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2.
Clin Microbiol Rev ; 34(3)2021 06 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501524

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a rapidly evolving pandemic worldwide with at least 68 million COVID-19-positive cases and a mortality rate of about 2.2%, as of 10 December 2020. About 20% of COVID-19 patients exhibit moderate to severe symptoms. Severe COVID-19 manifests as acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) with elevated plasma proinflammatory cytokines, including interleukin 1ß (IL-1ß), IL-6, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 10 (CXCL10/IP10), macrophage inflammatory protein 1 alpha (MIP-1α), and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2), with low levels of interferon type I (IFN-I) in the early stage and elevated levels of IFN-I during the advanced stage of COVID-19. Most of the severe and critically ill COVID-19 patients have had preexisting comorbidities, including hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and respiratory diseases. These conditions are known to perturb the levels of cytokines, chemokines, and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), an essential receptor involved in SARS-CoV-2 entry into the host cells. ACE2 downregulation during SARS-CoV-2 infection activates the angiotensin II/angiotensin receptor (AT1R)-mediated hypercytokinemia and hyperinflammatory syndrome. However, several SARS-CoV-2 proteins, including open reading frame 3b (ORF3b), ORF6, ORF7, ORF8, and the nucleocapsid (N) protein, can inhibit IFN type I and II (IFN-I and -II) production. Thus, hyperinflammation, in combination with the lack of IFN responses against SARS-CoV-2 early on during infection, makes the patients succumb rapidly to COVID-19. Therefore, therapeutic approaches involving anti-cytokine/anti-cytokine-signaling and IFN therapy would favor the disease prognosis in COVID-19. This review describes critical host and viral factors underpinning the inflammatory "cytokine storm" induction and IFN antagonism during COVID-19 pathogenesis. Therapeutic approaches to reduce hyperinflammation and their limitations are also discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/blood , Cytokine Release Syndrome/pathology , Interferon Type I/blood , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/therapy , Comorbidity , Humans , Immunity, Innate/immunology , Immunization, Passive/methods , Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , Interleukin-6/blood , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
3.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 32(3): 708-722, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496675

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Late antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR) is a leading cause of transplant failure. Blocking IL-6 has been proposed as a promising therapeutic strategy. METHODS: We performed a phase 2 randomized pilot trial to evaluate the safety (primary endpoint) and efficacy (secondary endpoint analysis) of the anti-IL-6 antibody clazakizumab in late ABMR. The trial included 20 kidney transplant recipients with donor-specific, antibody-positive ABMR ≥365 days post-transplantation. Patients were randomized 1:1 to receive 25 mg clazakizumab or placebo (4-weekly subcutaneous injections) for 12 weeks (part A), followed by a 40-week open-label extension (part B), during which time all participants received clazakizumab. RESULTS: Five (25%) patients under active treatment developed serious infectious events, and two (10%) developed diverticular disease complications, leading to trial withdrawal. Those receiving clazakizumab displayed significantly decreased donor-specific antibodies and, on prolonged treatment, modulated rejection-related gene-expression patterns. In 18 patients, allograft biopsies after 51 weeks revealed a negative molecular ABMR score in seven (38.9%), disappearance of capillary C4d deposits in five (27.8%), and resolution of morphologic ABMR activity in four (22.2%). Although proteinuria remained stable, the mean eGFR decline during part A was slower with clazakizumab compared with placebo (-0.96; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], -1.96 to 0.03 versus -2.43; 95% CI, -3.40 to -1.46 ml/min per 1.73 m2 per month, respectively, P=0.04). During part B, the slope of eGFR decline for patients who were switched from placebo to clazakizumab improved and no longer differed significantly from patients initially allocated to clazakizumab. CONCLUSIONS: Although safety data indicate the need for careful patient selection and monitoring, our preliminary efficacy results suggest a potentially beneficial effect of clazakizumab on ABMR activity and progression.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Graft Rejection/therapy , Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , Adult , Allografts , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/adverse effects , Double-Blind Method , Female , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Graft Rejection/immunology , Graft Rejection/physiopathology , Humans , Infections/etiology , Interleukin-6/immunology , Isoantibodies/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Tissue Donors , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(19): e25923, 2021 May 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455404

