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1.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1001198, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2326316

ABSTRACT

Background: There is evidence that the adaptive or acquired immune system is one of the crucial variables in differentiating the course of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). This work aimed to analyze the immunopathological aspects of adaptive immunity that are involved in the progression of this disease. Methods: This is a systematic review based on articles that included experimental evidence from in vitro assays, cohort studies, reviews, cross-sectional and case-control studies from PubMed, SciELO, MEDLINE, and Lilacs databases in English, Portuguese, or Spanish between January 2020 and July 2022. Results: Fifty-six articles were finalized for this review. CD4+ T cells were the most resolutive in the health-disease process compared with B cells and CD8+ T lymphocytes. The predominant subpopulations of T helper lymphocytes (Th) in critically ill patients are Th1, Th2, Th17 (without their main characteristics) and regulatory T cells (Treg), while in mild cases there is an influx of Th1, Th2, Th17 and follicular T helper cells (Tfh). These cells are responsible for the secretion of cytokines, including interleukin (IL) - 6, IL-4, IL-10, IL-7, IL-22, IL-21, IL-15, IL-1α, IL-23, IL-5, IL-13, IL-2, IL-17, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), CXC motivating ligand (CXCL) 8, CXCL9 and tumor growth factor beta (TGF-ß), with the abovementioned first 8 inflammatory mediators related to clinical benefits, while the others to a poor prognosis. Some CD8+ T lymphocyte markers are associated with the severity of the disease, such as human leukocyte antigen (HLA-DR) and programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1). Among the antibodies produced by SARS-CoV-2, Immunoglobulin (Ig) A stood out due to its potent release associated with a more severe clinical form. Conclusions: It is concluded that through this study it is possible to have a brief overview of the main immunological biomarkers and their function during SARS-CoV-2 infection in particular cell types. In critically ill individuals, adaptive immunity is varied, aberrantly compromised, and late. In particular, the T-cell response is also an essential and necessary component in immunological memory and therefore should be addressed in vaccine formulation strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor , SARS-CoV-2 , Interleukin-10 , Interleukin-15 , Interleukin-17 , Interleukin-13 , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Cross-Sectional Studies , Critical Illness , Ligands , Interleukin-2 , Interleukin-4 , Interleukin-5 , Interleukin-7 , Adaptive Immunity , HLA-DR Antigens , Interleukin-23 , Inflammation Mediators , Transforming Growth Factor beta , Immunoglobulins
2.
J Interferon Cytokine Res ; 42(10): 542-549, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2284705

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has affected the entire world, and has a variety of clinical presentations. The aim of this study is to determine the relationships of fecal cytokines and markers with the symptoms and prognosis of children with COVID-19 infection, and to identify noninvasive markers during follow-up. In a cohort of 40 COVID-19-positive children and 40 healthy controls, fecal cytokines and markers were examined in stool samples. A binary logistic model was used to assess the potential of cytokines as risk factors for hospitalization. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were reported. A P-value <0.05 was accepted as statistically significant. Levels of fecal lysozyme, myeloperoxidase, hemoglobin, and interleukin-5 (IL-5) (P < 0.05) were significantly higher among the patients than controls. In a logistic regression analysis, fecal IL-2 (OR = 3.83; 95% CI: 1.44-15.92), IL-4 (OR = 2.96; 95% CI: 1.09-12.93), IL-5 (OR = 4.56; 95% CI: 1.18-27.88), IL-10 (OR = 2.71 95% CI: 1.19-7.94), interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) (OR = 4.03; 95% CI: 1.44-15.73), IFN-α (OR = 3.02; 95% CI: 1.08-11.65), calcium-binding protein B S100 (S100 B) (OR = 4.78; 95% CI: 1.31-27.82), neutrophil elastase (NE) 2 (OR = 4.07; 95% CI: 1.17-19.69), and matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MMP-1) (OR = 3.67; 95% CI: 1.1-18.82) levels were significantly higher in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 infection than outpatients. We demonstrated that various fecal cytokines and markers were increased in patients who had COVID-19. Fecal IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IFN-γ, IFN-α, S100 B, NE, and MMP-1 levels were significantly elevated in hospitalized patients. We suggest that the fecal and serum levels of cytokines could be used to predict the prognosis of COVID-19 disease, although more studies are needed to confirm this.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cytokines , Child , Humans , Cytokines/metabolism , Interleukin-5/metabolism , Matrix Metalloproteinase 1/metabolism , Interleukin-10 , Leukocyte Elastase/metabolism , Peroxidase/metabolism , Muramidase/metabolism , Interferon-gamma , Interleukin-4 , Interleukin-2 , Biomarkers , Prognosis , Interferon-alpha/metabolism , Calcium-Binding Proteins
3.
Immunotherapy ; 14(14): 1149-1164, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2268835

ABSTRACT

In the past decade, the emergence of biologics targeting human cytokine networks has advanced a new era in atopic dermatitis therapy. Dupilumab, in particular, the most widely studied and used IL-4/IL-13 inhibitor, has been considered a milestone in the treatment of patients with moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis. In addition to the IL-4 and IL-13 pathways, many other cytokines and receptors have been newly targeted as therapeutic options. In this review, the authors provide an overview of the approved and tested biologics and JAK inhibitors for the treatment of atopic dermatitis, including their advantages and limitations.


