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1.
Eur Cytokine Netw ; 33(3): 54-69, 2022 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2296047

ABSTRACT

Interleukin-38 (IL-38) is the most recent member of the IL-1 family that acts as a natural inflammatory inhibitor by binding to cognate receptors, particularly the IL-36 receptor. In vitro, animal and human studies on autoimmune, metabolic, cardiovascular and allergic diseases, as well sepsis and respiratory viral infections, have shown that IL-38 exerts an anti-inflammatory activity by modulating the generation and function of inflammatory cytokines (e.g. IL-6, IL-8, IL-17 and IL-36) and regulating dendritic cells, M2 macrophages and regulatory T cells (Tregs). Accordingly, IL-38 may possess therapeutic potential for these types of diseases. IL-38 down-regulates CCR3+ eosinophil cells, CRTH2+ Th2 cells, Th17 cells, and innate lymphoid type 2 cells (ILC2), but up-regulates Tregs, and this has influenced the design of immunotherapeutic strategies based on regulatory cells/cytokines for allergic asthma in future studies. In auto-inflammatory diseases, IL-38 alleviates skin inflammation by regulating γδ T cells and limiting the production of IL-17. Due to its ability to suppress IL-1ß, IL-6 and IL-36, this cytokine could reduce COVID-19 severity, and might be employed as a therapeutic tool. IL-38 may also influence host immunity and/or the components of the cancer microenvironment, and has been shown to improve the outcome of colorectal cancer, and may participate in tumour progression in lung cancer possibly by modulating CD8 tumour infiltrating T cells and PD-L1 expression. In this review, we first briefly present the biological and immunological functions of IL-38, and then discuss the important roles of IL-38 in various types of diseases, and finally highlight its use in therapeutic strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Interleukin-17 , Animals , Humans , Interleukin-17/metabolism , Immunity, Innate , Interleukin-6 , Clinical Relevance , Lymphocytes/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , Interleukins
2.
Int J Med Sci ; 20(4): 530-541, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2280444

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 is known to disrupt immune response and induce hyperinflammation that could potentially induce fatal outcome of the disease. Until now, it is known that interplay among cytokines is rather important for clinical presentation and outcome of COVID-19. The aim of this study was to determine transcriptional activity and functional phenotype of T cells and the relationship between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and clinical parameters of COVID-19 severity. Methods: All recruited patients met criteria for COVID-19 are were divided in four groups according to disease severity. Serum levels of IL-12, IFN-γ, IL-17 and IL-23 were measured, and flow cytometry analysis of T cells from peripheral blood was performed. Results: Significant elevation of IL-12, IFN-γ, IL-17 and IL-23 in stage IV of the disease has been revealed. Further, strong intercorrelation between IL-12, IFN-γ, IL-17 and IL-23 was also found in stage IV of the disease, marking augmented Th1 and Th17 response. Analyses of T cells subsets indicate a noticeable phenotype change. CD4+, but not CD8+ T cells expressed increased transcriptional activity through increased expression of Tbet and RORγT, accompanied with increased percentage of IFN-γ and IL-17 producing T cells. Conclusion: Our results pose a novel hypothesis of the underlying mechanism behind deteriorating immune response in severe cases of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Interleukin-17 , Humans , Interleukin-17/metabolism , Th1 Cells , COVID-19/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , Interleukin-12/metabolism , Interleukin-23/metabolism , Th17 Cells
3.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1078922, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2256652

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is characterized by a range of symptoms in which host immune response have been associated with disease progression. However, the putative role of regulatory T cells (Tregs) in determining COVID-19 outcomes has not been thoroughly investigated. Here, we compared peripheral Tregs between volunteers not previously infected with SARS-CoV-2 (healthy control [HC]) and volunteers who recovered from mild (Mild Recovered) and severe (Severe Recovered) COVID-19. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were stimulated with SARS-CoV-2 synthetic peptides (Pool Spike CoV-2 and Pool CoV-2) or staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB). Results of a multicolor flow cytometric assay showed higher Treg frequency and expression of IL-10, IL-17, perforin, granzyme B, PD-1, and CD39/CD73 co-expression in Treg among the PBMC from the Mild Recovered group than in the Severe Recovered or HC groups for certain SARS-CoV-2 related stimulus. Moreover, Mild Recovered unstimulated samples presented a higher Tregs frequency and expression of IL-10 and granzyme B than did that of HC. Compared with Pool CoV-2 stimuli, Pool Spike CoV-2 reduced IL-10 expression and improved PD-1 expression in Tregs from volunteers in the Mild Recovered group. Interestingly, Pool Spike CoV-2 elicited a decrease in Treg IL-17+ frequency in the Severe Recovered group. In HC, the expression of latency-associated peptide (LAP) and cytotoxic granule co-expression by Tregs was higher in Pool CoV-2 stimulated samples. While Pool Spike CoV-2 stimulation reduced the frequency of IL-10+ and CTLA-4+ Tregs in PBMC from volunteers in the Mild Recovered group who had not experienced certain symptoms, higher levels of perforin and perforin+granzyme B+ co-expression by Tregs were found in the Mild Recovered group in volunteers who had experienced dyspnea. Finally, we found differential expression of CD39 and CD73 among volunteers in the Mild Recovered group between those who had and had not experienced musculoskeletal pain. Collectively, our study suggests that changes in the immunosuppressive repertoire of Tregs can influence the development of a distinct COVID-19 clinical profile, revealing that a possible modulation of Tregs exists among volunteers of the Mild Recovered group between those who did and did not develop certain symptoms, leading to mild disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory , Humans , COVID-19/metabolism , Interleukin-10/metabolism , Granzymes/metabolism , Interleukin-17/metabolism , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , Perforin/metabolism , Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2
4.
J Cutan Med Surg ; 27(1_suppl): 3S-24S, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2269611