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Blocking IL-6 pathways with sarilumab, a fully human anti-IL-6R antagonist may potentially curb the inflammatory storm of SARS-CoV2. In the present emergency scenario, we used "off-label" sarilumab in 5 elderly patients in life-threatening condition not candidates to further active measures. We suggest that sarilumab can modulate severe COVID-19-associated Cytokine Release Syndrome.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , Aged , Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/physiopathology , Comorbidity , Critical Illness , Cytokine Release Syndrome/physiopathology , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , RNA, Viral , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Am J Emerg Med ; 38(7): 1488-1493, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450042

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic has been particularly challenging due to a lack of established therapies and treatment guidelines. With the rapid transmission of disease, even the off-label use of available therapies has been impeded by limited availability. Several antivirals, antimalarials, and biologics are being considered for treatment at this time. The purpose of this literature review is to synthesize the available information regarding treatment options for COVID-19 and serve as a resource for health care professionals. OBJECTIVES: This narrative review was conducted to summarize the effectiveness of current therapy options for COVID-19 and address the controversial use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs). PubMed and SCOPUS were queried using a combination of the keywords "COVID 19," "SARS-CoV-2," and "treatment." All types of studies were evaluated including systematic reviews, case-studies, and clinical guidelines. DISCUSSION: There are currently no therapeutic drugs available that are directly active against SARS-CoV-2; however, several antivirals (remdesivir, favipiravir) and antimalarials (chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine) have emerged as potential therapies. Current guidelines recommend combination treatment with hydroxychloroquine/azithromycin or chloroquine, if hydroxychloroquine is unavailable, in patients with moderate disease, although these recommendations are based on limited evidence. Remdesivir and convalescent plasma may be considered in critical patients with respiratory failure; however, access to these therapies may be limited. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) antagonists may be used in patients who develop evidence of cytokine release syndrome (CRS). Corticosteroids should be avoided unless there is evidence of refractory septic shock, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), or another compelling indication for their use. ACE inhibitors and ARBs should not be discontinued at this time and ibuprofen may be used for fever. CONCLUSION: There are several ongoing clinical trials that are testing the efficacy of single and combination treatments with the drugs mentioned in this review and new agents are under development. Until the results of these trials become available, we must use the best available evidence for the prevention and treatment of COVID-19. Additionally, we can learn from the experiences of healthcare providers around the world to combat this pandemic.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Adrenal Cortex Hormones , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/therapeutic use , Amides/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , COVID-19 , Drug Therapy, Combination , Emergency Service, Hospital , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , Pandemics , Pyrazines/therapeutic use , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2
6.
JAMA ; 326(6): 499-518, 2021 08 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1413703

