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1.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1145840, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20243068

ABSTRACT

Objective: The hyperinflammatory response, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome-2 (SARS-CoV-2), is the most common cause of death in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The etiopathogenesis of this illness is not fully understood. Macrophages appear to play a key part in COVID-19's pathogenic effects. Therefore, this study aims to examine serum inflammatory cytokines associated with the activation state of macrophages in COVID-19 patients and attempt to find accurate predictive markers for disease severity and mortality risk in hospital. Methods: 180 patients with COVID-19 and 90 healthy controls (HCs) participated in this study. Patients were divided into three different subgroups, mild (n=81), severe (n=60), and critical groups (n=39). Serum samples were collected and IL (Interleukin)-10, IL-23, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), IL-17, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and chemokine ligand 3 (CCL3) were determined by ELISA. In parallel, myeloperoxidase (MPO) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured using colorimetric and electrochemiluminescence methods, respectively. Data were collected, and their associations with disease progression and mortality were assessed using regression models and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Results: Compared to HCs, a significant increase in IL-23, IL-10, TNF-α, IFN-γ and MCP-1, were observed in COVID-19 patients. Serum levels of IL-23, IL-10, and TNF-α were significantly higher in COVID-19 patients with critical cases compared to mild and severe cases, and correlated positively with CRP level. However, non-significant changes were found in serum MPO and CCL3 among the studied groups. Moreover, significant positive association has been observed among increased IL-10, IL-23 and TNF-α in serum of COVID-19 patients. Furthermore, a binary logistic regression model was applied to predict death's independent factors. Results showed that IL-10 alone or in combination with IL23 and TNF-α are strongly linked with non-survivors in COVID-19 patients. Finally, ROC curve results uncovered that IL-10, IL-23 and TNF-α were excellent predictors for prognosing COVID-19. Conclusion: The elevations of IL-10, IL-23, and TNF-α levels were seen in severe and critical cases of COVID-19 patients and their elevations were linked to the in-hospital mortality of the disease. A prediction model shows that the determination of these cytokines upon admission is important and should be done on COVID-19 patients as a way of evaluating the prognosis of the disease. COVID-19 Patients with high IL-10, IL-23, and TNF-α on admission are more likely to experience a severe form of the disease; therefore, those patients should be cautionary monitored and treated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Interleukin-10 , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Hospital Mortality , SARS-CoV-2 , Cytokines , Interferon-gamma , Interleukin-23
2.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1001198, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2326316

ABSTRACT

Background: There is evidence that the adaptive or acquired immune system is one of the crucial variables in differentiating the course of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). This work aimed to analyze the immunopathological aspects of adaptive immunity that are involved in the progression of this disease. Methods: This is a systematic review based on articles that included experimental evidence from in vitro assays, cohort studies, reviews, cross-sectional and case-control studies from PubMed, SciELO, MEDLINE, and Lilacs databases in English, Portuguese, or Spanish between January 2020 and July 2022. Results: Fifty-six articles were finalized for this review. CD4+ T cells were the most resolutive in the health-disease process compared with B cells and CD8+ T lymphocytes. The predominant subpopulations of T helper lymphocytes (Th) in critically ill patients are Th1, Th2, Th17 (without their main characteristics) and regulatory T cells (Treg), while in mild cases there is an influx of Th1, Th2, Th17 and follicular T helper cells (Tfh). These cells are responsible for the secretion of cytokines, including interleukin (IL) - 6, IL-4, IL-10, IL-7, IL-22, IL-21, IL-15, IL-1α, IL-23, IL-5, IL-13, IL-2, IL-17, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), CXC motivating ligand (CXCL) 8, CXCL9 and tumor growth factor beta (TGF-ß), with the abovementioned first 8 inflammatory mediators related to clinical benefits, while the others to a poor prognosis. Some CD8+ T lymphocyte markers are associated with the severity of the disease, such as human leukocyte antigen (HLA-DR) and programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1). Among the antibodies produced by SARS-CoV-2, Immunoglobulin (Ig) A stood out due to its potent release associated with a more severe clinical form. Conclusions: It is concluded that through this study it is possible to have a brief overview of the main immunological biomarkers and their function during SARS-CoV-2 infection in particular cell types. In critically ill individuals, adaptive immunity is varied, aberrantly compromised, and late. In particular, the T-cell response is also an essential and necessary component in immunological memory and therefore should be addressed in vaccine formulation strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor , SARS-CoV-2 , Interleukin-10 , Interleukin-15 , Interleukin-17 , Interleukin-13 , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Cross-Sectional Studies , Critical Illness , Ligands , Interleukin-2 , Interleukin-4 , Interleukin-5 , Interleukin-7 , Adaptive Immunity , HLA-DR Antigens , Interleukin-23 , Inflammation Mediators , Transforming Growth Factor beta , Immunoglobulins
3.
Egypt J Immunol ; 30(2): 119-130, 2023 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2295618

