0.41, IL-10 (ng/L): 0.58±0.01 vs. 4.43±0.32, TNF-α (ng/L): 1.73±0.02 vs. 6.91±1.25, all P < 0.05], while γ-interferon (IFN-γ) and IL-17A were significantly higher than patients with mild disease [IFN-γ (ng/L): 23.07±0.17 vs. 13.52±2.34, IL-17A (ng/L): 35.58±0.08 vs. 26.39±1.37, both P < 0.05]. Compared with previous epidemics (2020 and 2021), the proportion of CD4/CD8 ratio, lymphocyte count, eosinophil and serum creatinine decreased in patients with mild Omicron infection in 2022 (36.8% vs. 22.1%, 9.8%; 36.8% vs. 23.5%, 7.8%; 42.1% vs. 41.2%, 15.7%; 42.1% vs. 19.1%, 9.8%), the proportion of patients with elevated monocyte count and procalcitonin was large (42.1% vs. 50.0%, 23.5%; 21.1% vs. 5.9%, 0). CONCLUSIONS: The incidences of severe disease in patients with SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant infection was significantly lower than that of previous epidemics, and the occurrence of severe diseases was still related to the underlying diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epidemics , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Interleukin-10 , Interleukin-17 , Interleukin-6 , Retrospective Studies , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
5.
Viruses ; 15(4)2023 04 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2305267

ABSTRACT

New antiviral treatments are needed to deal with the unpredictable emergence of viruses. Furthermore, vaccines and antivirals are only available for just a few viral infections, and antiviral drug resistance is an increasing concern. Cyanidin (a natural product also called A18), a key flavonoid that is present in red berries and other fruits, attenuates the development of several diseases, through its anti-inflammatory effects. Regarding its mechanism of action, A18 was identified as an IL-17A inhibitor, resulting in the attenuation of IL-17A signaling and associated diseases in mice. Importantly, A18 also inhibits the NF-κB signaling pathway in different cell types and conditions in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we report that A18 restricts RSV, HSV-1, canine coronavirus, and SARS-CoV-2 multiplication, indicating a broad-spectrum antiviral activity. We also found that A18 can control cytokine and NF-κB induction in RSV-infected cells independently of its antiviral activity. Furthermore, in mice infected with RSV, A18 not only significantly reduces viral titers in the lungs, but also diminishes lung injury. Thus, these results provide evidence that A18 could be used as a broad-spectrum antiviral and may contribute to the development of novel therapeutic targets to control these viral infections and pathogenesis.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , COVID-19 , Mice , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Interleukin-17 , Flavonoids/pharmacology
6.
Int J Immunogenet ; 50(3): 117-126, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2292823

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious respiratory disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Although the mortality rate of the disease has been relatively under control as of 2022, more than 15 million confirmed COVID-19 cases have been detected in Turkey to date, causing more than 100,000 deaths. The clinical manifestation of the disease varies widely, ranging from asymptomatic to acute respiratory distress syndrome causing death. The immune response mechanisms have an important impact on the fine adjustment between healing and enhanced tissue damage. This study aims to investigate the relationship between the variants of the interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (IL1RN), interleukin 17A (IL17A), and interleukin 17F (IL17F) genes and COVID-19 severity. The study population comprised 202 confirmed COVID-19 cases divided into three groups according to severity. The IL1RN variable number of a tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphism was genotyped by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and IL17A rs2275913, IL17F rs763780 and rs2397084 polymorphisms were genotyped by the PCR-based restriction fragment length polymorphism method. Statistical analysis revealed a significant association between IL17A rs2275913 variant and COVID-19 severity. The AA genotype and the A allele of IL17A rs2275913 were found significant in the severe group. Additionally, we found a significant relationship between haplotype frequency distributions and severity of COVID-19 for the IL17F rs763780/rs2397084 (p = 0.044) and a combination of IL17F rs763780/rs2397084/ IL17A rs2275913 (p = 0.04). The CG and CGA haplotype frequencies were significantly higher in the severe group. IL17A rs2275913, IL17F rs763780 and rs2397084 variants appear to have important effects on the immune response in COVID-19. In conclusion, variants of IL17A rs2275913, IL17F rs763780 and rs2397084 may be the predictive markers for the clinical course and potential immunomodulatory treatment options in COVID-19, a disease that has placed a significant burden on our country.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Interleukin-17 , Humans , Interleukin-17/genetics , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , COVID-19/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Genotype , Disease Progression , Case-Control Studies
7.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 56: e0565, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2292441