Subject(s)
Biological Products , Dermatitis, Atopic , Antibodies, Monoclonal/pharmacology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Biological Products/therapeutic use , Dermatitis, Atopic/drug therapy , Humans , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Immunotherapy , Interleukin-13 , Interleukin-4
4.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1138609, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2260212

ABSTRACT

Despite numerous clinically available vaccines and therapeutics, aged patients remain at increased risk for COVID-19 morbidity. Furthermore, various patient populations, including the aged can have suboptimal responses to SARS-CoV-2 vaccine antigens. Here, we characterized vaccine-induced responses to SARS-CoV-2 synthetic DNA vaccine antigens in aged mice. Aged mice exhibited altered cellular responses, including decreased IFNγ secretion and increased TNFα and IL-4 secretion suggestive of TH2-skewed responses. Aged mice exhibited decreased total binding and neutralizing antibodies in their serum but significantly increased TH2-type antigen-specific IgG1 antibody compared to their young counterparts. Strategies to enhance vaccine-induced immune responses are important, especially in aged patient populations. We observed that co-immunization with plasmid-encoded adenosine deaminase (pADA)enhanced immune responses in young animals. Ageing is associated with decreases in ADA function and expression. Here, we report that co-immunization with pADA enhanced IFNγ secretion while decreasing TNFα and IL-4 secretion. pADA expanded the breadth and affinity SARS-CoV-2 spike-specific antibodies while supporting TH1-type humoral responses in aged mice. scRNAseq analysis of aged lymph nodes revealed that pADA co-immunization supported a TH1 gene profile and decreased FoxP3 gene expression. Upon challenge, pADA co-immunization decreased viral loads in aged mice. These data support the use of mice as a model for age-associated decreased vaccine immunogenicity and infection-mediated morbidity and mortality in the context of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines and provide support for the use of adenosine deaminase as a molecular adjuvant in immune-challenged populations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Animals , Mice , COVID-19 Vaccines , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Interleukin-4 , Adenosine Deaminase , Immunization , Antibodies, Viral , Disease Models, Animal
5.
Viral Immunol ; 36(4): 241-249, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2259868

ABSTRACT

Individuals with no known comorbidities or risk factors may develop severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The present study assessed the effect of certain host polymorphisms and viral lineage on the severity of COVID-19 among hospitalized patients with no known comorbidities in Mexico. The analysis included 117 unrelated hospitalized patients with COVID-19. Patients were stratified by whether they required intensive care unit (ICU) admission: the ICU group (n = 40) and non-ICU group (n = 77). COVID-19 was diagnosed on the basis of a positive severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay and clinical and radiographic criteria. The presence of the IL1B-31 (T/C) polymorphism was determined for all patients using PCR and nucleotide sequencing. Genotyping of the IL-4 (-590, T/C) and IL-8 (-251, T/A) polymorphisms was performed by the amplification refractory mutation system-PCR method. Genotyping of IL1-RN was performed using PCR. Viral genome sequencing was performed using the ARTIC Network amplicon sequencing protocol using a MinION. Logistic regression analysis identified the carriage of IL-1 B*-31 *C as an independent potential risk factor (odds ratio [OR] = 3.1736, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.0748-9.3705, p = 0.0366) for ICU admission and the presence of IL-RN*2 as a protective factor (OR = 0.4371, 95% CI = 0.1935-0.9871, p = 0.0465) against ICU admission. Under the codominant model, the CC genotype of IL1B-31 significantly increased the risk of ICU admission (OR: 6.38, 95% CI: 11.57-25.86, p < 0.024). The IL1B-31 *C-IL-4-590 *T haplotype increased the risk of ICU admission (OR = 2.53, 95% CI = 1.02-6.25, p = 0.047). The 42 SARS-CoV-2 genomes sequenced belonged to four clades, 20A-20D. No association was detected between SARS-CoV-2 clades and ICU admission or death. Thus, in patients with no known comorbidities or risk factors, the IL1B-31*C proinflammatory allele was observed to be associated with the risk of ICU admission owing to COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Alleles , Interleukin-4 , Hospitalization
6.
Influenza Other Respir Viruses ; 17(3): e13119, 2023 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2266543

