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1.
Front Immunol ; 13: 986118, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36119076

ABSTRACT

Interleukin-25 (IL-25), also known as IL-17E, is a recently identified cytokine of the IL-17 family. Numerous studies illustrated that the expression of IL-25 is regulated by multiple pathogens, including parasitic, viral, and bacterial infections. IL-25 has a dual function in infectious diseases. On the one hand, IL-25 activates type 2 immunity via the relevant cytokines, including IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13, which are associated with the development of pathogenic infection-related allergic diseases. On the other hand, IL-25 involves in the recruitment of group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2) to enhanced T helper 2 (Th2) cell differentiation, which are important to the clearance of pathogens. However, the precise roles of IL-25 in infectious diseases remain largely unknown. Thus, the current review will shed light on the pivotal roles of IL-25 in infectious diseases.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases , Interleukin-17 , Cytokines/metabolism , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Interleukin-13 , Interleukin-17/metabolism , Interleukin-4 , Interleukin-5 , Lymphocytes/metabolism
2.
Vestn Otorinolaringol ; 87(4): 51-55, 2022.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36107181

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is the most common immunological ENT disease, which has several phenotypes. The heterogeneity of CRS is due to the peculiarities of their pathogenetic mechanisms - the system of cytokines plays the crucial significance. They are biologically active substances and present regulatory peptides that demonstrate an immunomodulatory and regulatory effects not only in the local level but the system level as well. OBJECTIVE: To determine specific features of the cytokine profile in blood serum among patients with CRS without polyps (CRSwP). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Serum cytokines (IL-1α, IL-1RA, IL-1ß, IL-2, IL-3, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-9, IL-10, IL-12p40, IL-12p70, IL-13, IL-15, IL-17, IFN-α2, IFN-γ, GM-CSF) were defined in 75 patients: 32 patients with CRSwP were operated (main group) - 17 with cyst of maxillary sinus, 15 with edema of the maxillary sinuses. The control group - 43 patients were under surgery for a deviated nasal septum (septoplasty). The groups were comparable to gender and age. RESULTS: The cytokines detection rate was different in all groups. IL-4 (detection rate 93.3-95.3%) and IFN-γ (79.1-86.7%) were measured nearly the all groups. IL-8 (73.3-76.5%) and IL-17 (76.5-80.0%) were often measured in the group with CRSwP; in contrast to the control group - these indicators were lower: 60.5% and 65.5%, respectively. IL-1α (82.4%) and IFN-α2 (76.5%) were often detected in CRS with cystic formations. IL-1ß, IL-5, IL-7, IL-9, IL-15 were measured in all groups in less than 30% of patients; IL-2 and IL-6 - in the group of CRS with cystic formation; IL-10, IL-12p40, IL-13 in the group with edema of maxillary sinuses. In a quantitative comparison of the concentration of cytokines. Significant differences in concentration of cytokines between the groups were not obtained (p>0.05) in terms of quantity. CONCLUSION: CRSwP with cystic formation is characterized by the development of T2 type immune response and a higher inflammation-related tissue damage.


Subject(s)
Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor , Nasal Polyps , Cytokines , Humans , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein , Interleukin-10 , Interleukin-12 Subunit p40 , Interleukin-13 , Interleukin-15 , Interleukin-17 , Interleukin-2 , Interleukin-3 , Interleukin-4 , Interleukin-5 , Interleukin-6 , Interleukin-7 , Interleukin-8 , Interleukin-9 , Nasal Polyps/complications , Nasal Polyps/diagnosis , Nasal Polyps/surgery
3.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 628: 57-63, 2022 Nov 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36081279

ABSTRACT

Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by type 2 immune responses. Interleukin-25 (IL-25) is produced predominantly by epithelial cells. It can activate Th2 cells to produce type 2 cytokines such as IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13, contributing to host defense against nematodes. However, excessive/inappropriate production of IL-25 is considered to be involved in development of type 2 cytokine-associated allergic disorders such as asthma. On the other hand, the contribution of IL-25 to the pathogenesis of AD remains poorly understood. In the present study, we found that expression of Il25 mRNA was significantly increased in the skin of mice during oxazolone-induced chronic contact hypersensitivity (CHS), which is a mouse model of human AD. In addition, development of oxazolone-induced chronic CHS was significantly reduced in IL-25-deficient (Il25-/-) mice compared with wild-type mice on the C57BL/6, but not BALB/c, background, although IL-25 was not essential for IL-4 production by hapten-specific T cells. Therefore, IL-25 is crucial for development of chronic CHS, although that is partly dependent on the genetic background of the mice.