ABSTRACT

Cytokines in the interleukin (IL)-23/IL-17 axis are central to psoriasis pathogenesis. Janus kinase (JAK) signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) regulates intracellular signalling of several cytokines (including IL-12, 23, 22, 6, 17, and interferon (IFN)-γ) in the IL-23/IL-17 axis, and, as a result, has become a therapeutic target for psoriasis treatment. Although several JAK1-3 inhibitors, with varying degrees of selectivity, have been developed for immune-mediated inflammatory diseases, use in psoriasis is limited by a low therapeutic index as anticipated by signals from other disease indications. More selective inhibition of the JAK family is an area of interest. Specifically, selective tyrosine kinase (TYK)2 inhibition suppresses IL-23/IL-17 axis signalling, and at therapeutic doses, has a favorable safety profile compared to therapeutic doses of JAK1-3 inhibitors. Phase III efficacy and safety data for the selective allosteric TYK2-inhibitor, deucravacitinib, in adult patients with moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis is promising. Furthermore, phase II clinical trials for ropsacitinib (PF-06826647), a selective TYK2 inhibitor, and brepocitinib (PF-06700841), a JAK1/TYK2 inhibitor, have also demonstrated efficacy and an acceptable safety profile in adult patients with moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis. Other novel TYK2 allosteric inhibitors, NDI-034858 and ESK-001, are currently being investigated in adult patients with plaque psoriasis. This article reviews the details of the JAK-STAT pathway in psoriasis pathophysiology, the rationale for selective targeting of JAKs in the treatment of psoriasis, and provides clinical perspective on clinical trial data for JAK and TYK2 inhibitors.


Subject(s)
Janus Kinase Inhibitors , Psoriasis , Adult , Humans , Janus Kinases/metabolism , Janus Kinases/therapeutic use , Interleukin-17/metabolism , Signal Transduction , STAT Transcription Factors/metabolism , STAT Transcription Factors/therapeutic use , TYK2 Kinase/metabolism , TYK2 Kinase/therapeutic use , Psoriasis/pathology , Interleukin-23 , Janus Kinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Janus Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use
5.
Immunobiology ; 228(2): 152343, 2023 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2210509

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: It has been demonstrated that the patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS­CoV­2) suffer from severe inflammation. Due to the ethnics, the immune responses may be different. Additionally, microRNAs may alter immune responses in the patients. The current study was aimed to evaluate the expression of T helper subsets-related transcription factors, some T helper 17 (Th17) products, and two microRNAs, including miR-155 and miR-194, in the Iranian hospitalized patients. METHODS: In this study, T-box expressed in T cells (T-bet), GATA binding protein 3, The retinoid orphan receptor gamma t (RORγt), forkhead box P3 (FOXP3), interleukin (IL)-17A, IL-8, and CC ligand 20 (CCL20) mRNA levels and, miR-155 and miR-194 levels were evaluated in 70 patients suffered from severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and 70 healthy subjects using Real-Time qPCR technique. RESULTS: The findings showed that RORγt, and FOXP3 mRNA levels were significantly increased, while IL-17A, IL-8, and CCL20 mRNA levels were significantly decreased in the hospitalized SARS-CoV-2 infected patients. Although the levels of miR-155 and miR-194 were not different between groups, miR-194 has negative and positive correlations with RORγt and IL-17A in the Iranian healthy controls. CONCLUSION: This study reports although RORγt was up-regulated, IL-17A, IL-8, and CCL20 mRNA levels were significantly decreased in the hospitalized SARS-CoV-2 infected patients. It may be concluded that up-regulation of FOXP3, via development of T regulatory lymphocytes suppresses Th17 functions and neutralizes Th17 activities. MiR-194 may play crucial roles in regulation of RORγt and IL-17A expression in healthy people, the phenomenon that is disrupted in the severe SARS-CoV-2 infected patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , MicroRNAs , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory , Th17 Cells , Humans , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , Forkhead Transcription Factors/metabolism , Interleukin-17/metabolism , Interleukin-8/metabolism , Iran , MicroRNAs/genetics , Nuclear Receptor Subfamily 1, Group F, Member 3/genetics , RNA, Messenger/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
6.
Redox Biol ; 56: 102465, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2105815