ABSTRACT

Background: There is a need for vaccines that can induce effective systemic, respiratory mucosal, and cellular immunity to control the COVID-19 pandemic. We reported previously that a synthetic mucosal adjuvant SF-10 derived from human pulmonary surfactant works as an efficient antigen delivery vehicle to antigen presenting cells in the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts and promotes induction of influenza virus antigen-specific serum IgG, mucosal IgA, and cellular immunity. Methods: The aim of the present study was to determine the effectiveness of a new administration route of trans-airway (TA) vaccine comprising recombinant SARS-CoV-2 spike protein 1 (S1) combined with SF-10 (S1-SF-10 vaccine) on systemic, local, and cellular immunity in mice, compared with intramuscular injection (IM) of S1 with a potent adjuvant AddaS03™ (S1-AddaS03™ vaccine). Results: S1-SF-10-TA vaccine induced S1-specific IgG and IgA in serum and lung mucosae. These IgG and IgA induced by S1-SF-10-TA showed significant protective immunity in a receptor binding inhibition test of S1 and angiotensin converting enzyme 2, a receptor of SARS-CoV-2, which were more potent and faster achievement than S1-AddaS03™-IM. Enzyme-linked immunospot assay showed high numbers of S1-specific IgA and IgG secreting cells (ASCs) and S1-responsive IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-17A cytokine secreting cells (CSCs) in the spleen and lungs. S1-AddaS03™-IM induced IgG ASCs and IL-4 CSCs in spleen higher than S1-SF-10-TA, but the numbers of ASCs and CSCs in lungs were low and hardly detected. Conclusions: Based on the need for effective systemic, respiratory, and cellular immunity, the S1-SF-10-TA vaccine seems promising mucosal vaccine against respiratory infection of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Surfactants , Humans , Animals , Mice , Pulmonary Surfactants/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2 , Interleukin-4/pharmacology , Pandemics , Immunity, Mucosal , Antibodies, Viral , Adjuvants, Immunologic , Immunity, Cellular , Immunoglobulin A/pharmacology , Immunoglobulin G
7.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1051059, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2229990

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is an infectious disease caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, which induces a high release of pro-inflammatory chemokines and cytokines, leading to severe systemic disorders. Further, evidence has shown that recovered COVID-19 patients still have some symptoms and disorders from COVID-19. Physical exercise can have many health benefits. It is known to be a potent regulator of the immune system, which includes frequency, intensity, duration, and supervised by a professional. Given the confinement and social isolation or hospitalization of COVID-19 patients, the population became sedentary or opted for physical exercise at home, assuming the guarantee of the beneficial effects of physical exercise and reducing exposure to SARS-CoV-2. This study aimed to investigate the effects of a supervised exercise protocol and a home-based unsupervised exercise protocol on chemokine and cytokine serum levels in recovered COVID-19 patients. This study was a prospective, parallel, two-arm clinical trial. Twenty-four patients who had moderate to severe COVID-19 concluded the intervention protocols of this study. Participants were submitted to either supervised exercise protocol at the Clinical Hospital of the Federal University of Pernambuco or home-based unsupervised exercise for 12 weeks. We analyzed serum levels of chemokines (CXCL8/IL-8, CCL5/RANTES, CXCL9/MIG, CCL2/MCP-1, and CXCL10/IP-10) and cytokines (IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17A, TNF-α, and IFN-γ). Before the interventions, no significant differences were observed in the serum levels of chemokines and cytokines between the supervised and home-based unsupervised exercise groups. The CXCL8/IL-8 (p = 0.04), CCL2/MCP-1 (p = 0.03), and IFN-γ (p = 0.004) levels decreased after 12 weeks of supervised exercise. In parallel, an increase in IL-2 (p = 0.02), IL-6 (p = 0.03), IL-4 (p = 0.006), and IL-10 (p = 0.04) was observed after the supervised protocol compared to pre-intervention levels. No significant differences in all the chemokines and cytokines were found after 12 weeks of the home-based unsupervised exercise protocol. Given the results, the present study observed that supervised exercise was able to modulate the immune response in individuals with post-COVID-19, suggesting that supervised exercise can mitigate the inflammatory process associated with COVID-19 and its disorders. Clinical trial registration: https://ensaiosclinicos.gov.br/rg/RBR-7z3kxjk, identifier U1111-1272-4730.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cytokines , Humans , Interleukin-10 , Interleukin-8 , Interleukin-6 , Interleukin-4 , Interleukin-2 , Prospective Studies , COVID-19/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Chemokines
8.
Clin Immunol ; 244: 109130, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2177621