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) requiring hospitalization continue to appear in vulnerable populations, highlighting the importance of novel treatments. The hyperinflammatory response underlies the severity of the disease, and targeting this pathway may be useful. Herein, we tested whether immunomodulation focusing on interleukin (IL)-6, IL-17, and IL-2, could improve the clinical outcomes of patients admitted with COVID-19. METHODS: This multicenter, open-label, prospective, randomized controlled trial was conducted in Brazil. Sixty hospitalized patients with moderate-to-critical COVID-19 received in addition to standard of care (SOC): IL-17 inhibitor (ixekizumab 80 mg SC/week) 1 dose every 4 weeks; low-dose IL-2 (1.5 million IU per day) for 7 days or until discharge; or indirect IL-6 inhibitor (colchicine) orally (0.5 mg) every 8 hours for 3 days, followed by 4 weeks at 0.5 mg 2x/day; or SOC alone. The primary outcome was accessed in the "per protocol" population as the proportion of patients with clinical improvement, defined as a decrease greater or equal to two points on the World Health Organization's (WHO) seven-category ordinal scale by day 28. RESULTS: All treatments were safe, and the efficacy outcomes did not differ significantly from those of SOC. Interestingly, in the colchicine group, all participants had an improvement of greater or equal to two points on the WHO seven-category ordinal scale and no deaths or patient deterioration were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Ixekizumab, colchicine, and IL-2 were demonstrated to be safe but ineffective for COVID-19 treatment. These results must be interpreted cautiously because of the limited sample size.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Interleukin-17 , Interleukin-2 , SARS-CoV-2 , Colchicine/adverse effects , Cytokines , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Prospective Studies , Pilot Projects , Standard of Care , Treatment Outcome
8.
Eur Cytokine Netw ; 33(3): 54-69, 2022 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2296047

ABSTRACT

Interleukin-38 (IL-38) is the most recent member of the IL-1 family that acts as a natural inflammatory inhibitor by binding to cognate receptors, particularly the IL-36 receptor. In vitro, animal and human studies on autoimmune, metabolic, cardiovascular and allergic diseases, as well sepsis and respiratory viral infections, have shown that IL-38 exerts an anti-inflammatory activity by modulating the generation and function of inflammatory cytokines (e.g. IL-6, IL-8, IL-17 and IL-36) and regulating dendritic cells, M2 macrophages and regulatory T cells (Tregs). Accordingly, IL-38 may possess therapeutic potential for these types of diseases. IL-38 down-regulates CCR3+ eosinophil cells, CRTH2+ Th2 cells, Th17 cells, and innate lymphoid type 2 cells (ILC2), but up-regulates Tregs, and this has influenced the design of immunotherapeutic strategies based on regulatory cells/cytokines for allergic asthma in future studies. In auto-inflammatory diseases, IL-38 alleviates skin inflammation by regulating γδ T cells and limiting the production of IL-17. Due to its ability to suppress IL-1ß, IL-6 and IL-36, this cytokine could reduce COVID-19 severity, and might be employed as a therapeutic tool. IL-38 may also influence host immunity and/or the components of the cancer microenvironment, and has been shown to improve the outcome of colorectal cancer, and may participate in tumour progression in lung cancer possibly by modulating CD8 tumour infiltrating T cells and PD-L1 expression. In this review, we first briefly present the biological and immunological functions of IL-38, and then discuss the important roles of IL-38 in various types of diseases, and finally highlight its use in therapeutic strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Interleukin-17 , Animals , Humans , Interleukin-17/metabolism , Immunity, Innate , Interleukin-6 , Clinical Relevance , Lymphocytes/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , Interleukins
9.
Egypt J Immunol ; 30(2): 119-130, 2023 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2295618