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The pathophysiologic significance of redox imbalance is unquestionable as numerous reports and topic reviews indicate alterations in redox parameters during corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, a more comprehensive understanding of redox-related parameters in the context of COVID-19-mediated inflammation and pathophysiology is required. METHODS: COVID-19 subjects (n = 64) and control subjects (n = 19) were enrolled, and blood was drawn within 72 h of diagnosis. Serum multiplex assays and peripheral blood mRNA sequencing was performed. Oxidant/free radical (electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, nitrite-nitrate assay) and antioxidant (ferrous reducing ability of serum assay and high-performance liquid chromatography) were performed. Multivariate analyses were performed to evaluate potential of indicated parameters to predict clinical outcome. RESULTS: Significantly greater levels of multiple inflammatory and vascular markers were quantified in the subjects admitted to the ICU compared to non-ICU subjects. Gene set enrichment analyses indicated significant enhancement of oxidant related pathways and biochemical assays confirmed a significant increase in free radical production and uric acid reduction in COVID-19 subjects. Multivariate analyses confirmed a positive association between serum levels of VCAM-1, ICAM-1 and a negative association between the abundance of one electron oxidants (detected by ascorbate radical formation) and mortality in COVID subjects while IL-17c and TSLP levels predicted need for intensive care in COVID-19 subjects. CONCLUSION: Herein we demonstrate a significant redox imbalance during COVID-19 infection affirming the potential for manipulation of oxidative stress pathways as a new therapeutic strategy COVID-19. However, further work is requisite for detailed identification of oxidants (O2•-, H2O2 and/or circulating transition metals such as Fe or Cu) contributing to this imbalance to avoid the repetition of failures using non-specific antioxidant supplementation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antioxidants/metabolism , Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy , Free Radicals , Humans , Hydrogen Peroxide , Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1/metabolism , Interleukin-17/metabolism , Nitrates , Nitrites , Oxidants/metabolism , Oxidation-Reduction , Oxidative Stress , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Uric Acid , Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1/metabolism
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(35): e29554, 2022 Sep 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2008659

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus (CoV) disease (COVID-19) identified in Wuhan, China, in 2019, is mainly characterized by atypical pneumonia and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and is caused by SARS CoV-2, which belongs to the Coronaviridae family. Determining the underlying disease mechanisms is central to the identification and development of COVID-19-specific drugs for effective treatment and prevention of human-to-human transmission, disease complications, and deaths. METHODS: Here, next-generation RNA sequencing (RNA Seq) data were obtained using Illumina Next Seq 500 from SARS CoV-infected A549 cells and mock-treated A549 cells from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) (GSE147507), and quality control (QC) was assessed before RNA Seq analysis using CLC Genomics Workbench 20.0. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were imported into BioJupies to decipher COVID-19 induced signaling pathways and small molecules derived from chemical synthesis or natural sources to mimic or reverse COVID -19 specific gene signatures. In addition, iPathwayGuide was used to identify COVID-19-specific signaling pathways, as well as drugs and natural products with anti-COVID-19 potential. RESULTS: Here, we identified the potential activation of upstream regulators such as signal transducer and activator of transcription 2 (STAT2), interferon regulatory factor 9 (IRF9), and interferon beta (IFNß), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1ß), and interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3). COVID-19 infection activated key infectious disease-specific immune-related signaling pathways such as influenza A, viral protein interaction with cytokine and cytokine receptors, measles, Epstein-Barr virus infection, and IL-17 signaling pathway. Besides, we identified drugs such as prednisolone, methylprednisolone, diclofenac, compound JQ1, and natural products such as Withaferin-A and JinFuKang as candidates for further experimental validation of COVID-19 therapy. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, we have used the in silico next-generation knowledge discovery (NGKD) methods to discover COVID-19-associated pathways and specific therapeutics that have the potential to ameliorate the disease pathologies associated with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Biological Products , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections , A549 Cells , Cytokines/metabolism , Diclofenac , Herpesvirus 4, Human/genetics , Humans , Interferon Regulatory Factor-3/genetics , Interferon Regulatory Factor-3/metabolism , Interferon-Stimulated Gene Factor 3, gamma Subunit/genetics , Interferon-Stimulated Gene Factor 3, gamma Subunit/metabolism , Interferon-beta , Interleukin-17/metabolism , Interleukin-1beta/metabolism , Methylprednisolone , RNA , Receptors, Cytokine/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , STAT2 Transcription Factor , Sequence Analysis, RNA , Viral Proteins/genetics
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(9)2022 Apr 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1847342