ABSTRACT

Here, we report a case of atopic dermatitis (AD) in a patient who received biweekly doses of dupilumab, an antibody against the IL-4 receptor α chain (IL-4Rα). Single cell RNA-sequencing showed that naïve B cells expressed the highest levels of IL4R compared to other B cell subpopulations. Compared to controls, the dupilumab-treated patient exhibited diminished percentages of IL4R+IGHD+ naïve B cells and down-regulation of IL4R, FCER2 (CD23), and IGHD. Dupilumab treatment resulted in upregulation of genes associated with apoptosis and inhibition of B cell receptor signaling and down-regulation of class-switch and memory B cell development genes. The dupilumab-treated patient exhibited a rapid decline in COVID-19 anti-spike and anti-receptor binding domain antibodies between 4 and 8 and 11 months post COVID-19 vaccination. Our data suggest that intact and persistent IL-4 signaling is necessary for maintaining robust survival and development of naïve B cells, and maintaining a long term vaccine response.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Receptors, Interleukin-4 , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Interleukin-4 , RNA , Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell
9.
Viral Immunol ; 35(10): 663-672, 2022 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2188178

ABSTRACT

Several inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccines have been approved for human use, but are not highly potent. In this study, different formulations of the inactivated SARS-CoV-2 virus were developed in Alum, Montanide 51VG, and Montanide ISA720VG adjuvants, followed by assessment of immune responses. The SARS-CoV-2 virus was inactivated with formalin and formulated in the adjuvants. BALB/c mice were immunized subcutaneously with 4 µg of vaccines on days 0 and 14; (IL-4) and (IFN-g), cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) activity, and specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) titer and IgG1, IgG2a, and IgG2a/IgG1 ratio, and anti-receptor-binding domain (RBD) IgG response were assessed 2 weeks after the final immunization. Immunization with SARS-CoV-2-Montanide ISA51VG showed a significant increase in the IFN-γ cytokine versus SARS-CoV-2-Alum, SARS-CoV-2-Montanide ISA720VG, and control groups (p < 0.0033). Cytokine IL-4 response in SARS-CoV-2-Alum group showed a significant increase compared with SARS-CoV-2-Montanide ISA51VG, SARS-CoV-2-Montanide ISA720VG, and control groups (p < 0.0206). In addition, SARS-CoV-2-Montanide ISA51VG vaccine induced the highest IFN-γ/IL-4 cytokine ratio versus other groups (p < 0.0004). CTL activity in SARS-CoV-2-Montanide ISA51VG and SARS-CoV-2-Montanide ISA720VG groups showed a significant increase compared with SARS-CoV-2-Alum and control groups (p < 0.0075). Specific IgG titer in SARS-CoV-2-Montanide ISA51 VG and SARS-CoV-2-Montanide ISA720VG showed a significant increase compared with SARS-CoV-2-Alum and control groups (p < 0.0143). Results from specific IgG1and IgG2a in SARS-CoV-2-Alum, SARS-CoV-2-Montanide ISA51VG, and SARS-CoV-2-Montanide ISA720VG vaccine showed a significant increase compared with phosphate buffer saline (PBS) group (p < 0.0001), but SARS-CoV-2-Montanide ISA51VG and SARS-CoV-2-Montanide ISA 720VG groups showed the highest IgG2a/IgG1 ratio and a significant increase compared with SARS-CoV-2-Alum group (p < 0.0379). Moreover, inactivated SARS-CoV-2+Alum and SARS-CoV-2-Montanide ISA 720VG groups demonstrated a significant increase in anti-RBD IgG response versus the SARS-CoV-2-Montanide ISA51VG group. It seems that the type of vaccine formulation is a critical parameter, influencing the immunologic pattern and vaccine potency and human-compatible oil-based adjuvants were more potent than Alum adjuvant in the vaccine formulation.


Subject(s)
Adjuvants, Immunologic , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Animals , Humans , Mice , Adjuvants, Immunologic/pharmacology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/chemistry , Cytokines , Immunity , Immunoglobulin G , Interferon-gamma , Interleukin-4 , Mice, Inbred BALB C , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Front Immunol ; 13: 945583, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2154720