ABSTRACT

Severe COVID-19 disease was linked to a severe proinflammatory response and cytokine storm interleukin 17 (IL-17) is one of these cytokines, was associated with severe acute lung injury and multiorgan dysfunction. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes coding IL-17 can affect level of IL-17 hence its role in diseases. Also, SNPs in IL-23 R which control IL-23 is the main activator of IL-17 production. This study aimed to determine whether the IL-17A (G/A-rs2275913), IL-23R (A/G rs11209026) SNPs and serum levels of IL-17 were related to the risk of severe COVID-19. This case-control study included 120 confirmed COVID-19 patients, divided into two categories according to the severity of the disease and 74 normal subjects as controls. COVID-19 patients were SARS-CoV-2 positive by a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and subjected to full clinical examinations, routine laboratory tests, and radiographic evaluations. The IL-17 levels were assessed using ELISA method, and genotyping of IL-17A (197 A/G; rs2275913) and IL-23R rs11209026 (A/G) was performed by the TaqMan Genotyping Assay. There were no differences in the distribution of IL-17A or IL-23R genotypes between COVID-19 groups and the control group (p=0.93 and p=0.84, respectively). Severe COVID-19 patients had significantly higher IL-17 serum levels than non-severe COVID-19 (p=0.0001). The GG genotypes of IL-17A were significantly higher in severe COVID-19 patients (p=0.004). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that AG, GG genotypes of IL-17 and IL-17A were independent predictors of COVID-19 disease severity (p < 0.0001, p=0.06 and p=0.04, respectively). ROC curve analysis for IL-17, as predictor of severe COVID-19 disease revealed a sensitivity of 87.9% and specificity of 66.1% at a cutoff point of 114 pg/ml with AUC = 0.799. In conclusion, these findings indicated that IL-17 may be considered a marker of severe COVID-19. IL-17A SNPs may have a role in COVID-19 severity. IL-23R SNPs had no role in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Interleukin-17 , Humans , Interleukin-17/genetics , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Case-Control Studies , COVID-19/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Genotype , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Interleukin-23/genetics
10.
Immunobiology ; 228(3): 152384, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2303646

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 Associated Mucormycosis (CAM), an opportunistic fungal infection, surged during the second wave of SARS Cov-2 pandemic. Since immune responses play an important role in controlling this infection in immunocompetent hosts, it is required to understand immune perturbations associated with this condition for devising immunotherapeutic strategies for its control. We conducted a study to determine different immune parameters altered in CAM cases as compared to COVID-19 patients without CAM. METHODOLOGY: Cytokine levels in serum samples of CAM cases (n = 29) and COVID-19 patients without CAM (n = 20) were determined using luminex assay. Flow cytometric assays were carried out in 20 CAM cases and 10 controls for determination of frequency of NK cells, DCs, phagocytes, T cells and their functionalities. The cytokine levels were analyzed for their association with each other as well as with T cell functionality. The immune parameters were also analyzed with respect to the known risk factors such as diabetes mellitus and steroid treatment. RESULTS: Significant reduction in frequencies of total and CD56 + CD16 + NK cells (cytotoxic subset) was noted in CAM cases. Degranulation responses indicative of cytotoxicity of T cell were significantly hampered in CAM cases as compared to the controls. Conversely, phagocytic functions showed no difference in CAM cases versus their controls except for migratory potential which was found to be enhanced in CAM cases. Levels of proinflammatory cytokines such as IFN-γ, IL-2, TNF-α, IL-17, IL-1ß, IL-18 and MCP-1 were significantly elevated in cases as compared to the control with IFN-γ and IL-18 levels correlating negatively with CD4 T cell cytotoxicity. Steroid administration was associated with higher frequency of CD56 + CD16- NK cells (cytokine producing subset) and higher MCP-1 levels. Whereas diabetic participants had higher phagocytic and chemotactic potential and had higher levels of IL-6, IL-17 and MCP-1. CONCLUSION: CAM cases differed from the controls in terms of higher titers of proinflammatory cytokines, reduced frequency of total and cytotoxic CD56 + CD16 + NK cell. They also had reduced T cell cytotoxicity correlating inversely with IFN-γ and IL-18 levels, possibly indicating induction of negative feedback mechanisms while diabetes mellitus or steroid administration did not affect the responses negatively.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mucormycosis , Humans , Interleukin-18 , Interleukin-17 , Cytokines , Steroids
11.
Ann Acad Med Singap ; 52(2): 80-87, 2023 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2287682