ABSTRACT

Importance: Clinical trials assessing the efficacy of IL-6 antagonists in patients hospitalized for COVID-19 have variously reported benefit, no effect, and harm. Objective: To estimate the association between administration of IL-6 antagonists compared with usual care or placebo and 28-day all-cause mortality and other outcomes. Data Sources: Trials were identified through systematic searches of electronic databases between October 2020 and January 2021. Searches were not restricted by trial status or language. Additional trials were identified through contact with experts. Study Selection: Eligible trials randomly assigned patients hospitalized for COVID-19 to a group in whom IL-6 antagonists were administered and to a group in whom neither IL-6 antagonists nor any other immunomodulators except corticosteroids were administered. Among 72 potentially eligible trials, 27 (37.5%) met study selection criteria. Data Extraction and Synthesis: In this prospective meta-analysis, risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Assessment Tool. Inconsistency among trial results was assessed using the I2 statistic. The primary analysis was an inverse variance-weighted fixed-effects meta-analysis of odds ratios (ORs) for 28-day all-cause mortality. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome measure was all-cause mortality at 28 days after randomization. There were 9 secondary outcomes including progression to invasive mechanical ventilation or death and risk of secondary infection by 28 days. Results: A total of 10 930 patients (median age, 61 years [range of medians, 52-68 years]; 3560 [33%] were women) participating in 27 trials were included. By 28 days, there were 1407 deaths among 6449 patients randomized to IL-6 antagonists and 1158 deaths among 4481 patients randomized to usual care or placebo (summary OR, 0.86 [95% CI, 0.79-0.95]; P = .003 based on a fixed-effects meta-analysis). This corresponds to an absolute mortality risk of 22% for IL-6 antagonists compared with an assumed mortality risk of 25% for usual care or placebo. The corresponding summary ORs were 0.83 (95% CI, 0.74-0.92; P < .001) for tocilizumab and 1.08 (95% CI, 0.86-1.36; P = .52) for sarilumab. The summary ORs for the association with mortality compared with usual care or placebo in those receiving corticosteroids were 0.77 (95% CI, 0.68-0.87) for tocilizumab and 0.92 (95% CI, 0.61-1.38) for sarilumab. The ORs for the association with progression to invasive mechanical ventilation or death, compared with usual care or placebo, were 0.77 (95% CI, 0.70-0.85) for all IL-6 antagonists, 0.74 (95% CI, 0.66-0.82) for tocilizumab, and 1.00 (95% CI, 0.74-1.34) for sarilumab. Secondary infections by 28 days occurred in 21.9% of patients treated with IL-6 antagonists vs 17.6% of patients treated with usual care or placebo (OR accounting for trial sample sizes, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.85-1.16). Conclusions and Relevance: In this prospective meta-analysis of clinical trials of patients hospitalized for COVID-19, administration of IL-6 antagonists, compared with usual care or placebo, was associated with lower 28-day all-cause mortality. Trial Registration: PROSPERO Identifier: CRD42021230155.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Cause of Death , Coinfection , Disease Progression , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Respiration, Artificial
7.
Eur J Clin Pharmacol ; 76(11): 1615-1618, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1384377

ABSTRACT

AIM: SARS-CoV-2 infection has been divided by scientific opinion into three phases: the first as asymptomatic or slightly symptomatic and the second and the third with greater severity, characterized by a hyperinflammatory and fibrotic state, responsible for lung lesions, in some cases fatal. The development of antiviral drugs directed against SARS-CoV-2 and effective vaccines is progressing; meanwhile, the best pharmacological objective is related to the management of all the complications caused by this viral infection, mainly controlling the inflammatory and fibrotic state and preventing the infection from moving into the most serious phases. SUBJECT AND METHOD: Describe the scientific rationale related to the use of an antifibrotic therapy with pirfenidone, as monotherapy and/or in combination with anti-inflammatory drugs to manage and control complications of SARS-CoV-2 infection. RESULTS: Based on the scientific literature and epidemiological results and considering the pathophysiological, biological, and molecular characteristics of SARS-CoV-2, an antifibrotic drug such as pirfenidone as monotherapy or in combination with anti-inflammatory drugs can be (acting early, at the right doses and at the right time) therapeutically effective to avoid serious complications during viral infection. The same approach can also be effective as postinfection therapy in patients with residual pulmonary fibrotic damage. Management of inflammation and fibrotic status with a combination therapy of pirfenidone and IL-6 or IL-1 inhibitors could represent a pharmacological synergy with added value. CONCLUSION: In this article, we consider the role of antifibrotic therapy with pirfenidone in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection on going or in the stage of postinfection with pulmonary fibrotic consequences. The scientific rationale for its use is also described.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pulmonary Fibrosis/drug therapy , Pulmonary Fibrosis/etiology , Pyridones/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Drug Therapy, Combination , Humans , Inflammation/drug therapy , Interleukin-1/antagonists & inhibitors , Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(29): e26533, 2021 Jul 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1331614