ABSTRACT

Severe coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is accompanied by acute respiratory distress syndrome and pulmonary pathology, and is presented mostly with an inflammatory cytokine release, a dysregulated immune response, a skewed neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio, and a hypercoagulable state. Though vaccinations have proved effective in reducing the COVID-19-related mortality, the limitation of the use of vaccine against immunocompromised individuals, those with comorbidity, and emerging variants remains a concern. In the current study, we investigate for the first time the efficacy of the Glycyrrhiza glabra (GG) extract, a potent immunomodulator, against SARS-CoV-2 infection in hamsters. Prophylactic treatment with GG showed protection against loss in body weight and a 35%-40% decrease in lung viral load along with reduced lung pathology in the hamster model. Remarkably, GG reduced the mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1). In vitro, GG acted as a potent immunomodulator by reducing Th2 and Th17 differentiation and IL-4 and IL-17A cytokine production. In addition, GG also showed robust potential to suppress ROS, mtROS, and NET generation in a concentration-dependent manner in both human polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) and murine bone marrow-derived neutrophils (BMDNs). Taken together, we provide evidence for the protective efficacy of GG against COVID-19 and its putative mechanistic insight through its immunomodulatory properties. Our study provides the proof of concept for GG efficacy against SARS-CoV-2 using a hamster model and opens the path for further studies aimed at identifying the active ingredients of GG and its efficacy in COVID-19 clinical cases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Glycyrrhiza , Animals , Cricetinae , Cytokines/metabolism , Glycyrrhiza/metabolism , Humans , Interleukin-17 , Interleukin-4 , Mice , Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1 , RNA, Messenger , Reactive Oxygen Species , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 922422, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2154675

ABSTRACT

The duration and severity of COVID-19 are related to age, comorbidities, and cytokine synthesis. This study evaluated the impact of these factors on patients with clinical presentations of COVID-19 in a Brazilian cohort. A total of 317 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 were included; cases were distributed according to clinical status as severe (n=91), moderate (n=56) and mild (n=170). Of these patients, 92 had acute COVID-19 at sample collection, 90 had already recovered from COVID-19 without sequelae, and 135 had sequelae (long COVID syndrome). In the acute COVID-19 group, patients with the severe form had higher IL-6 levels (p=0.0260). In the post-COVID-19 group, there was no significant difference in cytokine levels between groups with different clinical conditions. In the acute COVID-19 group, younger patients had higher levels of TNF-α, and patients without comorbidities had higher levels of TNF-α, IL-4 and IL-2 (p<0.05). In contrast, patients over age 60 with comorbidities had higher levels of IL-6. In the post-COVID-19 group, subjects with long COVID-19 had higher levels of IL-17 and IL-2 (p<0.05), and subjects without sequelae had higher levels of IL-10, IL-6 and IL- 4 (p<0.05). Our results suggest that advanced age, comorbidities and elevated serum IL-6 levels are associated with severe COVID-19 and are good markers to differentiate severe from mild cases. Furthermore, high serum levels of IL-17 and IL-2 and low levels of IL-4 and IL-10 appear to constitute a cytokine profile of long COVID-19, and these markers are potential targets for COVID-19 treatment and prevention strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , COVID-19 , Biomarkers , COVID-19/complications , Cytokines , Humans , Interleukin-10 , Interleukin-17 , Interleukin-2 , Interleukin-4 , Interleukin-6 , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(22)2022 Nov 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2110128

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic, promoted by the SARS-CoV-2 respiratory virus, has resulted in widespread global morbidity and mortality. The immune response against this pathogen has shown a thin line between protective effects and pathological reactions resulting from the massive release of cytokines and poor viral clearance. The latter is possibly caused by exhaustion, senescence, or both of TCD8+ cells and reduced activity of natural killer (NK) cells. The imbalance between innate and adaptive responses during the early stages of infection caused by SARS-CoV-2 contributes to the ineffective control of viral spread. The present study evaluated the tissue immunoexpression of the tissue biomarkers (Arginase-1, CCR4, CD3, CD4, CD8, CD20, CD57, CD68, CD138, IL-4, INF-α, INF-γ, iNOS, PD-1, Perforin and Sphingosine-1) to understand the cellular immune response triggered in patients who died of COVID-19. We evaluated twenty-four paraffin-embedded lung tissue samples from patients who died of COVID-19 (COVID-19 group) and compared them with ten lung tissue samples from patients who died of H1N1pdm09 (H1N1 group) with the immunohistochemical markers mentioned above. In addition, polymorphisms in the Perforin gene were genotyped through Real-Time PCR. Significantly increased tissue immunoexpression of Arginase, CD4, CD68, CD138, Perforin, Sphingosine-1, and IL-4 markers were observed in the COVID-19 group. A significantly lower immunoexpression of CD8 and CD57 was also found in this group. It is suggested that patients who died from COVID-19 had a poor cellular response concerning viral clearance and adaptive response going through tissue repair.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Humans , Arginase , Perforin , Sphingosine , Interleukin-4 , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Immunity, Cellular
13.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 19658, 2022 Nov 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2117683