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: There is a paucity of information on the cytokine, complement, endothelial activation, and coagulation profiles of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in adults (MIS-A), a rare but serious complication following recovery from SARS-CoV-2 infection. We aim to examine the immune biomarker and coagulation profiles in association with the clinical presentation and course of MIS-A. METHOD: The clinical features of MIS-A patients admitted to our tertiary hospital were documented. Their levels of interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17, IL-18, interferon-α (IFN-α), IFN-γ, interferon gamma-induced protein 10 (IP-10), tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, complement activation product (complement 5a [C5a]), and endothelial biomarker intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) levels were assayed. The haemostatic profile was assessed with standard coagulation testing and thromboelastography. RESULTS: Three male patients were diagnosed with MIS-A at our centre from January to June 2022 with a median age of 55 years. All had tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 12-62 days prior to MIS-A presentation, with gastrointestinal and cardiovascular systems as the most commonly involved. Levels of IL-6, IL-10, IL-18, IP-10 and MCP-1 were raised whereas IL-1ß, IFN-α, IFN-γ, IL-17 and TNF-α remained normal. Markedly elevated levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), ferritin and ICAM-1 were present in all. C5a was elevated in 2 patients. A hypercoagulable state was demonstrated by raised levels of D-dimer, factor VIII, von Willebrand factor antigen, and ristocetin cofactor with corresponding raised parameters in thromboelastography in the 2 patients who had their coagulation profile assessed. CONCLUSION: MIS-A patients demonstrate activation of pro-inflammatory cytokines, endotheliopathy, complement hyperactivation and hypercoagulability.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Connective Tissue Diseases , Hemostatics , Humans , Adult , Male , Middle Aged , COVID-19/complications , Interleukin-10 , Interleukin-18 , Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 , Interleukin-17 , Chemokine CXCL10 , Interleukin-6 , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Viruses ; 15(3)2023 02 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2287002

ABSTRACT

Impaired immunogenicity of COVID-19 vaccinations in inflammatory arthritis (IA) patients results in diminished immunity. However, optimal booster vaccination regimens are still unknown. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the kinetics of humoral and cellular responses in IA patients after the COVID-19 booster. In 29 IA patients and 16 healthy controls (HC), humoral responses (level of IgG antibodies) and cellular responses (IFN-γ production) were assessed before (T0), after 4 weeks (T1), and after more than 6 months (T2) from the booster vaccination with BNT162b2. IA patients, but not HC, showed lower anti-S-IgG concentration and IGRA fold change at T2 compared to T1 (p = 0.026 and p = 0.031). Furthermore, in IA patients the level of cellular response at T2 returned to the pre-booster level (T0). All immunomodulatory drugs, except IL-6 and IL-17 inhibitors for the humoral and IL-17 inhibitors for the cellular response, impaired the immunogenicity of the booster dose at T2. Our study showed impaired kinetics of both humoral and cellular responses after the booster dose of the COVID-19 vaccine in IA patients, which, in the case of cellular response, did not allow the vaccination effect to be maintained for more than 6 months. Repetitive vaccination with subsequent booster doses seems to be necessary for IA patients.


Subject(s)
Arthritis , COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines , BNT162 Vaccine , Interleukin-17 , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunoglobulin G , Vaccination , Antibodies, Viral
13.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 3884, 2023 03 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2286227