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, keeps spreading globally. Evidence suggests that a subgroup of patients with severe symptomatology might have cytokine storms, which increases mortality. The use of interleukin-6 (IL-6) inhibitors may help in controlling the pathological immune response to the virus. Tocilizumab, a monoclonal antibody against IL-6, stands as an optional treatment for COVID-19 patients presenting this inflammatory hyper-response.We conducted a retrospective, observational, cohort study including 50 patients affected by COVID-19 with severe pneumonia and poor prognosis criteria, who have also undergone standard treatment; 36 of these patients additionally received tocilizumab in an early stage. The need for intensive care unit (ICU) admission, mortality, recovery of respiratory function, and improvement of biochemical and hematological parameters were compared between cohorts.Most patients were men, non-smokers and the most frequently reported comorbidities were hypertension and diabetes. Recurrent symptoms were fever, cough, and dyspnoea. 54.8% of patients from the tocilizumab group needed intubation, while in the control group 85.7% needed it. Treatment with tocilizumab significatively increased IL-6 levels, (554.45; CI 95% 186.69, 1032.93; P < .05) while C-reactive protein mean levels were reduced (-108.19; CI 95% -140.15, -75.33; P < .05), but no significant difference was found between cohorts. In comparison with the controls, tocilizumab reduced mortality (25.0% vs 42.9%, P = .021) and the number of ICU admissions (63.9% vs 100.0%, P = .021). 44.1% of patients treated with tocilizumab showed favorable radiological evolution, when compared with 15.4% of patients from the control group.Tocilizumab may improve clinical symptoms and mitigate deterioration observed in severe COVID-19 patients, and could be considered as an effective therapeutic option in subjects experiencing a significant inflammatory response to the disease.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies
10.
Rev Esp Quimioter ; 34(4): 337-341, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1317435

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The study aims to describe characteristics and clinical outcome of patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection that received siltuximab according to a protocol that aimed to early block the activity of IL-6 to avoid the progression of the inflammatory flare. METHODS: Retrospective review of the first 31 patients with SARS-CoV-2 treated with siltuximab, in Hospital Clinic of Barcelona or Hospital Universitario Salamanca, from March to April 2020 with positive polymerase-chain reaction (PCR) from a nasopharyngeal swab. RESULTS: The cohort included 31 cases that received siltuximab with a median (IQR) age of 62 (56-71) and 71% were males. The most frequent comorbidity was hypertension (48%). The median dose of siltuximab was 800 mg ranging between 785 and 900 mg. 7 patients received siltuximab as a salvage therapy after one dose of tocilizumab. At the end of the study, a total of 26 (83.9) patients had been discharged alive and the mortality rate was 16.1% but only 1 out of 24 that received siltuximab as a first line option (4%). CONCLUSIONS: Siltuximab is a well-tolerated alternative to tocilizumab when administered as a first line option in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia within the first 10 days from symptoms onset and high C-reactive protein.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Aged , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/mortality , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , Interleukin-6/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Salvage Therapy , Treatment Outcome
11.
Exp Mol Med ; 53(7): 1116-1123, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1307318

ABSTRACT

Interleukin-6 (IL-6) plays a crucial role in host defense against infection and tissue injuries and is a bioindicator of multiple distinct types of cytokine storms. In this review, we present the current understanding of the diverse roles of IL-6, its receptors, and its signaling during acute severe systemic inflammation. IL-6 directly affects vascular endothelial cells, which produce several types of cytokines and chemokines and activate the coagulation cascade. Endothelial cell dysregulation, characterized by abnormal coagulation and vascular leakage, is a common complication in cytokine storms. Emerging evidence indicates that a humanized anti-IL-6 receptor antibody, tocilizumab, can effectively block IL-6 signaling and has beneficial effects in rheumatoid arthritis, juvenile systemic idiopathic arthritis, and Castleman's disease. Recent work has also demonstrated the beneficial effect of tocilizumab in chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy-induced cytokine storms as well as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Here, we highlight the distinct contributions of IL-6 signaling to the pathogenesis of several types of cytokine storms and discuss potential therapeutic strategies for the management of cytokine storms, including those associated with sepsis and COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Interleukin-6/genetics , Receptors, Interleukin-6/genetics , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/immunology , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/genetics , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokines/genetics , Cytokines/metabolism , Endothelium, Vascular/immunology , Humans , Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , Interleukin-6/immunology , Receptors, Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , Receptors, Interleukin-6/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Sepsis/genetics , Sepsis/immunology , Sepsis/pathology , Sepsis/prevention & control
12.
Lancet Respir Med ; 9(6): 643-654, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1291133