ABSTRACT

Severe/critical COVID-19 is associated with immune dysregulation and plasmatic SARS-CoV-2 detection (i.e. RNAemia). We detailed the association of SARS-CoV-2 RNAemia with immune responses in COVID-19 patients at the end of the first week of disease. We enrolled patients hospitalized in acute phase of ascertained SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia, and evaluated SARS-CoV-2 RNAemia, plasmatic cytokines, activated/pro-cytolytic T-cells phenotypes, SARS-CoV-2-specific cytokine-producing T-cells (IL-2, IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-4, IL-17A), simultaneous Th1-cytokines production (polyfunctionality) and amount (iMFI). The humoral responses were assessed with anti-S1/S2 IgG, anti-RBD total-Ig, IgM, IgA, IgG1 and IgG3, neutralization and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). Out of 54 patients, 27 had detectable viremia (viremic). Albeit comparable age and co-morbidities, viremic more frequently required ventilatory support, with a trend to higher death. Viremic displayed higher pro-inflammatory cytokines (IFN-α, IL-6), lower activated T-cells (HLA-DR+CD38+), lower functional SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cells (IFN-γ+CD4+, TNF-α+CD8+, IL-4+CD8+, IL-2+TNF-α+CD4+, and IL-2+TNF-α+CD4+ iMFI) and SARS-CoV-2-specific Abs (anti-S IgG, anti-RBD total-Ig, IgM, IgG1, IgG3; ID50, %ADCC). These data suggest a link between SARS-CoV-2 RNAemia at the end of the first stage of disease and immune dysregulation. Whether high ab initium viral burden and/or intrinsic host factors contribute to immune dysregulation in severe COVID-19 remains to be elucidated, to further inform strategies of targeted therapeutic interventions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Interleukin-2 , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Interleukin-4 , Immunologic Memory , Cytokines , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin M
14.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1008438, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2080155

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To determine the profile of cytokines in patients with severe COVID-19 who were enrolled in a trial of COVID-19 convalescent plasma (CCP). Methods: Patients were randomized to receive standard treatment and 3 CCP units or standard treatment alone (CAPSID trial, ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04433910). The primary outcome was a dichotomous composite outcome (survival and no longer severe COVID-19 on day 21). Time to clinical improvement was a key secondary endpoint. The concentrations of 27 cytokines were measured (baseline, day 7). We analyzed the change and the correlation between serum cytokine levels over time in different subgroups and the prediction of outcome in receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analyses and in multivariate models. Results: The majority of cytokines showed significant changes from baseline to day 7. Some were strongly correlated amongst each other (at baseline the cluster IL-1ß, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, G-CSF, MIP-1α, the cluster PDGF-BB, RANTES or the cluster IL-4, IL-17, Eotaxin, bFGF, TNF-α). The correlation matrix substantially changed from baseline to day 7. The heatmaps of the absolute values of the correlation matrix indicated an association of CCP treatment and clinical outcome with the cytokine pattern. Low levels of IP-10, IFN-γ, MCP-1 and IL-1ß on day 0 were predictive of treatment success in a ROC analysis. In multivariate models, low levels of IL-1ß, IFN-γ and MCP-1 on day 0 were significantly associated with both treatment success and shorter time to clinical improvement. Low levels of IP-10, IL-1RA, IL-6, MCP-1 and IFN-γ on day 7 and high levels of IL-9, PDGF and RANTES on day 7 were predictive of treatment success in ROC analyses. Low levels of IP-10, MCP-1 and high levels of RANTES, on day 7 were associated with both treatment success and shorter time to clinical improvement in multivariate models. Conclusion: This analysis demonstrates a considerable dynamic of cytokines over time, which is influenced by both treatment and clinical course of COVID-19. Levels of IL-1ß and MCP-1 at baseline and MCP-1, IP-10 and RANTES on day 7 were associated with a favorable outcome across several endpoints. These cytokines should be included in future trials for further evaluation as predictive factors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cytokines , Humans , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein , Interleukin-17 , Chemokine CCL3 , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Interleukin-6 , Interleukin-4 , Capsid , COVID-19/therapy , Becaplermin , Chemokine CXCL10 , Interleukin-2 , Interleukin-8 , Interleukin-9 , Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor , COVID-19 Serotherapy
15.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis ; 1868(12): 166559, 2022 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2041586