ABSTRACT

Elucidating transcriptome in the peripheral edge of the lesional (PE) skin could provide a better understanding of the molecules or signalings that intensify inflammation in the PE skin. Full-thickness biopsies of PE skin and uninvolved (UN) skin were obtained from psoriasis patients for RNA-seq. Several potential differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the PE skin compared to those in the UN skin were identified. These DEGs enhanced functions such as angiogenesis, growth of epithelial tissue, chemotaxis and homing of cells, growth of connective tissues, and degranulation of myeloid cells beneath the PE skin. Moreover, the canonical pathways of IL-17A, IL-6, and IL-22 signaling were enriched by the DEGs. Finally, we proposed that inflammation in the PE skin might be driven by the IL-36/TLR9 axis or IL-6/Th17 axis and potentiated by IL-36α, IL-36γ, IL-17C, IL-8, S100A7, S100A8, S100A9, S100A15, SERPINB4, and hBD-2. Along with IL-36α, IL-17C, and IκBζ, ROCK2 could be an equally important factor in the pathogenesis of psoriasis, which may involve self-sustaining circuits between innate and adaptive immune responses via regulation of IL-36α and IL-36γ expression. Our finding provides new insight into signaling pathways in PE skin, which could lead to the discovery of new psoriasis targets.


Subject(s)
Gene Expression Profiling , Psoriasis , Humans , Inflammation/pathology , Interleukin-17/metabolism , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Keratinocytes/metabolism , Psoriasis/genetics , Psoriasis/metabolism , Skin/metabolism , Transcriptome
9.
Front Immunol ; 13: 821681, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1708117

ABSTRACT

Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is a valuable 'home treatment' option, even more so during the ongoing Coronavirus pandemic. However, the long-term use of PD is limited by unfavourable tissue remodelling in the peritoneal membrane, which is associated with inflammation-induced angiogenesis. This appears to be driven primarily through vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), while the involvement of other angiogenic signaling pathways is still poorly understood. Here, we have identified the crucial contribution of mesothelial cell-derived angiogenic CXC chemokine ligand 1 (CXCL1) to peritoneal angiogenesis in PD. CXCL1 expression and peritoneal microvessel density were analysed in biopsies obtained by the International Peritoneal Biobank (NCT01893710 at www.clinicaltrials.gov), comparing 13 children with end-stage kidney disease before initiating PD to 43 children on chronic PD. The angiogenic potential of mesothelial cell-derived CXCL1 was assessed in vitro by measuring endothelial tube formation of human microvascular endothelial cells (HMECs) treated with conditioned medium from human peritoneal mesothelial cells (HPMCs) stimulated to release CXCL1 by treatment with either recombinant IL-17 or PD effluent. We found that the capillary density in the human peritoneum correlated with local CXCL1 expression. Both CXCL1 expression and microvessel density were higher in PD patients than in the age-matched patients prior to initiation of PD. Exposure of HMECs to recombinant CXCL1 or conditioned medium from IL-17-stimulated HPMCs resulted in increased endothelial tube formation, while selective inhibition of mesothelial CXCL1 production by specific antibodies or through silencing of relevant transcription factors abolished the proangiogenic effect of HPMC-conditioned medium. In conclusion, peritoneal mesothelium-derived CXCL1 promotes endothelial tube formation in vitro and associates with peritoneal microvessel density in uremic patients undergoing PD, thus providing novel targets for therapeutic intervention to prolong PD therapy.


Subject(s)
Chemokine CXCL1/metabolism , Neovascularization, Pathologic/pathology , Peritoneal Dialysis/methods , Peritoneum/blood supply , Renal Replacement Therapy/methods , COVID-19/pathology , Cells, Cultured , Child , Child, Preschool , Epithelium/metabolism , Humans , Infant , Interleukin-17/metabolism , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Peritoneum/pathology , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/metabolism , Vascular Remodeling/physiology
10.
Pharmacol Res ; 176: 106083, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1638968