Subject(s)
Dermatitis, Atopic , Dermatitis, Contact , Animals , Cytokines/metabolism , Dermatitis, Atopic/chemically induced , Dermatitis, Atopic/genetics , Dermatitis, Contact/genetics , Haptens , Humans , Interleukin-13 , Interleukin-17/genetics , Interleukin-4/genetics , Interleukin-5 , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Oxazolone , RNA, Messenger , Skin/metabolism
4.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 14899, 2022 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36050343

ABSTRACT

Newborns require early generation of effective innate immunity as a primary physiological mechanism for survival. The neonatal Lin28+Let7- developmental pathway allows increased generation of Th2-type cells and B1a (B-1 B) cells compared to adult cells and long-term maintenance of these initially generated innate cells. For initial B1a cell growth from the neonatal to adult stage, Th2-type IL-5 production from ILC2s and NKT2 cells is important to increase B1a cells. The Th17 increase is dependent on extracellular bacteria, and increased bacteria leads to lower Th2-type generation. Secreted group IIA-phospholipase A2 (sPLA2-IIA) from the Pla2g2a gene can bind to gram-positive bacteria and degrade bacterial membranes, controlling microbiota in the intestine. BALB/c mice are Pla2g2a+, and express high numbers of Th2-type cells and B1a cells. C57BL/6 mice are Pla2g2a-deficient and distinct from the SLAM family, and exhibit fewer NKT2 cells and fewer B1a cells from the neonatal to adult stage. We found that loss of Pla2g2a in the BALB/c background decreased IL-5 from Th2-type ILC2s and NKT2s but increased bacterial-reactive NKT17 cells and MAIT cells, and decreased the number of early-generated B1a cells and MZ B cells and the CD4/CD8 T cell ratio. Low IL-5 by decreased Th2-type cells in Pla2g2a loss led to low early-generated B1a cell growth from the neonatal to adult stage. In anti-thymocyte/Thy-1 autoreactive µκ transgenic (ATAµκ Tg) Pla2g2a+ BALB/c background C.B17 mice generated NKT2 cells that continuously control CD1d+ B1 B cells through old aging and lost CD1d in B1 B cells generating strong B1 ATA B cell leukemia/lymphoma. Pla2g2a-deficient ATAµκTg C57BL/6 mice suppressed the initial B1a cell increase, with low/negative spontaneous leukemia/lymphoma generation. These data confirmed that the presence of Pla2g2a to control bacteria is important to allow the neonatal to adult stage. Pla2g2a promotes innate Th2-type immunity lymphocytes to increase early generated B1a cells.


Subject(s)
Immunity, Innate , Lymphocytes , Animals , B-Lymphocytes , Group II Phospholipases A2 , Interleukin-5 , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Th17 Cells
5.
Exp Lung Res ; 48(7-8): 239-250, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36001552

ABSTRACT

Background: Airway remodeling is accepted to be a determining component within the natural history of asthma. Nebulized inhalation of Mycobacterium vaccae (M. vaccae) has a protective effect on asthmatic mice. However, little is known regarding the effect of M. vaccae on airway structural remodeling in asthmatic mice. The purpose of this study was to explore the effect and the underlying mechanism of M. vaccae aerosol inhalation on airway structural remodeling in an asthma mouse model. Methods: Chronic asthma mouse models were established by ovalbumin induction. The number of inflammatory cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), pathological alterations in lung tissue, and levels of associated cytokines (IL-5, IL-13, TNF-α, and ovalbumin-specific immunoglobulin E [OVA-sIgE]) were all assessed after M. vaccae therapy. The relative expression of interleukin (IL)-1ß, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), and Wnt1-induced signaling protein 1 (WISP1) mRNA were detected. Western blotting and immunohistochemistry detected the expression of Wnt/ß-catenin pathway-related proteins in lung tissue. Results: M. vaccae aerosol inhalation relieved airway inflammation, airway hyper-responsiveness, and airway remodeling. M. vaccae reduced the levels of IL-5, IL-13, TNF-α, and OVA-sIgE in and downregulated the expression of IL-1ß, TNF-α, NF-κB, and WISP1 mRNA in the pulmonary. In addition, M. vaccae inhibited the expression of ß-catenin, WISP1, and Wnt1 protein and upregulated the expression of glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3ß). Conclusion: Nebulized inhalation of M. vaccae can reduce airway remodeling during asthma.


Subject(s)
Airway Remodeling , Asthma , Animals , Asthma/metabolism , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , Disease Models, Animal , Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 beta , Interleukin-13 , Interleukin-5 , Lung/metabolism , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mycobacteriaceae , NF-kappa B , Ovalbumin , RNA, Messenger , Respiratory Aerosols and Droplets , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , beta Catenin
6.
Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand) ; 68(4): 188-193, 2022 Apr 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35988279