ABSTRACT

Circulating concentrations of the pleiotropic cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) are known to be increased in pro-inflammatory critical care syndromes, such as sepsis and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Elevations in serum IL-6 concentrations in patients with severe COVID-19 have led to renewed interest in the cytokine as a therapeutic target. However, although the pro-inflammatory properties of IL-6 are widely known, the cytokine also has a series of important physiological and anti-inflammatory functions. An adequate understanding of the complex processes by which IL-6 signalling occurs is crucial for the correct interpretation of IL-6 concentrations in the blood or lung, the use of IL-6 as a critical care biomarker, or the design of effective anti-IL-6 strategies. Here, we outline the role of IL-6 in health and disease, explain the different types of IL-6 signalling and their contribution to the net biological effect of the cytokine, describe the approaches to IL-6 inhibition that are currently available, and discuss implications for the future use of treatments such as tocilizumab in the critical care setting.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , COVID-19 , Interleukin-6 , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/pharmacology , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Illness , Humans , Immunologic Factors/immunology , Immunologic Factors/pharmacology , Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , Interleukin-6/blood , Interleukin-6/immunology , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Am J Health Syst Pharm ; 77(22): 1893-1898, 2020 10 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1254423

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The global coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and the search for ways in which to provide the best available care have created unprecedented times in terms of rapidly evolving reports of available treatment options. The primary objective of our analysis was to categorize online, open-source guidance to determine how US institutions approached their recommendations for management of patients with COVID-19 in the early weeks of the pandemic. METHODS: A search for open-source, online institutional guidelines for the treatment of COVID-19 was conducted using predefined criteria. The search was limited to the United States and conducted from April 12 through 14, 2020, and again on April 22, 2020. Searches were conducted at 2 points in time in order to identify changes in treatment recommendations due to evolving literature or institutional experience. Treatment recommendations, including guidance on antiviral therapy, corticosteroid and interleukin-6 inhibitor use, and nutritional supplementation were compared. RESULTS: Of the 105 institutions that met initial screening criteria, 14 institutions (13.3%) had online COVID-19 guidance available. Supportive care and clinical trial enrollment were the primary recommendations in all evaluated guidance. Recommendations to consider antimicrobial and adjunctive therapy varied. Eighty-six percent of guidelines contained recommendations for use, or consideration of use, of hydroxychloroquine. Guidance from 2 institutions mentioned use of hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin in combination. Of the 13 institutions listing hydroxychloroquine dosing recommendations, 62% recommended maintenance dosing of 200 mg twice daily. Infectious diseases or other specialty consultation was required by 89% of institutions using interleukin-6 inhibitors for COVID-19 management. CONCLUSION: Overall, the analysis revealed variability in treatment or supplemental pharmacologic therapy for the management of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Therapy, Combination/standards , Pharmacy Service, Hospital/standards , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19/epidemiology , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Administration Schedule , Drug Therapy, Combination/methods , Glucocorticoids/administration & dosage , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/administration & dosage , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , Pandemics/prevention & control
16.
Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol ; 65(4): 403-412, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1237350

ABSTRACT

Mechanical ventilation is a known risk factor for delirium, a cognitive impairment characterized by dysfunction of the frontal cortex and hippocampus. Although IL-6 is upregulated in mechanical ventilation-induced lung injury (VILI) and may contribute to delirium, it is not known whether the inhibition of systemic IL-6 mitigates delirium-relevant neuropathology. To histologically define neuropathological effects of IL-6 inhibition in an experimental VILI model, VILI was simulated in anesthetized adult mice using a 35 cc/kg tidal volume mechanical ventilation model. There were two control groups, as follow: 1) spontaneously breathing or 2) anesthetized and mechanically ventilated with 10 cc/kg tidal volume to distinguish effects of anesthesia from VILI. Two hours before inducing VILI, mice were treated with either anti-IL-6 antibody, anti-IL-6 receptor antibody, or saline. Neuronal injury, stress, and inflammation were assessed using immunohistochemistry. CC3 (cleaved caspase-3), a neuronal apoptosis marker, was significantly increased in the frontal (P < 0.001) and hippocampal (P < 0.0001) brain regions and accompanied by significant increases in c-Fos and heat shock protein-90 in the frontal cortices of VILI mice compared with control mice (P < 0.001). These findings were not related to cerebral hypoxia, and there was no evidence of irreversible neuronal death. Frontal and hippocampal neuronal CC3 were significantly reduced with anti-IL-6 antibody (P < 0.01 and P < 0.0001, respectively) and anti-IL-6 receptor antibody (P < 0.05 and P < 0.0001, respectively) compared with saline VILI mice. In summary, VILI induces potentially reversible neuronal injury and inflammation in the frontal cortex and hippocampus, which is mitigated with systemic IL-6 inhibition. These data suggest a potentially novel neuroprotective role of systemic IL-6 inhibition that justifies further investigation.