ABSTRACT

Severe COVID-19 disease was linked to a severe proinflammatory response and cytokine storm interleukin 17 (IL-17) is one of these cytokines, was associated with severe acute lung injury and multiorgan dysfunction. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes coding IL-17 can affect level of IL-17 hence its role in diseases. Also, SNPs in IL-23 R which control IL-23 is the main activator of IL-17 production. This study aimed to determine whether the IL-17A (G/A-rs2275913), IL-23R (A/G rs11209026) SNPs and serum levels of IL-17 were related to the risk of severe COVID-19. This case-control study included 120 confirmed COVID-19 patients, divided into two categories according to the severity of the disease and 74 normal subjects as controls. COVID-19 patients were SARS-CoV-2 positive by a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and subjected to full clinical examinations, routine laboratory tests, and radiographic evaluations. The IL-17 levels were assessed using ELISA method, and genotyping of IL-17A (197 A/G; rs2275913) and IL-23R rs11209026 (A/G) was performed by the TaqMan Genotyping Assay. There were no differences in the distribution of IL-17A or IL-23R genotypes between COVID-19 groups and the control group (p=0.93 and p=0.84, respectively). Severe COVID-19 patients had significantly higher IL-17 serum levels than non-severe COVID-19 (p=0.0001). The GG genotypes of IL-17A were significantly higher in severe COVID-19 patients (p=0.004). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that AG, GG genotypes of IL-17 and IL-17A were independent predictors of COVID-19 disease severity (p < 0.0001, p=0.06 and p=0.04, respectively). ROC curve analysis for IL-17, as predictor of severe COVID-19 disease revealed a sensitivity of 87.9% and specificity of 66.1% at a cutoff point of 114 pg/ml with AUC = 0.799. In conclusion, these findings indicated that IL-17 may be considered a marker of severe COVID-19. IL-17A SNPs may have a role in COVID-19 severity. IL-23R SNPs had no role in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Interleukin-17 , Humans , Interleukin-17/genetics , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Case-Control Studies , COVID-19/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Genotype , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Interleukin-23/genetics
4.
J Cutan Med Surg ; 27(1_suppl): 3S-24S, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2269611

ABSTRACT

Cytokines in the interleukin (IL)-23/IL-17 axis are central to psoriasis pathogenesis. Janus kinase (JAK) signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) regulates intracellular signalling of several cytokines (including IL-12, 23, 22, 6, 17, and interferon (IFN)-γ) in the IL-23/IL-17 axis, and, as a result, has become a therapeutic target for psoriasis treatment. Although several JAK1-3 inhibitors, with varying degrees of selectivity, have been developed for immune-mediated inflammatory diseases, use in psoriasis is limited by a low therapeutic index as anticipated by signals from other disease indications. More selective inhibition of the JAK family is an area of interest. Specifically, selective tyrosine kinase (TYK)2 inhibition suppresses IL-23/IL-17 axis signalling, and at therapeutic doses, has a favorable safety profile compared to therapeutic doses of JAK1-3 inhibitors. Phase III efficacy and safety data for the selective allosteric TYK2-inhibitor, deucravacitinib, in adult patients with moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis is promising. Furthermore, phase II clinical trials for ropsacitinib (PF-06826647), a selective TYK2 inhibitor, and brepocitinib (PF-06700841), a JAK1/TYK2 inhibitor, have also demonstrated efficacy and an acceptable safety profile in adult patients with moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis. Other novel TYK2 allosteric inhibitors, NDI-034858 and ESK-001, are currently being investigated in adult patients with plaque psoriasis. This article reviews the details of the JAK-STAT pathway in psoriasis pathophysiology, the rationale for selective targeting of JAKs in the treatment of psoriasis, and provides clinical perspective on clinical trial data for JAK and TYK2 inhibitors.