ABSTRACT

The Purpose of this study was to study and analyze the clinical differences between cough variant asthma (CVA) cells and humoral immunology indicators. For this aim, 73 sick children with CVA were enrolled in this study and were admitted to the Pediatric Inpatient Department of Weifang Maternal and Child Health Hospital for treatment from April 2019 to May 2021. They were divided into the attack stage group (n=45) and the remission stage group (n=28). Meanwhile, 30 children with normal physical examination results were selected as normal controls. Differences in serum levels of TNF-, hs-CRP, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6 and IL-13 were compared among the three groups, as well as the differences in humoral immunology indicators such as T lymphocyte subsets CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD4+/ CD8+ and IgA, IgG, IgG, IgM, IgE, IgE and IgG subtypes. Results showed that serum levels of TNF-α and hs-CRP were significantly higher in the attack stage group than those in the remission stage group and normal control group, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). The serum levels of TNF-α and hs-CRP were higher in the remission stage group than those in the normal control group, and the difference was not statistically significant (P>0.05). Serum levels of IL-4, IL-5, IL-6 and IL-13 were significantly higher in the attack stage group than those in the remission stage group and normal control group, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). CD4+ and CD4+/CD8+ were significantly higher in the attack stage group than those in the remission stage group and normal control group, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). The difference in serum levels of IgG1, IgG2 and IgG3 was not statistically significant (P>0.05) among the three groups. While the level of IgG4 subsets in the attack stage group was significantly higher than that in the remission stage group and normal control group, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). Then the cytokines, cells and humoral immunology indicators of CVA patients are not in their normal range. They are involved in the pathogenesis of CVA. The combined detection is of great clinical significance in the diagnosis of early CVA to avoid misdiagnosis and missed diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Asthma , Cough , Interleukin-5 , Biomarkers , C-Reactive Protein , Child , Humans , Immunoglobulin E , Immunoglobulin G , Interleukin-13 , Interleukin-4 , Interleukin-5/therapeutic use , Interleukin-6 , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
7.
Front Immunol ; 13: 888644, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35967324

ABSTRACT

Background: Inflammation proteins including interleukins (ILs) have been reported to be related to obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). The aims of this study were to estimate the levels for several key interleukins in OSA and the causal effects between them. Method: Weighted mean difference (WMD) was used to compare the expression differences of interleukins between OSA and control, and the changed levels during OSA treatments in the meta-analysis section. A two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) was used to estimate the causal directions and effect sizes between OSA risks and interleukins. The inverse-variance weighting (IVW) was used as the primary method followed by several other MR methods including MR Egger, Weighted median, and MR-Robust Adjusted Profile Score as sensitivity analysis. Results: Nine different interleukins-IL-1ß, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12, IL-17, IL-18, and IL-23-were elevated in OSA compared with control to varying degrees, ranging from 0.82 to 100.14 pg/ml, and one interleukin, IL-10, was decreased by 0.77 pg/ml. Increased IL-1ß, IL-6, and IL-8 rather than IL-10 can be reduced in OSA by effective treatments. Further, the MR analysis of the IVW method showed that there was no significant evidence to support the causal relationships between OSA and the nine interleukins-IL-1ß, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-17, and IL-18. Among them, the causal effect of OSA on IL-5 was almost significant [estimate: 0.267 (-0.030, 0.564), p = 0.078]. These results were consistent in the sensitivity analysis. Conclusions: Although IL-1ß, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12, IL-17, IL-18, and IL-23 were increasing and IL-10 was reducing in OSA, no significant causal relationships were observed between them by MR analysis. Further research is needed to test the causality of OSA risk on elevated IL-5 level.


Subject(s)
Interleukin-10 , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive , Humans , Interleukin-12 , Interleukin-17 , Interleukin-18 , Interleukin-2 , Interleukin-23 , Interleukin-4 , Interleukin-5 , Interleukin-6 , Interleukin-8
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(15)2022 Aug 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35955675

ABSTRACT

The effects of psychological stress on eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders have not been elucidated. This study investigated the effects of psychological stress in a mouse model of eosinophilic enteritis (EoN). BALB/c mice were treated with ovalbumin (OVA) to create an EoN model and subjected to either water avoidance stress (WAS) or sham stress (SS). Microscopic inflammation, eosinophil and mast cell counts, mRNA expression, and protein levels of type 2 helper T cell (Th2) cytokines in the ileum were compared between groups. We evaluated ex vivo intestinal permeability using an Ussing chamber. A corticotropin-releasing hormone type 1 receptor (CRH-R1) antagonist was administered before WAS, and its effects were analyzed. WAS significantly increased diarrhea occurrence and, eosinophil and mast cell counts, and decreased the villus/crypt ratio compared to those in the SS group. The mRNA expression of CRH, interleukin IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, eotaxin-1, and mast cell tryptase ß2 significantly increased, and the protein levels of IL-5, IL-13, and OVA-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) also significantly increased in the WAS group. Moreover, WAS significantly increased the intestinal permeability. The CRH-R1 antagonist significantly inhibited all changes induced by WAS. Psychological stress exacerbated ileal inflammation via the CRH-mast cell axis in an EoN mouse model.