ABSTRACT

The pathogenic hyper-inflammatory response has been revealed as the major cause of the severity and death of the Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Xuanfei Baidu Decoction (XFBD) as one of the "three medicines and three prescriptions" for the clinically effective treatment of COVID-19 in China, shows unique advantages in the control of symptomatic transition from moderate to severe disease states. However, the roles of XFBD to against hyper-inflammatory response and its mechanism remain unclear. Here, we established acute lung injury (ALI) model induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), presenting a hyperinflammatory process to explore the pharmacodynamic effect and molecular mechanism of XFBD on ALI. The in vitro experiments demonstrated that XFBD inhibited the secretion of IL-6 and TNF-α and iNOS activity in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. In vivo, we confirmed that XFBD improved pulmonary injury via down-regulating the expression of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-6, TNF-α and IL1-ß as well as macrophages and neutrophils infiltration in LPS-induced ALI mice. Mechanically, we revealed that XFBD treated LPS-induced acute lung injury through PD-1/IL17A pathway which regulates the infiltration of neutrophils and macrophages. Additionally, one major compound from XFBD, i.e. glycyrrhizic acid, shows a high binding affinity with IL17A. In conclusion, we demonstrated the therapeutic effects of XFBD, which provides the immune foundations of XFBD and fatherly support its clinical applications.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Interleukin-17/metabolism , Macrophages/drug effects , Neutrophils/drug effects , Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor/metabolism , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Acute Lung Injury/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/metabolism , Cell Line , China , Cytokines/metabolism , Leukocyte Count/methods , Macrophages/metabolism , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Neutrophils/metabolism , RAW 264.7 Cells , COVID-19 Drug Treatment
11.
Eur Cytokine Netw ; 32(1): 8-14, 2021 Mar 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477642

ABSTRACT

Cytokine release syndrome is a serious complication of the new coronavirus infection (COVID-19). The aim of the study was to assess effectiveness and safety of the IL-17 antagonist nekatimab for its treatment. The retrospective study included COVID-19 patients with C-reactive protein levels >60 mg/L. Patients received either netakimab (group NET), IL-6 antagonist tocilizumab (group TOC) or no anti-cytokine treatment (group CON). Forty-four patients were enrolled in the NET group, 27 patients in the TOC group, and 47 patients in the CON group. Mortality was lower in the NET group than in TOC and CON groups (2.3% vs. 14.8% and 31.9%; p = 0.018 and p < 0.001). NET group patients required intensive care unit admission (6.8% vs. 25.9% and 46.3%; p = 0.025 and p < 0.001) and mechanical ventilation (4.6% vs. 22.2% and 31.9%; p = 0.022 and p = 0.002) less frequently than patients of the TOC and CON groups. After 7-10 days of anti-cytokine drug administration, a reduction in lung lesion volume (p = 0.016) and an increase in the proportion of patients who did not need oxygen support (p = 0.005) or stayed in prone position (p = 0.044) was observed in the NET group only group; C-reactive protein levels were the same in the TOC and NET groups (p = 0.136) and lower in the CON group (p < 0.001 and p = 0.005). IL-6 levels decreased in the NET group (p = 0.005) and did not change in the TOC group (p = 0.953). There was no difference in the incidence of side effects between groups. The IL-17 antagonist netakimab is effective and safe in the treatment of cytokine release syndrome in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/adverse effects , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Interleukin-17/antagonists & inhibitors , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Humans , Interleukin-17/metabolism , Interleukin-6/blood , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Treatment Outcome
12.
mBio ; 12(5): e0159921, 2021 10 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1398577

ABSTRACT

Cellular immunity may be involved in organ damage and rehabilitation in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We aimed to delineate immunological features of COVID-19 patients with pulmonary sequelae (PS) 1 year after discharge. Fifty COVID-19 survivors were recruited and classified according to radiological characteristics, including 24 patients with PS and 26 patients without PS. Phenotypic and functional characteristics of immune cells were evaluated by multiparametric flow cytometry. Patients with PS had an increased proportion of natural killer (NK) cells and a lower percentage of B cells than patients without PS. Phenotypic and functional features of T cells in patients with PS were predominated by the accumulation of CD4-positive (CD4+) T cells secreting interleukin 17A (IL-17A), short-lived effector-like CD8+ T cells (CD27-negative [CD27-] CD62L-), and senescent T cells with excessive secretion of granzyme B/perforin/interferon gamma (IFN-γ). NK cells were characterized by the excessive secretion of granzyme B and perforin and the downregulation of NKP30 and NKP46; highly activated NKT and γδ T cells exhibited NKP30 and TIM-3 upregulation and NKB1 downregulation in patients with PS. However, immunosuppressive cells were comparable between the two groups. The interrelationship of immune cells in COVID-19 was intrinsically identified, whereby T cells secreting IL-2, IL-4, and IL-17A were enriched among CD28+ and CD57- cells and cells secreting perforin/granzyme B/IFN-γ/tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)-expressed markers of terminal differentiation. CD57+ NK cells, CD4+Perforin+ T cells, and CD8+ CD27+ CD62L+ T cells were identified as the independent predictors for residual lesions. Overall, our findings unveil the profound imbalance of immune landscape that may correlate with organ damage and rehabilitation in COVID-19. IMPORTANCE A considerable proportion of COVID-19 survivors have residual lung lesions such as ground-glass opacity and fiber streak shadow. To determine the relationship between host immunity and residual lung lesions, we performed an extensive analysis of immune responses in convalescent patients with COVID-19 1 year after discharge. We found significant differences in immunological characteristics between patients with pulmonary sequelae and patients without pulmonary sequelae 1 year after discharge. Our study highlights the profound imbalance of immune landscape in the COVID-19 patients with pulmonary sequelae, characterized by the robust activation of cytotoxic T cells, NK cells, and γδ T cells, as well as the deficiencies of immunosuppressive cells. Importantly, CD57+ NK cells, CD4+Perforin+ T cells, and CD8+ CD27+ CD62L+ T cells were identified as the independent predictors for residual lesions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Adult , CD28 Antigens/metabolism , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , CD57 Antigens/metabolism , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Female , Hepatitis A Virus Cellular Receptor 2/metabolism , Humans , Immunity, Cellular/immunology , Immunity, Cellular/physiology , Interleukin-17/metabolism , Interleukin-2/metabolism , Interleukin-4/metabolism , L-Selectin/metabolism , Male , Middle Aged , Natural Cytotoxicity Triggering Receptor 1/metabolism , Natural Cytotoxicity Triggering Receptor 3/metabolism
13.
Front Immunol ; 12: 672523, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389182