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is spreading rapidly around the world. However, the treatment of vitiligo combined with COVID-19 has not been reported. Astragalus membranaceus (AM) has a therapeutic effect on patients with vitiligo and COVID-19. This study aims to discover its possible therapeutic mechanisms and provide potential drug targets. Using the Chinese Medicine System Pharmacological Database (TCMSP), GEO database and Genecards websites and other databases, AM target, vitiligo disease target, and COVID-19 related gene set were established. Then find the crossover genes by taking the intersection. Then use GO, KEGG enrichment analysis, and PPI network to discover its underlying mechanism. Finally, by importing drugs, active ingredients, crossover genes, and enriched signal pathways into Cytoscape software, a "drug-active ingredient-target signal pathway-" network is constructed. TCMSP screened and obtained 33 active ingredients including baicalein (MOL002714), NEOBAICALEIN (MOL002934), Skullcapflavone II (MOL002927), and wogonin (MOL000173), which acted on 448 potential targets. 1166 differentially expressed genes for vitiligo were screened by GEO. CIVID-19 related genes were screened by Genecards. Then by taking the intersection, a total of 10 crossover genes (PTGS2, CDK1, STAT1, BCL2L1, SCARB1, HIF1A, NAE1, PLA2G4A, HSP90AA1, and HSP90B1) were obtained. KEGG analysis found that it was mainly enriched in signaling pathways such as IL-17 signaling pathway, Th17 cell differentiation, Necroptosis, NOD-like receptor signaling pathway. Five core targets (PTGS2, STAT1, BCL2L1, HIF1A, and HSP90AA1) were obtained by analyzing the PPI network. The network of "active ingredients-crossover genes" was constructed by Cytoscape, and the 5 main active ingredients acting on the 5 core crossover genes acacetin, wogonin, baicalein, bis2S)-2-ethylhexyl) benzene-1,2-dicarboxylate and 5,2'-Dihydroxy-6,7,8-trimethoxyflavone. The core crossover genes obtained by PPI and the core crossover genes obtained by the "active ingredient-crossover gene" network are intersected to obtain the three most important core genes (PTGS2, STAT1, HSP90AA1). AM may act on PTGS2, STAT1, HSP90AA1, etc. through active components such as acacetin, wogonin, baicalein, bis2S)-2-ethylhexyl) benzene-1,2-dicarboxylate and 5,2'-Dihydroxy-6,7,8-trimethoxyflavone to activate IL-17 signaling pathway, Th17 cell differentiation, Necroptosis, NOD-like receptor signaling pathway, Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus infection, and VEGF signaling pathway and other signaling pathways to achieve the effect of treating vitiligo and COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Hypopigmentation , Vitiligo , Humans , Vitiligo/drug therapy , Vitiligo/genetics , Astragalus propinquus , Interleukin-17 , Network Pharmacology , Benzene , Cyclooxygenase 2 , Computational Biology , NLR Proteins , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Molecular Docking Simulation , Medicine, Chinese Traditional
14.
Int J Med Sci ; 20(4): 530-541, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2280444

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 is known to disrupt immune response and induce hyperinflammation that could potentially induce fatal outcome of the disease. Until now, it is known that interplay among cytokines is rather important for clinical presentation and outcome of COVID-19. The aim of this study was to determine transcriptional activity and functional phenotype of T cells and the relationship between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and clinical parameters of COVID-19 severity. Methods: All recruited patients met criteria for COVID-19 are were divided in four groups according to disease severity. Serum levels of IL-12, IFN-γ, IL-17 and IL-23 were measured, and flow cytometry analysis of T cells from peripheral blood was performed. Results: Significant elevation of IL-12, IFN-γ, IL-17 and IL-23 in stage IV of the disease has been revealed. Further, strong intercorrelation between IL-12, IFN-γ, IL-17 and IL-23 was also found in stage IV of the disease, marking augmented Th1 and Th17 response. Analyses of T cells subsets indicate a noticeable phenotype change. CD4+, but not CD8+ T cells expressed increased transcriptional activity through increased expression of Tbet and RORγT, accompanied with increased percentage of IFN-γ and IL-17 producing T cells. Conclusion: Our results pose a novel hypothesis of the underlying mechanism behind deteriorating immune response in severe cases of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Interleukin-17 , Humans , Interleukin-17/metabolism , Th1 Cells , COVID-19/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , Interleukin-12/metabolism , Interleukin-23/metabolism , Th17 Cells
15.
BMC Pediatr ; 23(1): 156, 2023 04 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2277530