Subject(s)
Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone , Mast Cells , Animals , Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Enteritis , Eosinophilia , Gastritis , Ileum/metabolism , Inflammation/metabolism , Interleukin-13/metabolism , Interleukin-5 , Mast Cells/metabolism , Mice , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Receptors, Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone/genetics , Receptors, Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone/metabolism , Stress, Psychological/complications
9.
Am J Otolaryngol ; 43(5): 103561, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35952528

ABSTRACT

The etiologies of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP)-associated olfactory dysfunction have several potentially overlapping hypotheses. Understanding the association of tissue eosinophils and mucous inflammatory cytokines with olfactory function and identifying predictors of olfactory outcomes in patients with nasal polyposis after surgery is fundamental for future clinical care and research. METHODS: Eighty-five patients who underwent endoscopic surgery for nasal polyposis were enrolled in this study. Olfactory measurements were performed before surgery and 3-6 months after surgery using a T&T olfactometer. Baseline characteristics of CRSwNP patients were collected, and Spearman's rho correlation was performed to assess the association of olfactory function with tissue eosinophils and mucous inflammatory cytokines. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to assess the independent predictors of olfactory outcomes after surgery. RESULTS: Here, 85 CRSwNP patients, including 25 patients without olfactory disorder and 60 patients with hypo-anosmia, were evaluated. Of the 60 patients with preoperative hypo-anosmia, 22 did not have improved olfactory function, and 38 demonstrated normal olfactory function after surgery based on the T&T olfactometer results. The levels of tissue eosinophil, interleukin-5 (IL-5), IL-13, eotaxin-3, and periostin in the preoperative hypo-anosmia group were higher than those in the preoperative normosmia group. Tissue eosinophil count, IL-5, and periostin levels in patients without olfactory improvement were higher than those in patients with olfactory improvement. The tissue eosinophil count, blood eosinophil count, and nasal mucus levels of IL-5, eotaxin-3, and periostin were significantly correlated with olfactory function in all patients with CRSwNP. The IL-5 level remained a strong predictor of poor olfactory outcomes after surgery. CONCLUSIONS: Both tissue eosinophils and mucous inflammatory cytokines, including IL-5, IL-13, eotaxin-3, and periostin, may contribute to the pathogenesis of CRSwNP-associated olfactory dysfunction. Higher IL-5 levels are associated with a lower chance of olfactory function recovery after each surgical revision.


Subject(s)
Mucositis , Nasal Polyps , Rhinitis , Sinusitis , Anosmia , Chemokine CCL26 , Chronic Disease , Cytokines , Eosinophils , Humans , Interleukin-13 , Interleukin-5 , Nasal Polyps/complications , Nasal Polyps/surgery , Rhinitis/complications , Rhinitis/surgery , Sinusitis/complications , Sinusitis/surgery
10.
Arq. Asma, Alerg. Imunol ; 1(3): 241-243, jul.set.2017. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1380453
11.
Arch Razi Inst ; 77(1): 213-220, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35891730

ABSTRACT

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a psychiatric neurological infection of the focal sensory system and is accepted as a multifactorial disease. Chronic Toxoplasmosis is sometimes associated with the proliferation of bradyzoites in the nervous system. The measurement of interleukin-5 (IL-5) as an inflammatory mediator in patients with PD and Toxoplasmosis infection may be helpful in determining the correlation between these diseases. In the present study, 80 examples were collected, including 35 patients diagnosed with idiopathic PD and 45 samples from healthy people from Najaf, Babylon, and Baghdad provinces, Iraq. After measuring the immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody of Toxoplasma gondii, the level of IL-5 was evaluated in different groups. Serological examination showed that the IgG antibody of Toxoplasmosis increased (P<0.05) in people with PD (65.71%). Serum levels of IL-5 significantly decreased in people with PD. It is noteworthy that comparing serum levels of IL-5 between two groups of people with and without chronic Toxoplasmosis revealed that there was a significant decrease (P<0.05) in a concentration of serum IL-5 in individuals with chronic Toxoplasmosis. The current study confirmed the conceivable association between T. gondii and PD, and further research is recommended to explain the association between PD and Toxoplasmosis.


Subject(s)
Interleukin-5 , Parkinson Disease , Toxoplasmosis , Antibodies, Protozoan , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Interleukin-5/blood , Parkinson Disease/complications , Parkinson Disease/parasitology , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmosis/complications
12.
s.l; CONETEC; jun. 2022.
Non-conventional in Spanish | BRISA, BRISA | ID: biblio-1379662