ABSTRACT

Obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2DM), hypertension (HTN), and Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) often cluster together as "Cardiometabolic Disease" (CMD). Just under 50% of patients with CMD increased the risk of morbidity and mortality right from the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic as it has been reported in most countries affected by the SARS-CoV2 virus. One of the pathophysiological hallmarks of COVID-19 is the overactivation of the immune system with a prominent IL-6 response, resulting in severe and systemic damage involving also cytokines such as IL2, IL4, IL8, IL10, and interferon-gamma were considered strong predictors of COVID-19 severity. Thus, in this mini-review, we try to describe the inflammatory state, the alteration of the adipokine profile, and cytokine production in the obese state of infected and not infected patients by SARS-CoV2 with the final aim to find possible influences of COVID-19 on CMD and CVD. The immunological-based discussion of the molecular processes could inspire the study of promising targets for managing CMD patients and its complications during COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Adipokines , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cytokines , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Humans , Interferon-gamma , Interleukin-10 , Interleukin-2 , Interleukin-4 , Interleukin-6 , Interleukin-8 , Obesity/complications , Obesity/epidemiology , Pandemics , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2
16.
ACS Infect Dis ; 8(10): 2119-2132, 2022 Oct 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2036751

ABSTRACT

The engineering of virus-like particles (VLPs) is a viable strategy for the development of vaccines and for the identification of therapeutic targets without using live viruses. Here, we report the generation and characterization of quadruple-antigen SARS-CoV-2 VLPs. VLPs were generated by transient transfection of two expression cassettes in adherent HEK293T cells─one cassette containing Mpro for processing of three structural proteins (M, E, and N), and the second cassette expressing the Spike protein. Further characterization revealed that the VLPs retain close morphological and antigenic similarity with the native virus and also bind strongly to the SARS-CoV-2 receptor hACE-2 in an in vitro binding assay. Interestingly, the VLPs were found to internalize into U87-MG cells through cholesterol-rich domains in a dynamin-dependent process. Finally, our results showed that mice immunized with VLPs induce robust humoral and cellular immune responses mediated by enhanced levels of IL-4, IL-17, and IFNγ. Taken together, our results demonstrate that VLPs mimic the native virus and induce a strong immune response, indicating the possible use of these particles as an alternative vaccine candidate against SARS-CoV-2. VLPs can also be effective in mapping the initial stages of virus entry and screening inhibitors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , COVID-19/prevention & control , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Interleukin-17 , Interleukin-4 , Mice , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Virus Internalization
17.
ACS Infect Dis ; 8(10): 2161-2170, 2022 Oct 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2016542

ABSTRACT

Adjuvants are essential components of vaccines. Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells are a distinct subset of T cells that function to bridge the innate and adaptive immunities and are capable of mediating strong and rapid responses to a range of diseases, including cancer and infectious disease. An increasing amount of evidence suggests that iNKT cells can help fight viral infection. In particular, iNKT-secreting IL-4 is a key mediator of humoral immunity and has a positive correlation with the levels of neutralizing antibodies. As iNKT cell agonists, αGC glycolipid (α-galactosylceramide, or KRN7000) and its analogues as vaccine adjuvants have begun to provide vaccinologists with a new toolset. Herein we found that a new iNKT-cell agonist αGC-CPOEt elicited a strong cytokine response with increased IL-4 production. Remarkably, after three immunizations, SARS-CoV-2 RBD-Fc adjuvanted by αGC-CPOEt evoked robust neutralizing antibody responses that were about 5.5-fold more than those induced by αGC/RBD-Fc and 25-fold greater than those induced by unadjuvanted RBD-Fc. These findings imply that αGC-CPOEt could be investigated further as a new COVID-19 vaccine adjuvant to prevent current and future infectious disease outbreaks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Natural Killer T-Cells , Adjuvants, Immunologic/pharmacology , Antibodies, Neutralizing , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cytokines , Humans , Interleukin-4 , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Subunit
18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(35): e30073, 2022 Sep 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2008661

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The respiratory system is the first line of defense against outside pollutants. Recently, respiratory health has been receiving increasing attention due to the increase in fine dust, which reduces respiratory function and increases incidence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and in coronavirus pandemic, which can cause severe acute respiratory syndrome. METHODS: This clinical pilot trial was designed to secure evidence for a main clinical trial and to confirm the efficacy and safety of Liriope platyphylla (LP) extract for improving respiratory function. We conducted a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial with 22 participants from June 30, 2021, to August 25, 2021. The primary outcome was Breathlessness, Cough, and Sputum Scale score. Secondary outcomes included forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume at 1 second (FEV1), forced expiratory volume at 1 s/forced vital capacity ratio, cough assessment test score, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease assessment test score, peripheral blood mononuclear cell counts (white blood cells, eosinophils, T cells, and B cells), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein level, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, cytokine (interleukin-1ß, interleukin-4, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, interleukin-8, interferon-γ, and immunoglobulin E) levels, antioxidant (glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase) levels, and nitric oxide level. RESULTS: A total of 22 participants were randomly assigned to 2 groups: the LP group (n = 11), who took 1000 mg of LP extract per day, and the placebo group, who took 1000 mg of dextrin per day. Participants took 1 capsule twice a day for 4 weeks. For the Breathlessness, Cough, and Sputum Scale, the interaction between group and visit was statistically significant in a blend of analyses of variance. interleukin-8, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interferon-γ levels decreased more in the LP group than in the placebo group. The sample size required for large-scale clinical trials in the future was 50. There were no side effects. CONCLUSION: LP extract can enhance respiratory function. The detailed data we obtained support conducting the future main large-scale clinical trial.