Subject(s)
Antibodies/pharmacology , Apoptosis/drug effects , Delirium/metabolism , Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , Neurons/metabolism , Ventilator-Induced Lung Injury/metabolism , Animals , Delirium/drug therapy , Delirium/pathology , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Frontal Lobe/injuries , Frontal Lobe/metabolism , Frontal Lobe/pathology , HSP90 Heat-Shock Proteins/metabolism , Hippocampus/injuries , Hippocampus/metabolism , Hippocampus/pathology , Inflammation/drug therapy , Inflammation/metabolism , Inflammation/pathology , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Mice , Neurons/pathology , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos/metabolism , Repressor Proteins/metabolism , Tumor Suppressor Proteins/metabolism , Ventilator-Induced Lung Injury/drug therapy , Ventilator-Induced Lung Injury/pathology
17.
Front Immunol ; 12: 675678, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1231339

ABSTRACT

Background: Restraining maladaptive inflammation is considered a rationale strategy to treat severe coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) but available studies with selective inhibitors of pro-inflammatory cytokines have not provided unequivocal evidence of survival advantage. Late administration is commonly regarded as a major cause of treatment failure but the optimal timing for anti-cytokine therapy initiation in COVID-19 patients has never been clearly established. Objectives: To identify a window of therapeutic opportunity for maximizing the efficacy of interleukin (IL)-1 and IL-6 blockade in COVID-19. Methods: Survival at the longest available follow-up was assessed in severe hyper-inflamed COVID-19 patients treated with anakinra, tocilizumab, sarilumab, or standard of care, stratified according to respiratory impairment at the time of treatment initiation. Results: 107 patients treated with biologics and 103 contemporary patients treated with standard of care were studied. After a median of 106 days of follow-up (range 3-186), treatment with biologics was associated with a significantly higher survival rate compared to standard therapy when initiated in patients with a PaO2/FiO2 ≥ 100 mmHg (p < 0.001). Anakinra reduced mortality also in patients with PaO2/FiO2 < 100 mmHg (p = 0.04). Conclusions: IL-1 and IL-6 blocking therapies are more likely to provide survival advantage in hyper-inflamed COVID-19 patients when initiated before the establishment of severe respiratory failure.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/administration & dosage , COVID-19 , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/administration & dosage , Interleukin-1/antagonists & inhibitors , Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Aged , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , Disease-Free Survival , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Interleukin-1/immunology , Interleukin-6/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Rate
18.
J Immunother Cancer ; 9(5)2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1228897

