Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 7 de 7
Filter
1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(22)2022 Nov 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2298126

ABSTRACT

This study is a successor of our previous work concerning changes in the chemokine profile in infection that are associated with different SARS-CoV-2 genetic variants. The goal of our study was to take into account both the virus and the host immune system by assessing concentrations of cytokines in patients infected with different SARS-CoV-2 variants (ancestral Wuhan strain, Alpha, Delta and Omicron). Our study was performed on 340 biological samples taken from COVID-19 patients and healthy donors in the timespan between May 2020 and April 2022. We performed genotyping of the virus in nasopharyngeal swabs, which was followed by assessment of cytokines' concentration in blood plasma. We noted that out of nearly 30 cytokines, only four showed stable elevation independently of the variant (IL-6, IL-10, IL-18 and IL-27), and we believe them to be 'constant' markers for COVID-19 infection. Cytokines that were studied as potential biomarkers lose their diagnostic value as the virus evolves, and the specter of potential targets for predictive models is narrowing. So far, only four cytokines (IL-6, IL-10, IL-18, and IL-27) showed a consistent rise in concentrations independently of the genetic variant of the virus. Although we believe our findings to be of scientific interest, we still consider them inconclusive; further investigation and comparison of immune responses to different variants of SARS-CoV-2 is required.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cytokines , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , COVID-19/genetics , Cytokines/genetics , Cytokines/metabolism , Interleukin-10/genetics , Interleukin-10/metabolism , Interleukin-18/genetics , Interleukin-18/metabolism , Interleukin-27/genetics , Interleukin-27/metabolism , Interleukin-6/genetics , Interleukin-6/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
2.
Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol ; 22(1): 82-90, 2023 Feb 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2261959

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 can induce lung inflammation, and inflammatory factors play an essential role in its pathogenesis. This inflammation can be controlled to a great extent by microRNAs(miRs). This study evaluated miR-146a-5p expression levels in the serum of patients with COVID-19 and their association with the expression of interleukin (IL)-18 and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-Β ligand (RANKL) genes, and lung damage. patients with COVID-19 were divided into two groups: mild and severe phases. The severe phase is defined as having a positive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for SARS-CoV2, and acute pulmonary symptoms. The subjects' demographic, clinical, and paraclinical characteristics were collected according to a pre-prepared checklist. Total RNA was isolated from all samples using the Trizol kit to assess gene expression. The extracted product was then evaluated for the expression of miR-146a and the target genes (i.e., IL-18 and RANKL) using real-time PCR. The miR-146a gene's mean expression in mild and severe patients was 0.73 and 1.89, respectively, and this difference was statistically significant between the two groups. Also, the mean Expression of the IL-18 gene, 1.37±0.38 in the mild and 2.83±0.58 in the severe groups of the disease, demonstrated a significant difference between the two groups. In contrast, the expression levels of the RANKL gene did not show a significant difference between the two groups. Therefore, it may be hypothesized that altered levels of miR-146a may contribute to the severe COVID-19 that is more commonly observed in smokers, but further research is required.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , MicroRNAs , Humans , Interleukin-18/genetics , Ligands , RNA, Viral , COVID-19/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , MicroRNAs/genetics , MicroRNAs/metabolism , NF-kappa B , Gene Expression
3.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 8(1): 108, 2023 03 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2268983

ABSTRACT

Cardiopulmonary complications are major drivers of mortality caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Interleukin-18, an inflammasome-induced cytokine, has emerged as a novel mediator of cardiopulmonary pathologies but its regulation via SARS-CoV-2 signaling remains unknown. Based on a screening panel, IL-18 was identified amongst 19 cytokines to stratify mortality and hospitalization burden in patients hospitalized with COVID-19. Supporting clinical data, administration of SARS-CoV-2 Spike 1 (S1) glycoprotein or receptor-binding domain (RBD) proteins into human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (hACE2) transgenic mice induced cardiac fibrosis and dysfunction associated with higher NF-κB phosphorylation (pNF-κB) and cardiopulmonary-derived IL-18 and NLRP3 expression. IL-18 inhibition via IL-18BP resulted in decreased cardiac pNF-κB and improved cardiac fibrosis and dysfunction in S1- or RBD-exposed hACE2 mice. Through in vivo and in vitro work, both S1 and RBD proteins induced NLRP3 inflammasome and IL-18 expression by inhibiting mitophagy and increasing mitochondrial reactive oxygenation species. Enhancing mitophagy prevented Spike protein-mediated IL-18 expression. Moreover, IL-18 inhibition reduced Spike protein-mediated pNF-κB and EC permeability. Overall, the link between reduced mitophagy and inflammasome activation represents a novel mechanism during COVID-19 pathogenesis and suggests IL-18 and mitophagy as potential therapeutic targets.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Humans , Mice , Animals , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , COVID-19/genetics , Inflammasomes/genetics , Inflammasomes/metabolism , Interleukin-18/genetics , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/genetics , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , Mitophagy/genetics , Inflammation/genetics , Inflammation/metabolism , Cytokines
4.
Epidemiol Infect ; 150: e14, 2021 12 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1747292