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), accountable for Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), may cause hyperglycemia and additional systemic complexity in metabolic parameters. It is unsure even if the virus itself causes type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus (T1DM or T2DM). Furthermore, it is still unclear whether even recuperating COVID-19 individuals have an increased chance to develop new-onset diabetes. METHODS: We wanted to determine the impact of COVID-19 on the levels of adipokines, pancreatic hormones, incretins and cytokines in acute COVID-19, convalescent COVID-19 and control children through an observational study. We performed a multiplex immune assay analysis and compared the plasma levels of adipocytokines, pancreatic hormones, incretins and cytokines of children presenting with acute COVID-19 infection and convalescent COVID-19. RESULTS: Acute COVID-19 children had significantly elevated levels of adipsin, leptin, insulin, C-peptide, glucagon and ghrelin in comparison to convalescent COVID-19 and controls. Similarly, convalescent COVID-19 children had elevated levels of adipsin, leptin, insulin, C-peptide, glucagon, ghrelin and Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) in comparison to control children. On the other hand, acute COVID-19 children had significantly decreased levels of adiponectin and Gastric Inhibitory Peptide (GIP) in comparison to convalescent COVID-19 and controls. Similarly, convalescent COVID-19 children had decreased levels of adiponectin and GIP in comparison to control children. Acute COVID-19 children had significantly elevated levels of cytokines, (Interferon (IFN)) IFNγ, Interleukins (IL)-2, TNFα, IL-1α, IL-1ß, IFNα, IFNß, IL-6, IL-12, IL-17A and Granulocyte-Colony Stimulating Factors (G-CSF) in comparison to convalescent COVID-19 and controls. Convalescent COVID-19 children had elevated levels of IFNγ, IL-2, TNFα, IL-1α, IL-1ß, IFNα, IFNß, IL-6, IL-12, IL-17A and G-CSF in comparison to control children. Additionally, Principal component Analysis (PCA) analysis distinguishes acute COVID-19 from convalescent COVID-19 and controls. The adipokines exhibited a significant correlation with the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. CONCLUSION: Children with acute COVID-19 show significant glycometabolic impairment and exaggerated cytokine responses, which is different from convalescent COVID-19 infection and controls.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Humans , Child , Incretins/metabolism , Adipokines/metabolism , Leptin , Ghrelin , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Complement Factor D , Interleukin-17 , Pancreatic Hormones , Adiponectin , Glucagon , Interleukin-6 , C-Peptide , SARS-CoV-2 , Cytokines , Interleukin-12 , Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor
16.
J Cutan Med Surg ; 27(1_suppl): 3S-24S, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2269611

ABSTRACT

Cytokines in the interleukin (IL)-23/IL-17 axis are central to psoriasis pathogenesis. Janus kinase (JAK) signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) regulates intracellular signalling of several cytokines (including IL-12, 23, 22, 6, 17, and interferon (IFN)-γ) in the IL-23/IL-17 axis, and, as a result, has become a therapeutic target for psoriasis treatment. Although several JAK1-3 inhibitors, with varying degrees of selectivity, have been developed for immune-mediated inflammatory diseases, use in psoriasis is limited by a low therapeutic index as anticipated by signals from other disease indications. More selective inhibition of the JAK family is an area of interest. Specifically, selective tyrosine kinase (TYK)2 inhibition suppresses IL-23/IL-17 axis signalling, and at therapeutic doses, has a favorable safety profile compared to therapeutic doses of JAK1-3 inhibitors. Phase III efficacy and safety data for the selective allosteric TYK2-inhibitor, deucravacitinib, in adult patients with moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis is promising. Furthermore, phase II clinical trials for ropsacitinib (PF-06826647), a selective TYK2 inhibitor, and brepocitinib (PF-06700841), a JAK1/TYK2 inhibitor, have also demonstrated efficacy and an acceptable safety profile in adult patients with moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis. Other novel TYK2 allosteric inhibitors, NDI-034858 and ESK-001, are currently being investigated in adult patients with plaque psoriasis. This article reviews the details of the JAK-STAT pathway in psoriasis pathophysiology, the rationale for selective targeting of JAKs in the treatment of psoriasis, and provides clinical perspective on clinical trial data for JAK and TYK2 inhibitors.