Subject(s)
Janus Kinase Inhibitors , Psoriasis , Adult , Humans , Janus Kinases/metabolism , Janus Kinases/therapeutic use , Interleukin-17/metabolism , Signal Transduction , STAT Transcription Factors/metabolism , STAT Transcription Factors/therapeutic use , TYK2 Kinase/metabolism , TYK2 Kinase/therapeutic use , Psoriasis/pathology , Interleukin-23 , Janus Kinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Janus Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use
5.
Int J Med Sci ; 20(4): 530-541, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2280444

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 is known to disrupt immune response and induce hyperinflammation that could potentially induce fatal outcome of the disease. Until now, it is known that interplay among cytokines is rather important for clinical presentation and outcome of COVID-19. The aim of this study was to determine transcriptional activity and functional phenotype of T cells and the relationship between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and clinical parameters of COVID-19 severity. Methods: All recruited patients met criteria for COVID-19 are were divided in four groups according to disease severity. Serum levels of IL-12, IFN-γ, IL-17 and IL-23 were measured, and flow cytometry analysis of T cells from peripheral blood was performed. Results: Significant elevation of IL-12, IFN-γ, IL-17 and IL-23 in stage IV of the disease has been revealed. Further, strong intercorrelation between IL-12, IFN-γ, IL-17 and IL-23 was also found in stage IV of the disease, marking augmented Th1 and Th17 response. Analyses of T cells subsets indicate a noticeable phenotype change. CD4+, but not CD8+ T cells expressed increased transcriptional activity through increased expression of Tbet and RORγT, accompanied with increased percentage of IFN-γ and IL-17 producing T cells. Conclusion: Our results pose a novel hypothesis of the underlying mechanism behind deteriorating immune response in severe cases of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Interleukin-17 , Humans , Interleukin-17/metabolism , Th1 Cells , COVID-19/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , Interleukin-12/metabolism , Interleukin-23/metabolism , Th17 Cells
6.
RMD Open ; 8(2)2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098011

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To assess the tolerance and efficacy of targeted therapies prescribed off-label in refractory low-prevalence autoimmune and inflammatory systemic diseases. METHODS: The TATA registry (TArgeted Therapy in Autoimmune Diseases) is a prospective, observational, national and independent cohort follow-up. The inclusion criteria in the registry are as follows: age >18 years; low-prevalence autoimmune and inflammatory systemic disease treated with off-label drugs started after 1 January 2019. RESULTS: Hundred (100) patients (79 women) were enrolled. The median age was 52.5 years (95% CI 49 to 56) and the median disease duration before enrolment was 5 years (3 to 7). The targeted therapies at enrolment were as follows: Janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription inhibitors (44%), anti-interleukin (IL)-6R (22%), anti-IL-12/23, anti-IL-23 and anti-IL-17 (9%), anti-B cell activating factor of the tumour necrosis factor family (5%), abatacept (5%), other targeted treatments (9%) and combination of targeted treatments (6%). 73% of patients were receiving corticosteroid therapy at enrolment (median dose 10 mg/day). The current median follow-up time is 9 months (8 to 10).Safety: 11 serious infections (incidence rate of 14.8/100 patient-years) and 1 cancer (1.3 cancers/100 patient-years) were observed. Two patients died from severe COVID-19 (2.7 deaths/100 patient-years).Efficacy: the targeted treatment was considered effective by the clinician in 56% of patients and allowed, in responders, a median reduction of oral corticosteroids of 15 (9 to 21) mg/day, below 7.5 mg/day in 76% of patients, while 28% discontinued. CONCLUSION: These initial results of the TATA registry confirm the diversity of targeted treatments prescribed off-label in refractory autoimmune diseases and their corticosteroid-sparing effect when effective. Tolerance was acceptable in these refractory patients with a long history of treatment with immunosuppressive drugs.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases , COVID-19 , Adolescent , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Interleukin-23 , Off-Label Use , Prospective Studies , Registries
7.
Acta Dermatovenerol Croat ; 30(2): 99-105, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2073256