ABSTRACT

Lower respiratory infections are among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. These potentially deadly infections are further exacerbated due to the growing incidence of antimicrobial resistance. To combat these infections there is a need to better understand immune mechanisms that promote microbial clearance. This need in the context of lung infections has been further heightened with the emergence of SARS-CoV-2. Group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3s) are a recently discovered tissue resident innate immune cell found at mucosal sites that respond rapidly in the event of an infection. ILC3s have clear roles in regulating mucosal immunity and tissue homeostasis in the intestine, though the immunological functions in lungs remain unclear. It has been demonstrated in both viral and bacterial pneumonia that stimulated ILC3s secrete the cytokines IL-17 and IL-22 to promote both microbial clearance as well as tissue repair. In this review, we will evaluate regulation of ILC3s during inflammation and discuss recent studies that examine ILC3 function in the context of both bacterial and viral pulmonary infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Immunity, Mucosal/immunology , Lymphocytes/immunology , Pneumonia, Bacterial/immunology , Respiratory Mucosa/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Bacteria/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/pathology , Immunity, Innate/immunology , Inflammation/immunology , Interleukin-17/metabolism , Interleukins/metabolism , Lung/immunology , Lymphocyte Activation/immunology , Respiratory Mucosa/cytology
14.
Bioessays ; 43(2): e2000232, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1372696

ABSTRACT

Immunity against SARS-CoV-2 that is acquired by convalescent COVID-19 patients is examined in reference to (A) the Th17 cell generation system in psoriatic epidermis and (B) a recently discovered phenomenon in which Th17 cells are converted into tissue-resident memory T (TRM ) cells with Th1 phenotype. Neutrophils that are attracted to the site of infection secrete IL-17A, which stimulates lung epithelial cells to express CCL20. Natural Th17 (nTh17) cells are recruited to the infection site by CCL20 and expand in the presence of IL-23. These nTh17 cells are converted to TRM cells upon encounter with SARS-CoV-2 and continue to exist as ex-Th17 cells, which exert Th1-like immunity during a memory response. G-CSF can induce nTh17 cell accumulation at the infection site because it promotes neutrophil egress from the bone marrow. Hence, G-CSF may be effective against COVID-19. Administration of G-CSF to patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 is worth a clinical trial.


Subject(s)
Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor/therapeutic use , Neutrophils/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Th1 Cells/immunology , Th17 Cells/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Chemokine CCL20/metabolism , Humans , Immunologic Memory/immunology , Interleukin-17/metabolism , Interleukin-23 Subunit p19/immunology , Neutrophils/drug effects , Th17 Cells/drug effects , COVID-19 Drug Treatment
15.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 16814, 2021 08 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1366830

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has emerged as a pandemic. Paucity of information concerning the virus and therapeutic interventions have made SARS-CoV-2 infection a genuine threat to global public health. Therefore, there is a growing need for understanding the molecular mechanism of SARS-CoV-2 infection at cellular level. To address this, we undertook a systems biology approach by analyzing publicly available RNA-seq datasets of SARS-CoV-2 infection of different cells and compared with other lung pathogenic infections. Our study identified several key genes and pathways uniquely associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Genes such as interleukin (IL)-6, CXCL8, CCL20, CXCL1 and CXCL3 were upregulated, which in particular regulate the cytokine storm and IL-17 signaling pathway. Of note, SARS-CoV-2 infection strongly activated IL-17 signaling pathway compared with other respiratory viruses. Additionally, this transcriptomic signature was also analyzed to predict potential drug repurposing and small molecule inhibitors. In conclusion, our comprehensive data analysis identifies key molecular pathways to reveal underlying pathological etiology and potential therapeutic targets in SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Interleukin-17/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Systems Biology/methods , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Chemokine CCL20/genetics , Chemokine CXCL1/genetics , Chemokines, CXC/genetics , Drug Repositioning , Humans , Interleukin-17/metabolism , Interleukin-6/genetics , Interleukin-8/genetics , Organ Specificity , Signal Transduction , Transcriptome , COVID-19 Drug Treatment
16.
Cytokine ; 146: 155627, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1293702