Subject(s)
Janus Kinase Inhibitors , Psoriasis , Adult , Humans , Janus Kinases/metabolism , Janus Kinases/therapeutic use , Interleukin-17/metabolism , Signal Transduction , STAT Transcription Factors/metabolism , STAT Transcription Factors/therapeutic use , TYK2 Kinase/metabolism , TYK2 Kinase/therapeutic use , Psoriasis/pathology , Interleukin-23 , Janus Kinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Janus Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use
17.
mBio ; 14(2): e0313722, 2023 04 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2263060

ABSTRACT

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is triggered by a variety of insults, including bacterial and viral infections, and this leads to high mortality. While the role of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) in mucosal immunity is being increasingly recognized, its function during ARDS is unclear. In the current study, we investigated the role of AhR in LPS-induced ARDS. AhR ligand, indole-3-carbinol (I3C), attenuated ARDS which was associated with a decrease in CD4+ RORγt +IL-17a+IL-22+ pathogenic Th17 cells, but not CD4+RORγt +IL-17a+IL-22- homeostatic Th 17 cells, in the lungs. AhR activation also led to a significant increase in CD4+IL-17a-IL-22+ Th22 cells. I3C-mediated Th22 cell expansion was dependent on the AhR expression on RORγt+ cells. AhR activation downregulated miR-29b-2-5p in immune cells from the lungs, which in turn downregulated RORc expression and upregulated IL-22. Collectively, the current study suggests that AhR activation can attenuate ARDS and may serve as a therapeutic modality by which to treat this complex disorder. IMPORTANCE Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a type of respiratory failure that is triggered by a variety of bacterial and viral infections, including the coronavirus SARS-CoV2. ARDS is associated with a hyperimmune response in the lungs that which is challenging to treat. Because of this difficulty, approximately 40% of patients with ARDS die. Thus, it is critical to understand the nature of the immune response that is functional in the lungs during ARDS as well as approaches by which to attenuate it. AhR is a transcription factor that is activated by a variety of endogenous and exogenous environmental chemicals as well as bacterial metabolites. While AhR has been shown to regulate inflammation, its role in ARDS is unclear. In the current study, we provide evidence that AhR activation can attenuate LPS-mediated ARDS through the activation of Th22 cells in the lungs, which are regulated through miR-29b-2-5p. Thus, AhR can be targeted to attenuate ARDS.


Subject(s)
MicroRNAs , Receptors, Aryl Hydrocarbon , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Humans , Interleukin-17 , Lipopolysaccharides , Lung/metabolism , Nuclear Receptor Subfamily 1, Group F, Member 3 , Receptors, Aryl Hydrocarbon/genetics , Receptors, Aryl Hydrocarbon/metabolism , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/pathology , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Th17 Cells
18.
Med Microbiol Immunol ; 212(1): 75-91, 2023 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2259680

ABSTRACT

Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a widespread persistent herpes virus requiring lifelong immune surveillance to maintain latency. Such long-term interactions with the immune system may be associated with deleterious effects including immune exhaustion and senescence. Regarding the COVID-19 pandemic, we asked whether CMV-specific cellular and humoral activity could influence immune responses toward SARS-CoV-2 and/or disease severity. All adults with mild (n = 15) and severe (n = 14) COVID-19 were seropositive for anti-CMV IgG, but negative for IgM antibodies. Antibody titers did not correlate with COVID-19 severity. Six patients presented elevated frequencies of CMV-specific CD4 + and CD8 + T cells producing IFNγ, IL-17, and TNFα, designated as CMV high responders (hiT CMV). In comparison to low CMV responders, hiT CMV individuals exhibited higher frequencies of SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4 + IL-17 + and CD8 + IFNγ + , IL-17 + or TNFα + T cells. These results indicate that high frequencies of CMV-specific T cells may be associated with a SARS-CoV-2-reactive profile skewed toward Th17-dominated immunity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cytomegalovirus Infections , Adult , Humans , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , SARS-CoV-2 , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Interleukin-17 , Pandemics , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Antibodies, Viral
19.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1078922, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2256652