ABSTRACT

Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disease associated with a defective epidermal barrier, in which the immune system is already activated in lesional sites of the skin, and it is thus possible that affected individuals can have different immunologic rates of viral response. This is especially important in the era of the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) that is affecting the entire world. Patients with psoriasis are often receiving systemic therapy which includes immunosuppressive and biologic therapy, so this new infectious disease has raised concerns among dermatologists regarding psoriasis treatment. Some of the risk factors of psoriasis are obesity, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension - all of which are diseases linked with negative outcomes and higher severity of COVID-19. Psoriasis is mediated by inflammatory cells and proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-17, IL-23, IFN-γ, and TNF-α, and patients with skin diseases have been shown to be more susceptible to COVID-19 infection, but with a less severe disease course. As an anti-inflammatory agent, vitamin D could play a significant role in the future as a possible treatment for reducing the risk and severity of psoriasis and COVID-19. It has been suggested that patients treated with biologic therapy should continue treatment, as it has not been shown to cause severe complications of the COVID-19 disease. Preventive measures, including vaccination, should be taken to minimize the risk of infection and severity of the clinical outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psoriasis , Cytokines , Humans , Interleukin-17 , Interleukin-23/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Psoriasis/drug therapy , Psoriasis/therapy , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/therapeutic use , Vitamin D
8.
Dermatol Ther ; 35(7): e15524, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1956743

ABSTRACT

Recent knowledge on the key role of interleukin (IL) 23/17 axis in psoriasis pathogenesis, led to development of new biologic drugs. Risankizumab is a humanized immunoglobulin G1 monoclonal antibody specifically targeting IL23. Its efficacy and safety were showed by both clinical trials and real-life experiences. However, real-life data on effectiveness and safety of risankizumab in patients who previously failed anti-IL17 are scant. To assess the efficacy and safety of risankizumab in patients who previously failed anti-IL17. A 52-week real-life retrospective study was performed to assess the long-term efficacy and safety of risankizumab in patients who previously failed anti-IL17. A total of 39 patients (26 male, 66.7%; mean age 50.5 ± 13.7 years) were enrolled. A statistically significant reduction of psoriasis area severity index (PASI) and body surface area (BSA) was assessed at each follow-up (PASI at baseline vs. week 52: 13.7 ± 5.8 vs. 0.9 ± 0.8, p < 0.0001; BSA 21.9 ± 14.6 vs. 1.9 ± 1.7, p < 0.0001). Nail psoriasis severity index improved as well, being statistically significative only at week 16 and thereafter [9.3 ± 4.7 at baseline, 4.1 ± 2.4 (p < 0.01) at week 16, 1.4 ± 0.8 (p < 0.0001) at week 52]. Treatment was discontinued for primary and secondary inefficacy in 1(2.6%) and 3(7.7%) patients, respectively. No cases of serious adverse events were assessed. Our real-life study confirmed the efficacy and safety of risankizumab, suggesting it as a valuable therapeutic weapon among the armamentarium of biologics, also in psoriasis patients who previously failed anti-IL17 treatments.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Psoriasis , Adult , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Female , Humans , Interleukin-23 , Male , Middle Aged , Psoriasis/chemically induced , Psoriasis/diagnosis , Psoriasis/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome
9.
Expert Opin Drug Saf ; 21(1): 1-8, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1735444