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: One of the main pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the severe course of COVID-19 is the hyper-inflammatory syndrome associated with progressive damage of lung tissue and multi-organ dysfunction. IL-17 has been suggested to be involved in hyper-inflammatory syndrome. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of the IL-17 inhibitor netakimab in patients with severe COVID-19. STUDY DESIGN: In our retrospective case-control study we evaluated the efficacy of netakimab in hospitalized patients with severe COVID-19 outside the intensive care unit (ICU). Patients in the experimental group were treated with standard of care therapy and netakimab at a dose of 120 mg subcutaneously. RESULTS: 171 patients with severe COVID-19 were enrolled in our study, and 88 of them received netakimab. On the 3 day of therapy, body temperature, SpO2/FiO2, NEWS2 score, and CRP improved significantly in the netakimab group compared to the control group. Other clinical outcomes such as transfer to ICU (11.4% vs 9.6%), need for mechanical ventilation (10.2% vs 9.6%), 28-day mortality (10.2% vs 8.4%), did not differ between the groups. CONCLUSION: In hospitalized patients with severe COVID-19, anti-IL-17 therapy might mitigate the inflammatory response and improve oxygenation, but do not affect the need for mechanical ventilation and mortality.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Inpatients/statistics & numerical data , Interleukin-17/antagonists & inhibitors , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Aged , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/adverse effects , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Diarrhea/chemically induced , Dyspnea/chemically induced , Female , Humans , Inflammation/complications , Inflammation/drug therapy , Interleukin-17/immunology , Interleukin-17/metabolism , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Pilot Projects , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome
17.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 97: 107828, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1253058

ABSTRACT

In various pathological conditions, cellular immunity plays an important role in immune responses. Amongimmunecells, T lymphocytes pdomotecellular and humoralresponses as well as innate immunity. Therefore, careful investigation of these cells has a significant impact on accurate knowledge in COVID-19diseasepathogenesis. In current research, the frequency and function of various T lymphocytes involved in immune responses examined in SARS-CoV-2 patients with various disease severity compared to normal subjects. In order to make an accurate comparison among patients with various disease severity, this study was performed on asymptomatic recovered cases (n = 20), ICU hospitalized patients (n = 30), non-ICU hospitalized patients (n = 30), and normal subjects (n = 20). To precisely evaluate T cells activity following purification, their cytokine secretion activity was examined. Similarly, immediately after purification of Treg cells, their inhibitory activity on T cells was investigated. The results showed that COVID-19 patients with severe disease (ICU hospitalized patients) not only had a remarkable increase in Th1 and Th17 but also a considerable decrease in Th2 and Treg cells. More importantly, as the IL-17 and IFN-γ secretion was sharply increased in severe disease, the secretion of IL-10 and IL-4 was decreased. Furthermore, the inhibitory activity of Treg cells was reduced in severe disease patients in comparison to other groups. In severe COVID-19 disease, current findings indicate when the inflammatory arm of cellular immunity is significantly increased, a considerable reduction in anti-inflammatory and regulatory arm occurred.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/virology , Adult , Aged , Cytokines/immunology , Cytokines/metabolism , Female , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Inflammation/metabolism , Interferon-gamma/metabolism , Interleukin-10/metabolism , Interleukin-17/metabolism , Interleukin-4/metabolism , Leukocytes/immunology , Leukocytes/metabolism , Male , Middle Aged , Severity of Illness Index , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/metabolism , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/immunology , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/metabolism , Th1 Cells/immunology , Th1 Cells/metabolism , Th17 Cells/immunology , Th17 Cells/metabolism , Th2 Cells/immunology , Th2 Cells/metabolism , Young Adult
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(10)2021 May 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1236794