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: Según la Guía 2021 de la Iniciativa Global para el Asma (Global Initiative for Asthma-GINA), institución creada en 1993 en colaboración entre el Instituto Nacional de Salud de EEUU (NIH) y la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS), si bien existen parámetros para determinar la gravedad del asma, la misma debe establecerse en forma retrospectiva, después de haber tratado al paciente por lo menos durante 2 o 3 meses y haber evaluado el resultado de la terapia en términos del control de los síntomas y reducción de las exacerbaciones. El asma se considera grave cuando presenta dificultad para su control a pesar del tratamiento optimizado con dosis altas de corticosteroides inhalados (CI) y ß-2 adrenérgicos de acción corta. Se estima que el asma grave posee una prevalencia de 5-10% respecto a la población asmática. Con respecto al parámetro "control del asma", incluye dos componentes: el control de síntomas y el riesgo futuro. La función pulmonar constituye un aspecto importante en la evaluación del riesgo y en la evolución del cuadro clínico. El asma grave presenta pruebas funcionales iniciales que muestran VEF1 y/o PFE < 60 %. Es recomendable medir estos parámetros en forma basal al inicio del tratamiento, y luego de 3 a 6 meses de aplicar la terapéutica seleccionada (para identificar la mejor marca personal del paciente) y posteriormente en forma periódica, medir su evolución. OBJETIVO: El objetivo del presente informe es evaluar la eficacia, seguridad, recomendaciones de las principales GPC, políticas de cobertura y aspectos económicos de mepolizumab para el tratamiento de pacientes adultos y niños ≥ 6 años con asma grave eosinofílica. METODOLOGÍA: Se identificaron estudios contra placebo y comparaciones indirectas. Luego de la evaluación de la calidad de los estudios identificados se incluyen en este informe una revisión sistemática, dos metaanálisis en red para evaluar la eficacia y seguridad de mepolizumab comparada con placebo y fármacos biológicos en pacientes con asma grave eosinofílica. Adicionalmente fueron incluidas 7 guías de practica clínica y 6 políticas de cobertura. No fueron identificados estudios en pacientes menores de 12 años, ni que comparen de manera directa la respuesta a los fármacos biológicos entre sí para el tratamiento de asma grave eosinofílica, , como tampoco estudios de 5 o más años de duración para estimar la seguridad a largo plazo. RESULTADOS: Se presentan los resultados globales de la búsqueda bibliográfica y el flujograma que muestra las distintas instancias de valoración de los artículos identificados, de acuerdo a los criterios de inclusión y exclusión definidos a través de los componentes de la pregunta PICO, concluyendo con el número de artículos seleccionados para el contenido del presente informe. Se identificaron estudios contra placebo y comparaciones indirectas. Luego de la evaluación de la calidad de los estudios identificados se incluyen en este informe una revisión sistemática (RS), dos metaanálisis en red (MAR) para evaluar la eficacia y seguridad de mepolizumab comparada con placebo y comparaciones indirectas entre los productos biológicos en pacientes con asma grave eosinofílica. Adicionalmente fueron incluidas 7 guías de práctica clínica y 6 políticas de cobertura. No fueron identificados estudios en pacientes menores de 12 años, ni que comparen de manera directa la respuesta a los fármacos biológicos entre sí para el tratamiento de asma grave eosinofílica. CONCLUSIONES: Con respecto a la eficacia, de mepolizumab comparado con placebo: Disminuye un 7% las exacerbaciones que requieren internación (evidencia de alta calidad). No disminuye la utilización de medicación de rescate (evidencia de alta calidad). Probablemente mejora el control del asma (sin alcanzar la diferencia mínima relevante), la calidad de vida (evaluada con cuestionario no específico para asma) y la función pulmonar (evidencia de moderada calidad). Con respecto a la eficacia, de mepolizumab comparado a otros biológicos: No existe evidencia que compare de manera directa la efectividad y seguridad de mepolizumab versus otros comparadores activos como benralizumab y/o dupilumab. Evidencia de baja calidad (comparaciones indirectas) sugiere que podría no haber diferencias en la reducción del número de exacerbaciones anuales entre ellos. Con respecto a su seguridad el efecto es muy incierto y se carece de estudios de larga duración (evidencia de muy baja calidad): No existen comparaciones directas de mepolizumab con otros biológicos. No existen ECAs que evalúen niños ≤ 12 años de edad. Con respecto al impacto económico: El costo anual de tratamiento por paciente del mepolizumab es el menor de los 3 medicamentos estudiados. El costo anual de tratamiento por paciente con mepolizumab es un 38,1% menor que con benralizumab y un 78,2% menor que con dupilumab. El costo farmacológico del tratamiento anual de toda la población con asma grave eosinofílica supera el umbral de alto impacto presupuestario en 81 veces sin la introducción del mepolizumab y en 53,7 veces en el escenario con utilización del mismo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Asthma/drug therapy , Interleukin-5/antagonists & inhibitors , Argentina , Efficacy , Cost-Benefit Analysis/economics
13.
CPT Pharmacometrics Syst Pharmacol ; 11(9): 1268-1277, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35857704