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Ustekinumab is a human IgG1 kappa monoclonal antibody that targets the p40 subunit of interleukin (IL)-12 and IL-23 and blocks the binding of these cytokines to the IL-12Rß1 chain of their receptors. Ustekinumab is approved for treating moderate-to-severe ulcerative colitis (UC). AREAS COVERED: We reviewed the mechanism of action, pharmacokinetics, efficacy, and safety of ustekinumab. Future challenges for optimizing UC treatment with ustekinumab are discussed. EXPERT OPINION: Ustekinumab has favorable clinical efficacy and safety profiles for moderately-to-severely active UC. Ustekinumab is the first biologic for targeting IL-12/IL-23 pathways. Therefore, ustekinumab can be a therapeutic option following the failure of other biologics, including anti-tumor necrosis factor-α antagonists and anti-α4ß7 integrin antagonists. However, the positioning of ustekinumab in the therapeutic strategy for UC remains unclear. The efficacy of combinations of ustekinumab and immunomodulators over ustekinumab monotherapy has not been supported in studies. Ustekinumab is a human immunoglobulin G monoclonal antibody with low immunogenicity. Therefore, ustekinumab monotherapy, which should be safe, could be sufficient for treating UC. Further studies are required to understand the efficacy and safety of ustekinumab in patients with UC, particularly in special situations, and to optimize UC treatment with ustekinumab.


Subject(s)
Colitis, Ulcerative/drug therapy , Immunologic Factors/administration & dosage , Ustekinumab/administration & dosage , Animals , Colitis, Ulcerative/immunology , Colitis, Ulcerative/physiopathology , Humans , Immunologic Factors/adverse effects , Interleukin-12/immunology , Interleukin-23/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , Ustekinumab/adverse effects
12.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(3)2021 Mar 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1146828

ABSTRACT

Active inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), combined immunosuppression and corticosteroid therapy have all been identified as risk factors for a poor outcome in COVID-19 infection. The management of patients with both COVID-19 infection and active IBD is therefore complex. We present the case of a 31-year-old patient with Crohn's disease, on dual immunosuppression with infliximab and mercaptopurine presenting with inflammatory small bowel obstruction and COVID-19 infection. The case highlights the use of nutritional therapy, which remains underused in the management of adults with IBD, to manage his flare acutely. Following negative SARS-CoV-2 PCR testing and SARS-CoV-2 IgG testing confirming an antibody response, ustekinumab (anti-interleukin 12/23) was prescribed for long-term maintenance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Crohn Disease/immunology , Crohn Disease/therapy , Enteral Nutrition , Immunocompromised Host , Adult , Crohn Disease/complications , Crohn Disease/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Interleukin-12/immunology , Interleukin-23/immunology , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Treatment Outcome , Ustekinumab/therapeutic use
13.
Viral Immunol ; 34(3): 190-200, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1099573

ABSTRACT

The initial immune response to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) includes an interferon-dependent antiviral response. A late and uncontrolled inflammatory response characterized by high activity of proinflammatory cytokines and the recruitment of neutrophils and macrophages develops in predisposed individuals and is potentially harmful in some cases. Interleukin (IL)-17 is one of the many cytokines released during coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). IL-17 is crucial in recruiting and activating neutrophils, cells that can migrate to the lung, and are heavily involved in the pathogenesis of COVID-19. During the infection T helper 17 (Th17) cells and IL-17-related pathways are associated with a worse outcome of the disease. All these have practical consequences considering that some drugs with therapeutic targets related to the Th17 response may have a beneficial effect on patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Herein, we present the arguments underlying our assumption that blocking the IL-23/IL-17 axis using targeted biological therapies as well as drugs that act indirectly on this pathway such as convalescent plasma therapy and colchicine may be good therapeutic options.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Th17 Cells/immunology , Adaptive Immunity , Adult , COVID-19/classification , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Interleukin-17/antagonists & inhibitors , Interleukin-17/physiology , Interleukin-23/antagonists & inhibitors , Middle Aged , COVID-19 Drug Treatment
14.
Dermatol Ther ; 33(5): e13687, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1006125