ABSTRACT

Vulnerability to coronavirus disease (COVID)-19 varies due to differences in interferon gamma (IFNγ) immunity. We investigated whether a key modifiable interferon precursor, interleukin-18, was related to COVID-19, overall and by severity, using Mendelian randomisation. We used four established genome-wide significant genetic predictors of interleukin-18 applied to the most recent genome-wide association study of COVID-19 (June 2021) to obtain Mendelian randomisation inverse variance weighted estimates by severity, i.e. any (cases = 112 612, non-cases = 2 474 079), hospitalised (cases = 24 274, non-cases = 2 061 529) and very severe (cases = 8779, non-cases = 1 001 875) COVID-19. To be comprehensive, we also conducted an exploratory analysis for IFNγ and two related cytokines with less well-established genetic predictors, i.e. interleukin-12 and interleukin-23. Genetically predicted interleukin-18 was associated with lower risk of any COVID-19 (odds ratio (OR) 0.96 per standard deviation, 95% confidence interval (0.94-0.99, P-value 0.004)) and of very severe COVID-19 (OR 0.88, 95% CI 0.78-0.999, P-value 0.048). Sensitivity analysis and a more liberal genetic instrument selection gave largely similar results. Few genome-wide significant genetic predictors were available for IFNγ, interleukin-12 or interleukin-23, and no associations with COVID-19 were evident. Interleukin-18 could be a modifiable target to prevent COVID-19 and should be further explored in an experimental design.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , Interleukin-18/genetics , COVID-19/pathology , Female , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Genome-Wide Association Study , Humans , Male , Mendelian Randomization Analysis , Odds Ratio , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
5.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(37)2021 09 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1373495

ABSTRACT

The hallmark of severe COVID-19 is an uncontrolled inflammatory response, resulting from poorly understood immunological dysfunction. We hypothesized that perturbations in FoxP3+ T regulatory cells (Treg), key enforcers of immune homeostasis, contribute to COVID-19 pathology. Cytometric and transcriptomic profiling revealed a distinct Treg phenotype in severe COVID-19 patients, with an increase in Treg proportions and intracellular levels of the lineage-defining transcription factor FoxP3, correlating with poor outcomes. These Tregs showed a distinct transcriptional signature, with overexpression of several suppressive effectors, but also proinflammatory molecules like interleukin (IL)-32, and a striking similarity to tumor-infiltrating Tregs that suppress antitumor responses. Most marked during acute severe disease, these traits persisted somewhat in convalescent patients. A screen for candidate agents revealed that IL-6 and IL-18 may individually contribute different facets of these COVID-19-linked perturbations. These results suggest that Tregs may play nefarious roles in COVID-19, by suppressing antiviral T cell responses during the severe phase of the disease, and by a direct proinflammatory role.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/etiology , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/physiology , Adult , Aged , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/virology , Female , Forkhead Transcription Factors/genetics , Forkhead Transcription Factors/metabolism , Gene Expression Profiling , Gene Expression Regulation , Humans , Inflammation/metabolism , Inflammation/virology , Interleukin-18/genetics , Interleukin-18/metabolism , Interleukin-2 Receptor alpha Subunit/genetics , Interleukin-2 Receptor alpha Subunit/metabolism , Interleukin-6/genetics , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Lymphocytes, Tumor-Infiltrating/physiology , Male , Middle Aged , Severity of Illness Index , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/immunology , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/virology , Transcription Factors/genetics , Transcription Factors/metabolism
6.
J Biol Chem ; 296: 100630, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1333548