ABSTRACT

Acute lung injury (ALI) afflicts approximately 200,000 patients annually and has a 40% mortality rate. The COVID-19 pandemic has massively increased the rate of ALI incidence. The pathogenesis of ALI involves tissue damage from invading microbes and, in severe cases, the overexpression of inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß). This study aimed to develop a therapy to normalize the excess production of inflammatory cytokines and promote tissue repair in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI. Based on our previous studies, we tested the insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and BTP-2 therapies. IGF-I was selected, because we and others have shown that elevated inflammatory cytokines suppress the expression of growth hormone receptors in the liver, leading to a decrease in the circulating IGF-I. IGF-I is a growth factor that increases vascular protection, enhances tissue repair, and decreases pro-inflammatory cytokines. It is also required to produce anti-inflammatory 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. BTP-2, an inhibitor of cytosolic calcium, was used to suppress the LPS-induced increase in cytosolic calcium, which otherwise leads to an increase in proinflammatory cytokines. We showed that LPS increased the expression of the primary inflammatory mediators such as toll like receptor-4 (TLR-4), IL-1ß, interleukin-17 (IL-17), TNF-α, and interferon-γ (IFN-γ), which were normalized by the IGF-I + BTP-2 dual therapy in the lungs, along with improved vascular gene expression markers. The histologic lung injury score was markedly elevated by LPS and reduced to normal by the combination therapy. In conclusion, the LPS-induced increases in inflammatory cytokines, vascular injuries, and lung injuries were all improved by IGF-I + BTP-2 combination therapy.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury/drug therapy , Acute Lung Injury/metabolism , Anilides/pharmacology , Cytokines/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Insulin-Like Growth Factor I/pharmacology , Thiadiazoles/pharmacology , Acute Lung Injury/pathology , Acute Lung Injury/virology , Anilides/therapeutic use , Animals , COVID-19/complications , Calcium/metabolism , Calcium Channels/metabolism , Cytokines/genetics , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Gene Expression Regulation/genetics , Immunohistochemistry , Insulin-Like Growth Factor I/metabolism , Insulin-Like Growth Factor I/therapeutic use , Interferon-gamma/genetics , Interferon-gamma/metabolism , Interleukin-17/genetics , Interleukin-17/metabolism , Interleukin-1beta/genetics , Interleukin-1beta/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides/toxicity , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Signal Transduction/genetics , Thiadiazoles/therapeutic use , Toll-Like Receptor 4/genetics , Toll-Like Receptor 4/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/genetics , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism
19.
Viruses ; 13(2)2021 02 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1060774

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), comprises mild courses of disease as well as progression to severe disease, characterised by lung and other organ failure. The immune system is considered to play a crucial role for the pathogenesis of COVID-19, although especially the contribution of innate-like T cells remains poorly understood. Here, we analysed the phenotype and function of mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells, innate-like T cells with potent antimicrobial effector function, in patients with mild and severe COVID-19 by multicolour flow cytometry. Our data indicate that MAIT cells are highly activated in patients with COVID-19, irrespective of the course of disease, and express high levels of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-17A and TNFα ex vivo. Of note, expression of the activation marker HLA-DR positively correlated with SAPS II score, a measure of disease severity. Upon MAIT cell-specific in vitro stimulation, MAIT cells however failed to upregulate expression of the cytokines IL-17A and TNFα, as well as cytolytic proteins, that is, granzyme B and perforin. Thus, our data point towards an altered cytokine expression profile alongside an impaired antibacterial and antiviral function of MAIT cells in COVID-19 and thereby contribute to the understanding of COVID-19 immunopathogenesis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Lymphocyte Activation , Mucosal-Associated Invariant T Cells/immunology , Adaptive Immunity , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cytokines/metabolism , Female , Granzymes/metabolism , HLA-DR Antigens , Humans , Interleukin-17/metabolism , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Male , Mucosal-Associated Invariant T Cells/metabolism , Severity of Illness Index , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism
20.
EBioMedicine ; 63: 103197, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1014450

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 has caused a global pandemic, infecting millions of people. A safe, effective vaccine is urgently needed and remains a global health priority. Subunit vaccines are used successfully against other viruses when administered in the presence of an effective adjuvant. METHODS: We evaluated three different clinically tested adjuvant systems in combination with the SARS-CoV-2 pre-fusion stabilized (S-2P) spike protein using a one-dose regimen in mice. FINDINGS: Whilst spike protein alone was only weakly immunogenic, the addition of either Aluminum hydroxide, a squalene based oil-in-water emulsion system (SE) or a cationic liposome-based adjuvant significantly enhanced antibody responses against the spike receptor binding domain (RBD). Kinetics of antibody responses differed, with SE providing the most rapid response. Neutralizing antibodies developed after a single immunization in all adjuvanted groups with ID50 titers ranging from 86-4063. Spike-specific CD4 T helper responses were also elicited, comprising mainly of IFN-γ and IL-17 producing cells in the cationic liposome adjuvanted group, and more IL-5- and IL-10-secreting cells in the AH group. INTERPRETATION: These results demonstrate that adjuvanted spike protein subunit vaccine is a viable strategy for rapidly eliciting SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies and CD4 T cell responses of various qualities depending on the adjuvant used, which can be explored in further vaccine development against COVID-19. FUNDING: This work was supported by the European Union Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under grant agreement no. 101003653.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/metabolism , Antibodies, Viral/metabolism , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adjuvants, Immunologic/administration & dosage , Adjuvants, Immunologic/chemistry , Aluminum Hydroxide/chemistry , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/cytology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Immunization , Interferon-gamma/metabolism , Interleukin-17/metabolism , Liposomes/chemistry , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Squalene/chemistry , Vaccines, Subunit/immunology
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