ABSTRACT

Asthma is a complex, heterogeneous disease with a high unmet medical need, despite therapies targeting a multitude of pathways. The ability to quantitatively integrate preclinical and clinical data on these pathways could aid in the development and testing of novel targets and therapeutics. In this work, we develop a computational model of asthma biology, including key cell types and mediators, and create a virtual population capturing clinical heterogeneity. The simulated responses to therapies targeting IL-13, IL-4Rα, IL-5, IgE, and TSLP demonstrate agreement with clinical endpoints and biomarkers of type 2 (T2) inflammation, including blood eosinophils, FEV1, IgE, and FeNO. We use the model to explore the potential benefit of targeting the IL-33 pathway with anti-IL-33 and anti-ST2. Model predictions are compared with data on blood eosinophils, FeNO, and FEV1 from recent anti-IL-33 and anti-ST2 trials and used to interpret trial results based on pathway biology and pharmacology. Results of sensitivity analyses on the contributions of IL-33 to the predicted biomarker changes suggest that anti-ST2 therapy reduces circulating blood eosinophil levels primarily through its impact on eosinophil progenitor maturation and IL-5-dependent survival, and induces changes in FeNO and FEV1 through its effect on immune cells involved in T2 cytokine production. Finally, we also investigate the impact of ST2 genetics on the conferred benefit of anti-ST2. The model includes representation of a wide array of biologic mechanisms and interventions that will provide mechanistic insight and support clinical program design for a wide range of novel therapies during drug development.


Subject(s)
Asthma , Interleukin-5 , Eosinophils , Humans , Immunoglobulin E , Interleukin-1 Receptor-Like 1 Protein
14.
Acta Trop ; 234: 106579, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35843307

ABSTRACT

Helminths possibly down-modulate immune responses to airborne allergens through the induction of a regulatory network. The identification of helminths bioactive molecules is highly desirable, given their immunomodulatory potential which could be used in immunotherapies for allergy and autoimmune diseases. To investigate the immunoregulatory potential of the adult Toxocara canis crude extract and ten protein fractions of its extract, human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from 10 allergic and 9 non-allergic individuals were cultivated, in vitro, in the presence or absence of these antigens, and their supernatants were evaluated for cytokine production (TGF-ß, IL-10, IL-12, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-5, IL13, and IL-17). To determine the cell viability, the PBMC were cultivated for 24 h in the presence of the antigens and, following, they were subjected to a cytotoxicity assay. The viability of the PBMC was not affected by incubation with the T. canis antigens. As some fractions stimulated the production of immunoregulatory (TGF-ß and/or IL-10), IL-12 and Th1 (TNF-α) cytokines, without stimulating Th2 cytokines (IL-5 and IL13) and IL-17, it was proposed that they would be potential candidates for further studies, especially involving the purification and characterization of specific proteins, which could be tested separately to evaluate their specific role as adjuvants in immunotherapy for inflammatory diseases.


Subject(s)
Hypersensitivity , Toxocara canis , Adult , Animals , Cytokines/metabolism , Humans , Interleukin-10/metabolism , Interleukin-12 , Interleukin-13 , Interleukin-17 , Interleukin-5 , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , Th1 Cells , Th2 Cells , Transforming Growth Factor beta/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism
16.
Cytokine ; 157: 155951, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35772364

ABSTRACT

Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis (SJS/TEN) and drug reactions with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) are the most common severe cutaneous adverse drug reactions (SCARs). Anti-epileptic drugs are one of the most common drugs causing SCARs. Cytokine profiles of SCARs during culprit drug exposure have never been characterized. This study aimed to identify cytokine patterns between SCARs and non-SCARs in epilepsy patients and the patterns of DRESS and SJS/TEN. Epilepsy patients that showed allergic responses to anti-epileptic drugs that manifested as SJS/TEN or DRESS were recruited. Epilepsy patients with no drug allergy symptoms and healthy people were also recruited as control groups. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated and co-cultured with assigned anti-epileptic drugs according to the lymphocyte transformation test (LTT). LTT and measurement of cytokine levels in supernatants were performed on day six of cell cultivation. This study identified different cytokine expression patterns between SCAR and non-SCAR in epilepsy patients. Significant levels of IL-10, IL-12, IL-17, and GM-CSF were detected in non-SCAR epilepsy. However, the levels of IL-2, IL-5, IL-13, and IFN-gamma were significantly higher in supernatants of PBMCs of DRESS cultivated with AEDs relative to those of SJS/TEN. These cytokine levels were positively correlated with the cell proliferation index. Production of IL-5 and IL-13 was a unique characteristic of DRESS PBMCs. This study was the first to demonstrate distinct differences in cytokine levels between SCAR and non-SCAR PBMCs in epilepsy, which could help explain the immune-pathomechanism of drug hypersensitivity in SCARs. Different patterns of cytokine production and cell proliferation between DRESS and SJS/TEN in AED hypersensitivity were also demonstrated. Production of IL-5 and IL-13 might be a promising marker to define drug hypersensitivity in DRESS.