ABSTRACT

COVID-19, the syndrome caused by the infection with SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus, is characterized, in its severe form, by interstitial diffuse pneumonitis and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). ARDS and systemic manifestations of COVID-19 are mainly due to an exaggerated immune response triggered by the viral infection. Cytokine release syndrome (CRS), an inflammatory syndrome characterized by elevated levels of circulating cytokines, and endothelial dysfunction are systemic manifestations of COVID-19. CRS is also an adverse event of immunotherapy (IMTX), the treatment of diseases using drugs, cells, and antibodies to stimulate or suppress the immune system. Graft-versus-host disease complications after an allogeneic stem cell transplant, toxicity after the infusion of chimeric antigen receptor-T cell therapy and monoclonal antibodies can all lead to CRS. It is hypothesized that anti-inflammatory drugs used for treatment of CRS in IMTX may be useful in reducing the mortality in COVID-19, whereas IMTX itself may help in ameliorating effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection. In this paper, we focused on the potential shared mechanisms and differences between COVID-19 and IMTX-related toxicities. We performed a systematic review of the clinical trials testing anti-inflammatory therapies and of the data published from prospective trials. Preliminary evidence suggests there might be a benefit in targeting the cytokines involved in the pathogenesis of COVID-19, especially by inhibiting the interleukin-6 pathway. Many other approaches based on novel drugs and cell therapies are currently under investigation and may lead to a reduction in hospitalization and mortality due to COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Immunotherapy/methods , Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19/pathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/pathology , Humans , Immunization, Passive/methods , Immunotherapy/adverse effects , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/therapeutic use , Interleukin-1beta/blood , Interleukin-6/blood , Pyrazoles/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood
19.
Methods ; 195: 29-43, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1213580

ABSTRACT

Therapeutic approaches to COVID-19 treatment require appropriate inhibitors to target crucial proteins of SARS-CoV-2 replication machinery. It's been approximately 12 months since the pandemic started, yet no known specific drugs are available. However, research progresses with time in terms of high throughput virtual screening (HTVS) and rational design of repurposed, novel synthetic and natural products discovery by understanding the viral life cycle, immuno-pathological and clinical outcomes in patients based on host's nutritional, metabolic, and lifestyle status. Further, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) approaches have also improved resiliency and immune responses. In this article, we summarize all the therapeutic antiviral strategies for COVID-19 drug discovery including computer aided virtual screening, repurposed drugs, immunomodulators, vaccines, plasma therapy, various adjunct therapies, and phage technology to unravel insightful mechanistic pathways of targeting SARS-CoV-2 and host's intrinsic, innate immunity at multiple checkpoints that aid in the containment of the disease.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , Drug Discovery/trends , Animals , COVID-19/prevention & control , Drug Discovery/methods , High-Throughput Screening Assays/methods , High-Throughput Screening Assays/trends , Humans , Immunity, Innate/drug effects , Immunity, Innate/immunology , Interferon alpha-2/administration & dosage , Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , Interleukin-6/immunology
20.
J Med Virol ; 93(1): 463-471, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1206809

ABSTRACT

Since cytokine release syndrome with elevation of interleukin-6 (IL-6) is considered to be associated with severe cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19); IL-6 inhibitors, such as tocilizumab, are expected to be effective for its treatment. This was a retrospective study using a consecutive cohort of 224 patients hospitalized with COVID-19 in March 2020. Patients were divided into those admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU group) and those not (no ICU group), and clinical data including usage of tocilizumab were compared. Correlation between IL-6 value at admission and at peak, and tocilizumab use, as well as clinical outcomes were also investigated. The ICU group had higher rates of pre-existing comorbidities such as hypertension, diabetes, and coronary disease, and higher IL-6 than no ICU group (all P < .05). Age, peak IL-6, and peak d-dimer were significant predictors of in-hospital mortality (1.05 [1.01-1.09], P = .012; 1.001 [1.000-1.002], P = .002; 1.10 [1.03-1.18], P = .008). Receiver operating characteristics curve showed higher predictability of in-hospital mortality with IL-6 at peak than others (area under curve; IL-6 at peak: 0.875 [0.87-0.942], IL-6 at admission: 0.794 [0.699-0.889], d-dimer at peak 0.787 [0.690-0.883], d-dimer at admission 0.726 [0.625-0.827]). Incidence of fungal infections was significantly higher in patients who were given tocilizumab than those who were not (13.0% vs 1.1%, P < .001). Notably, tocilizumab did not affect in-hospital mortality after adjustment including IL-6 (odds ratio [95% confidential interval]: 1.00 [0.27-3.72, P = .998]). Age, peak IL-6, and peak d-dimer levels were significant predictors of in-hospital mortality. Tocilizumab did not decrease in-hospital mortality in our cohort.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/drug therapy , Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , Interleukin-6/blood , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Odds Ratio , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
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