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is characterized by a range of symptoms in which host immune response have been associated with disease progression. However, the putative role of regulatory T cells (Tregs) in determining COVID-19 outcomes has not been thoroughly investigated. Here, we compared peripheral Tregs between volunteers not previously infected with SARS-CoV-2 (healthy control [HC]) and volunteers who recovered from mild (Mild Recovered) and severe (Severe Recovered) COVID-19. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were stimulated with SARS-CoV-2 synthetic peptides (Pool Spike CoV-2 and Pool CoV-2) or staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB). Results of a multicolor flow cytometric assay showed higher Treg frequency and expression of IL-10, IL-17, perforin, granzyme B, PD-1, and CD39/CD73 co-expression in Treg among the PBMC from the Mild Recovered group than in the Severe Recovered or HC groups for certain SARS-CoV-2 related stimulus. Moreover, Mild Recovered unstimulated samples presented a higher Tregs frequency and expression of IL-10 and granzyme B than did that of HC. Compared with Pool CoV-2 stimuli, Pool Spike CoV-2 reduced IL-10 expression and improved PD-1 expression in Tregs from volunteers in the Mild Recovered group. Interestingly, Pool Spike CoV-2 elicited a decrease in Treg IL-17+ frequency in the Severe Recovered group. In HC, the expression of latency-associated peptide (LAP) and cytotoxic granule co-expression by Tregs was higher in Pool CoV-2 stimulated samples. While Pool Spike CoV-2 stimulation reduced the frequency of IL-10+ and CTLA-4+ Tregs in PBMC from volunteers in the Mild Recovered group who had not experienced certain symptoms, higher levels of perforin and perforin+granzyme B+ co-expression by Tregs were found in the Mild Recovered group in volunteers who had experienced dyspnea. Finally, we found differential expression of CD39 and CD73 among volunteers in the Mild Recovered group between those who had and had not experienced musculoskeletal pain. Collectively, our study suggests that changes in the immunosuppressive repertoire of Tregs can influence the development of a distinct COVID-19 clinical profile, revealing that a possible modulation of Tregs exists among volunteers of the Mild Recovered group between those who did and did not develop certain symptoms, leading to mild disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory , Humans , COVID-19/metabolism , Interleukin-10/metabolism , Granzymes/metabolism , Interleukin-17/metabolism , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , Perforin/metabolism , Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Viral Immunol ; 36(4): 282-289, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2248975

ABSTRACT

Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. This study was performed to assess the proinflammatory cytokines profile among MERS-CoV patients. A total of 46 MERS-CoV-infected patients (27 symptomatic and 19 asymptomatic) were assessed and compared with 52 normal healthy controls for plasma levels of interleukin (IL)-1ß, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IL-17, IL-7, IL-6, interferon (IFN)-α, and IL-15 using a customized luminex kit. Whereas asymptomatic MERS-CoV patients and controls were no different; the mean plasma levels among MERS-CoV symptomatic patients were significantly higher than the normal controls: IL-1ß (16.89 ± 1.23 vs. 12.80 ± 0.59 pg/mL; p < 0.001), TNF-α (14.04 ± 0.93 vs. 10.35 ± 0.29 pg/mL; p < 0.0001), IL-17 (14.3 ± 0.89 vs. 11.47 ± 0.61 pg/mL; p < 0.001), IL-7 (21.56 ± 1.00 vs. 16.31 ± 0.30 pg/mL; p < 0.0001), IL-6 (156.5 ± 37.90 vs. 18.60 ± 1.59 pg/mL; p < 0.0001), and IFN-α (68.73 ± 13.06 vs. 23.57 ± 1.05 pg/mL; p < 0.0001). The mean plasma levels of IL-7 (24.81 ± 1.63 vs. 19.79 ± 0.94 pg/mL; p < 0.01), IL-6 (312.7 ± 94.67 vs. 101.2 ± 25.67 pg/mL; p < 0.01), and IFN-α (89.00 ± 18.97 vs. 51.05 ± 8.68 pg/mL; p < 0.05) were significantly elevated among MERS-CoV symptomatic patients with fatal outcome compared with MERS-CoV symptomatic patients who survived. Only IL-7 was found to have a higher risk ratio of mortality (4.76, 95% confidence interval: 1.5-14.94; p < 0.01). No differences were observed in IL-15 levels among the groups. Significantly elevated proinflammatory cytokines among symptomatic MERS-CoV-infected patients may contribute to manifestations of cytokine storm frequently observed among critically ill MERS-CoV patients and IL-7 may serve as a marker for disease activity.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Humans , Cytokines , Interleukin-15 , Interleukin-17 , Interleukin-6 , Interleukin-7 , Interferon-alpha
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