Subject(s)
Drug Hypersensitivity , Epilepsy , Stevens-Johnson Syndrome , Cytokines , Epilepsy/drug therapy , Humans , Interleukin-13 , Interleukin-5 , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , Stevens-Johnson Syndrome/etiology
17.
J Immunol Res ; 2022: 7783481, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35755169

ABSTRACT

To identify the effect of long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) FR215775 in regulating CD4+ T cells on murine models of allergic rhinitis (AR), the expression of lncRNA FR215775 in primary Th2 cells was detected through qRT-PCR. After knocking down the expression of lncRNA FR215775 via Sh-FR215775-Ads, Cell Counting Kit-8, cytometric bead array, and fluorescence-activated cell sorting were performed to determine its functions in vitro. Moreover, lncRNA FR215775-silencing or nonsilencing cells were injected intravenously into AR mice. Then, hematoxylin and eosin, Alcian blue-periodic acid Schiff, and toluidine blue staining were performed, and the levels of IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17A, IFN-γ, and TNF in the AR mice were also determined. We found that the expression of lncRNA FR215775 was specifically higher in the murine primary Th2 cells. After the knockdown of lncRNA FR215775, the proliferation of CD4+ T cells was inhibited, and the expressions of IL-4 and IL-5 in the cell culture supernatant were significantly decreased (P < 0.001), along with the percentage of Th2 cells (P < 0.05). The lncRNA FR215775-silencing AR group showed less serious allergic symptoms and a low level of ovalbumin-specific immunoglobulin E (P < 0.01). Meanwhile, the eosinophilia inflammation, goblet cell hyperplasia, and mast cell inflammation in the nasal mucosa all decreased, which indicated attenuated allergic inflammation in the lncRNA FR215775-silencing AR group. In addition, the Th2-related cytokines IL-4 and IL-5 were downregulated in the serum and nasal lavage fluid of this group (P < 0.01). In conclusion, lncRNA FR215775 may play a vital role in the function and differentiation of Th2 cells, which may encourage allergic inflammation. These results may provide significant insights into AR pathogenesis and offer new treatment targets for alleviating AR.


Subject(s)
RNA, Long Noncoding , Rhinitis, Allergic , Th2 Cells , Animals , Cytokines/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Inflammation/pathology , Interleukin-4/genetics , Interleukin-4/pharmacology , Interleukin-5/genetics , Interleukin-5/immunology , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Nasal Mucosa/pathology , Ovalbumin , RNA, Long Noncoding/genetics , RNA, Long Noncoding/immunology , Rhinitis, Allergic/genetics , Rhinitis, Allergic/immunology , Th2 Cells/immunology , Th2 Cells/pathology
18.
Front Immunol ; 13: 863663, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35757689

ABSTRACT

Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) are inducers of type 2 immune responses, but their role during filarial infection remains unclear. In the present study, we used the Litomosoides sigmodontis rodent model of filariasis to analyze ILC2s during infection in susceptible BALB/c mice that develop a chronic infection with microfilaremia and semi-susceptible C57BL/6 mice that eliminate the filariae shortly after the molt into adult worms and thus do not develop microfilaremia. ILC2s (CD45+ Lineage- TCRß- CD90.2+ Sca-1+ IL-33R+ GATA-3+) were analyzed in the pleural cavity, the site of L. sigmodontis infection, after the infective L3 larvae reached the pleural cavity (9 days post infection, dpi), after the molt into adult worms (30dpi) and during the peak of microfilaremia (70dpi). C57BL/6 mice had significantly increased ILC2 numbers compared to BALB/c mice at 30dpi, accompanied by substantially higher IL-5 and IL-13 levels, indicating a stronger type 2 immune response in C57BL/6 mice upon L. sigmodontis infection. At this time point the ILC2 numbers positively correlated with the worm burden in both mouse strains. ILC2s and GATA-3+ CD4+ T cells were the dominant source of IL-5 in L. sigmodontis-infected C57BL/6 mice with ILC2s showing a significantly higher IL-5 expression than CD4+ T cells. To investigate the importance of ILC2s during L. sigmodontis infection, ILC2s were depleted with anti-CD90.2 antibodies in T and B cell-deficient Rag2-/- C57BL/6 mice on 26-28dpi and the outcome of infection was compared to isotype controls. Rag2-/- mice were per se susceptible to L. sigmodontis infection with significantly higher worm burden than C57BL/6 mice and developed microfilaremia. Depletion of ILC2s did not result in an increased worm burden in Rag2-/- mice, but led to significantly higher microfilariae numbers compared to isotype controls. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that ILC2s are essentially involved in the control of microfilaremia in Rag2-/- C57BL/6 mice.


Subject(s)
Filarioidea , Immunity, Innate , Animals , DNA-Binding Proteins , Disease Susceptibility , Interleukin-5 , Lymphocytes , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Inbred C57BL
19.
Phytomedicine ; 104: 154252, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35752075

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite the substantial amount of efforts made to reduce morbidity and improve respiratory management, asthma control remained a major challenge for severe patients. Plant isoflavones, one of the most estrogenic compounds, are considered a potential alternative therapy for asthma. Iristectorigenin A, a naturally occurring isoflavone, is extracted from a variety of medical plants and its biological activity has not been reported previously. PURPOSE: In present study, we aim to reveal the potential therapeutic role of Iristectorigenin A against acute asthmatic mice. STUDY DESIGN: We established ovalbumin (OVA) induced asthmatic murine model and orally administrated Iristectorigenin A at concentration of 5 and 10 mg/kg and dexamethasone as a positive control substance. METHODS: Asthmatic murine model was established with OVA sensitization and challenge. Lung function was assessed with FinePoint Ventilation system recording lung resistance (RI) and lung compliance (Cydn). White cells were sorted and counted in BALF. Histopathological assessment was conducted by H&E, PAS, and Masson's trichrome staining on paraffin embedded lung tissues. BALF content of IL-4, IL-5, IL-33, IL-13, INF-γ, IL-9 and serum IgE, IgG1 were measured using ELISA kit. Expression levels of mRNAs associated with inflammatory cytokines and goblet cell metaplasia were evaluated via quantitative RT-PCR. Protein expression levels of FOXA3, MUC5AC, SPDEF were estimated by immunohistochemistry on lung tissue, while NOTCH1 and NOTCH2 expressions were evaluated by western blotting analysis. RESULTS: Iristectorigenin A resulted in improved airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) mirrored by decreased RI and increased Cydn. With Iristectorigenin A, we also observed reduced number of BALF leukocytes, improved inflammatory cell infiltration in lung tissue, decreased content of BALF IL-4, IL-5, IL-33, but not IL-13, INF-γ, IL-9, and their mRNA levels, along with decreased levels of OVA-specific IgE, IgG1 in asthmatic mice. Additionally, Iristectorigenin A exhibited significant therapeutic potential on attenuating mucus production reflected by mitigated FOXA3 and MUC5AC immunostaining on the airway epithelium, as well as decreased mRNAs associated with goblet cell metaplasia. At last, a decrease in elevated expression level of NOTCH2, but not NOTCH1, in asthmatic mice lung tissue was observed by western blotting analysis. CONCLUSION: Our study provides strong evidence that Iristectorigenin A can be potential therapeutic agent ameliorating airway inflammation and mucus hypersecretion in allergic asthma. This is a first research reported the potential of Iristectorigenin A as an alternative therapeutic agent.


Subject(s)
Asthma , Interleukin-33 , Animals , Asthma/drug therapy , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , Disease Models, Animal , Immunoglobulin E , Immunoglobulin G , Inflammation/drug therapy , Interleukin-33/metabolism , Interleukin-4/metabolism , Interleukin-5/metabolism , Interleukin-9/metabolism , Interleukin-9/therapeutic use , Lung/pathology , Metaplasia/metabolism , Metaplasia/pathology , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mucus , Ovalbumin , Phenotype
20.
BMC Immunol ; 23(1): 33, 2022 06 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35752781

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a group of heterogeneous diseases characterized by epithelial inflammation and tissue eosinophilic infiltration. IL-5, POSTN, and IL-33 are important factors that act as chemoattractants for eosinophils, and a tissue-remodeling protein positively correlated with eosinophils in blood and mediators of eosinophilic infiltration. The aim of the study was to determine the expression of IL-5, POSTN and IL-33, at the gene and protein levels, in eosinophilic CRS with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) and without nasal polyps (CRSsNP), and to correlate this expression with clinical severity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included 40 CRSwNP patients and 53 CRSsNP patients and 40 control subjects. The expression of IL-5, POSTN and IL-33 mRNA was determined in sinonasal mucosal samples and in nasal polyp tissue by real-time PCR. Protein levels in the serum of CRSwNP patients were measured by ELISA. Computed tomography was evaluated according to Lund-Mackay scores, and visual analog scale scores were assessed. RESULTS: NP tissue demonstrated significantly higher IL-5 and POSTN mRNA expression than the sinonasal tissue in the CRSsNP and CRSwNP groups. CRS groups demonstrated elevated IL-33 mRNA expression in comparison to controls irrespective of the presence of NP. No correlation was found between IL-5, POSTN and IL-33 mRNA expression and disease severity. CRSwNP group demonstrated significantly higher serum IL-5, POSTN and IL-33 protein levels than controls, and this corresponds to disease severity. CONCLUSION: Serum IL-5, POSTN and IL-33 levels may be important markers for classification of eosinophilic CRSwNP patients, along with disease severity.


Subject(s)
Eosinophilia , Interleukin-33/blood , Interleukin-5/blood , Nasal Polyps , Rhinitis , Sinusitis , Cell Adhesion Molecules , Chronic Disease , Humans , Interleukin-33/genetics , Nasal Polyps/genetics , Nasal Polyps/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Rhinitis/metabolism , Sinusitis/metabolism
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