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is responsible for at least 2 546 527 cases and 175 812 deaths as of April 21, 2020. Psoriasis and atopic dermatitis (AD) are common, chronic, inflammatory skin conditions, with immune dysregulation as a shared mechanism; therefore, mainstays of treatment include systemic immunomodulating therapies. It is unknown whether these therapies are associated with increased COVID-19 susceptibility or worse outcomes in infected patients. In this review, we discuss overall infection risks of nonbiologic and biologic systemic medications for psoriasis and AD and provide therapeutic recommendations. In summary, in patients with active infection, systemic conventional medications, the Janus kinase inhibitor tofacitinib, and biologics for psoriasis should be temporarily held until there is more data; in uninfected patients switching to safer alternatives should be considered. Interleukin (IL)-17, IL-12/23, and IL-23 inhibitors are associated with low infection risk, with IL-17 and IL-23 favored over IL-12/23 inhibitors. Pivotal trials and postmarketing data also suggest that IL-17 and IL-23 blockers are safer than tumor necrosis factor alpha blockers. Apremilast, acitretin, and dupilumab have favorable safety data and may be safely initiated and continued in uninfected patients. Without definitive COVID-19 data, these recommendations may be useful in guiding treatment of psoriasis and AD patients during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Dermatitis, Atopic/drug therapy , Psoriasis/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Immunologic Factors/adverse effects , Interleukin-17/antagonists & inhibitors , Interleukin-23/antagonists & inhibitors , Janus Kinase Inhibitors/adverse effects , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/antagonists & inhibitors
16.
J Immunother Cancer ; 8(1)2020 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-220167

ABSTRACT

The pandemic caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 has placed an unprecedented burden on healthcare systems around the world. In patients who experience severe disease, acute respiratory distress is often accompanied by a pathological immune reaction, sometimes referred to as 'cytokine storm'. One hallmark feature of the profound inflammatory state seen in patients with COVID-19 who succumb to pneumonia and hypoxia is marked elevation of serum cytokines, especially interferon gamma, tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin 17 (IL-17), interleukin 8 (IL-8) and interleukin 6 (IL-6). Initial experience from the outbreaks in Italy, China and the USA has anecdotally demonstrated improved outcomes for critically ill patients with COVID-19 with the administration of cytokine-modulatory therapies, especially anti-IL-6 agents. Although ongoing trials are investigating anti-IL-6 therapies, access to these therapies is a concern, especially as the numbers of cases worldwide continue to climb. An immunology-informed approach may help identify alternative agents to modulate the pathological inflammation seen in patients with COVID-19. Drawing on extensive experience administering these and other immune-modulating therapies, the Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer offers this perspective on potential alternatives to anti-IL-6 that may also warrant consideration for management of the systemic inflammatory response and pulmonary compromise that can be seen in patients with severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Immunotherapy , Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , Interleukin-6/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/complications , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , Societies, Medical , Adoptive Transfer , Antibodies, Monoclonal/pharmacology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/pharmacology , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/complications , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/pathology , Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor/antagonists & inhibitors , Humans , Inflammation/complications , Inflammation/drug therapy , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/pathology , Interferon-gamma/antagonists & inhibitors , Interleukin-1/antagonists & inhibitors , Interleukin-17/antagonists & inhibitors , Interleukin-23/antagonists & inhibitors , Interleukin-6/genetics , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Janus Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors , Neoplasms/immunology , Neoplasms/therapy , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/immunology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/pathology , STAT Transcription Factors/antagonists & inhibitors , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/pathology , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/antagonists & inhibitors
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