Subject(s)
Interleukin-8 , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , C-Reactive Protein , Cough/etiology , Dextrins/therapeutic use , Dust , Dyspnea/complications , Glutathione Peroxidase , Humans , Immunoglobulin E , Interferon-gamma , Interleukin-1beta , Interleukin-4 , Interleukin-6/therapeutic use , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , Nitric Oxide , Pilot Projects , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/complications , Superoxide Dismutase , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/therapeutic use
19.
J Infect Dis ; 226(7): 1215-1223, 2022 09 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1985078

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) presents with inflammation and pathology of multiple organs in the pediatric population in the weeks following severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. METHODS: We characterized the SARS-CoV-2 antigen-specific cytokine and chemokine responses in children with MIS-C, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and other infectious diseases. RESULTS: MIS-C is characterized by elevated levels of type 1 (interferon-γ, interleukin [IL] 2), type 2 (IL-4, IL-13), type 17 (IL-17), and other proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1α, IL-6, IL-12p70, IL-18, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor) in comparison to COVID-19 and other infectious diseases following stimulation with SARS-CoV-2-specific antigens. Similarly, upon SARS-CoV-2 antigen stimulation, CCL2, CCL3, and CXCL10 chemokines were significantly elevated in children with MIS-C in comparison to the other 2 groups. Principal component analysis based on these cytokines and chemokines could clearly distinguish MIS-C from both COVID-19 and other infections. In addition, these responses were significantly diminished and normalized 6-9 months after recovery. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that MIS-C is characterized by an enhanced production of cytokines and chemokines that may be associated with disease pathogenesis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Antigens, Viral , COVID-19/complications , Chemokines , Child , Cytokines , Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor , Humans , Immunity , Interferon-gamma , Interleukin-13 , Interleukin-17 , Interleukin-18 , Interleukin-4 , Interleukin-6 , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
20.
Biochem Pharmacol ; 204: 115210, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1982612

ABSTRACT

In this review it is attempted to summarize current studies about formation of eicosanoids and other oxylipins in different human macrophages. There are several reports on M1 and M2 cells, also other phenotypes have been described. The eicosanoids formed in the largest amounts are the COX products TxB2 and PGE2. Thus shortlived bioactive TxA2 is a dominating product both in M1- and in M2-lineages, one exception seems to be MGM-CSF, TGFß cells. 5-LOX products are produced in both M1 and M2 macrophages, as well as in not fully polarized cells of both lineages. MM-CSF as well as M2 macrophages produced LTC4 more readily compared to M1 lineage cells. In MGM-CSF, TGFß cells LTB4 is a major eicosanoid, in line with high expression of LTA4 hydrolase. Recent reports described increased formation of leukotrienes in macrophages subjected to trained immunity with inflammatory transcriptional reprogramming. Also in macrophages derived from monocytes collected from post-COVID-19 patients. 15-LOX-1 is strongly upregulated in CD206+ M2 cells (M2a), differentiated in presence of IL-4. These macrophages also express 15-LOX-2. In incubations with pathogenic E. coli as well as other stimuli 15(S)-HETE and 17(S)-HDHA were major oxylipins formed. Also, the SPM precursor 5,15-diHETE and the SPM RvD5 were produced in considerable amounts, while other SPMs were less abundant. In M2 macrophages incubated with E. coli or S. aureus the cytosolic 15-LOX-1 enzyme accumulated to punctuate structures in a Ca2+ dependent manner with a relatively slow time course, leading to formation of mediators from endogenous substrate. Chalcones, flavone-like anti-inflammatory natural products, induced translocation of 15-LOX-1 in M2 cells, with high formation of 15-LOX derived oxylipins.


Subject(s)
Biological Products , Eicosanoids , Macrophages , Oxylipins , Arachidonate 5-Lipoxygenase/metabolism , Biological Products/metabolism , COVID-19 , Chalcones , Cyclooxygenase 2/metabolism , Eicosanoids/metabolism , Escherichia coli/metabolism , Flavones , Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor/metabolism , Humans , Hydrolases/metabolism , Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic Acids/metabolism , Interleukin-4/metabolism , Leukotrienes , Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor , Macrophages/metabolism , Oxylipins/metabolism , Prostaglandins E/metabolism , Scavenger Receptors, Class E/metabolism , Staphylococcus aureus , Transforming Growth Factor beta/metabolism
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