ABSTRACT

Unchecked inflammation can result in severe diseases with high mortality, such as macrophage activation syndrome (MAS). MAS and associated cytokine storms have been observed in COVID-19 patients exhibiting systemic hyperinflammation. Interleukin-18 (IL-18), a proinflammatory cytokine belonging to the IL-1 family, is elevated in both MAS and COVID-19 patients, and its level is known to correlate with the severity of COVID-19 symptoms. IL-18 binds its specific receptor IL-1 receptor 5 (IL-1R5, also known as IL-18 receptor alpha chain), leading to the recruitment of the coreceptor, IL-1 receptor 7 (IL-1R7, also known as IL-18 receptor beta chain). This heterotrimeric complex then initiates downstream signaling, resulting in systemic and local inflammation. Here, we developed a novel humanized monoclonal anti-IL-1R7 antibody to specifically block the activity of IL-18 and its inflammatory signaling. We characterized the function of this antibody in human cell lines, in freshly obtained peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and in human whole blood cultures. We found that the anti-IL-1R7 antibody significantly suppressed IL-18-mediated NFκB activation, reduced IL-18-stimulated IFNγ and IL-6 production in human cell lines, and reduced IL-18-induced IFNγ, IL-6, and TNFα production in PBMCs. Moreover, the anti-IL-1R7 antibody significantly inhibited LPS- and Candida albicans-induced IFNγ production in PBMCs, as well as LPS-induced IFNγ production in whole blood cultures. Our data suggest that blocking IL-1R7 could represent a potential therapeutic strategy to specifically modulate IL-18 signaling and may warrant further investigation into its clinical potential for treating IL-18-mediated diseases, including MAS and COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/pharmacology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/pharmacology , Immunologic Factors/pharmacology , Interleukin-18/genetics , Receptors, Interleukin-18/genetics , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/metabolism , Antibodies, Monoclonal/biosynthesis , Antibodies, Neutralizing/biosynthesis , Candida albicans/growth & development , Candida albicans/pathogenicity , Gene Expression Regulation , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Immunologic Factors/biosynthesis , Inflammation , Interferon-gamma/genetics , Interferon-gamma/immunology , Interleukin-18/immunology , Interleukin-6/genetics , Interleukin-6/immunology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/drug effects , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/immunology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/microbiology , Lipopolysaccharides/antagonists & inhibitors , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/drug therapy , NF-kappa B/genetics , NF-kappa B/immunology , Primary Cell Culture , Receptors, Interleukin-18/antagonists & inhibitors , Receptors, Interleukin-18/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/genetics , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/immunology , COVID-19 Drug Treatment
7.
Molecules ; 26(10)2021 May 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1248001

ABSTRACT

Angiotensin (Ang) II is well-known to have potent pro-oxidant and pro-inflammatory effects in the brain. Extensive crosstalk between the primary Ang II receptor, Ang type 1 receptor (AT1R), and the cannabinoid type 1 receptor (CB1R) has been demonstrated by various groups in the last decade. Since activation of glial CB1R has been demonstrated to play a key role in the resolution of inflammatory states, we investigated the role of Ang II (100 nM) and/or ACEA (10 nM), a potent CB1R-specific agonist in the regulation of inflammatory markers in astrocytes from spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and Wistar rats. Astrocytes were cultured from brainstems and cerebellums of SHR and Wistar rats and assayed for IL1ß and IL10 gene expression and secreted fraction, in treated and non-treated cells, by employing qPCR and ELISA, respectively. mRNA expression of both IL10 and IL1ß were significantly elevated in untreated brainstem and cerebellar astrocytes isolated from SHR when compared to Wistar astrocytes. No changes were observed in the secreted fraction. While ACEA-treatment resulted in a significant increase in IL10 gene expression in Wistar brainstem astrocytes (Log2FC ≥ 1, p < 0.05), its effect in SHR brainstem astrocytes was diminished. Ang II treatment resulted in a strong inhibitory effect on IL10 gene expression in astrocytes from both brain regions of SHR and Wistar rats (Log2FC ≤ -1, p < 0.05), and an increase in IL1ß gene expression in brainstem astrocytes from both strains (Log2FC ≥ 1, p < 0.05). Co-treatment of Ang II and ACEA resulted in neutralization of Ang II-mediated effect in Wistar brainstem and cerebellar astrocytes, but not SHR astrocytes. Neither Ang II nor ACEA resulted in any significant changes in IL10 or IL1ß secreted proteins. These data suggest that Ang II and ACEA have opposing roles in the regulation of inflammatory gene signature in astrocytes isolated from SHR and Wistar rats. This however does not translate into changes in their secreted fractions.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin II/pharmacology , Arachidonic Acids/pharmacology , Gene Expression/drug effects , Interleukin-10/genetics , Interleukin-18/genetics , Animals , Astrocytes/drug effects , Cerebellum/cytology , Cerebellum/drug effects , Cerebellum/metabolism , Male , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Rats , Rats, Inbred SHR , Rats, Wistar
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL