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1.
Phytomedicine ; 85: 153401, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1051910

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Coronavirus disease 2019 pneumonia broke out in 2019 (COVID-19) and spread rapidly, which causes serious harm to the health of people and a huge economic burden around the world. PURPOSE: In this study, the network pharmacology, molecular docking and surface plasmon resonance technology (SPR) were used to explore the potential compounds and interaction mechanism in the Toujie Quwen Granules (TQG) for the treatment of coronavirus pneumonia 2019. STUDY DESIGN: The chemical constituents and compound targets of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos, Pseudostellariae Radix, Artemisia Annua L, Peucedani Radix, Forsythiae Fructus, Scutellariae Radix, Hedysarum Multijugum Maxim, Isatidis Folium, Radix Bupleuri, Fritiliariae Irrhosae Bulbus, Cicadae Periostracum, Poria Cocos Wolf, Pseudobulbus Cremastrae Seu Pleiones, Mume Fructus, Figwort Root and Fritillariae Thunbrgii Bulbus in TQG were searched. The target name was translated to gene name using the UniProt database and then the Chinese medicine-compound-target network was constructed. Protein-protein interaction network (PPI), Gene ontology (GO) function enrichment and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis of the core targets were performed in the Metascape to predict its mechanism. The top 34 compounds in the Chinese medicine-compound-target network were docked with SARS-CoV-2 3CL enzyme and SARS--CoV--2 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) and then the 13 compounds with lowest affinity score were docked with angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein and interleukin 6 to explore its interaction mechanism. Lastly, SPR experiments were done using the quercetin, astragaloside IV, rutin and isoquercitrin, which were screened from the Chinese medicine-compound-target network and molecular docking. RESULTS: The Chinese medicine-compound-target network includes 16 medicinal materials, 111 compounds and 298 targets, in which the degree of PTGS2, TNF and IL-6 is higher compared with other targets and which are the disease target exactly. The result of GO function enrichment analysis included the response to the molecule of bacterial origin, positive regulation of cell death, apoptotic signaling pathway, cytokine-mediated signaling pathway, cytokine receptor binding and so on. KEGG pathway analysis enrichment revealed two pathways: signaling pathway- IL-17 and signaling pathway- TNF. The result of molecular docking showed that the affinity score of compounds including quercetin, isoquercitrin, astragaloside IV and rutin is higher than other compounds. In addition, the SPR experiments revealed that the quercetin and isoquercitrin were combined with SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein rather than Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, while astragaloside IV and rutin were combined with ACE2 rather than SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein. CONCLUSION: TQG may have therapeutic effects on COVID-19 by regulating viral infection, immune and inflammation related targets and pathways, in the way of multi-component, multi-target and multi-pathway.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , COVID-19/drug therapy , Gene Ontology , Humans , Interleukin-6/chemistry , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Molecular Docking Simulation , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Protein Interaction Maps , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Surface Plasmon Resonance
2.
Proteins ; 89(2): 163-173, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-745464

ABSTRACT

Human interleukin-6 (hIL-6) is a multifunctional cytokine that regulates immune and inflammatory responses in addition to metabolic and regenerative processes and cancer. hIL-6 binding to the IL-6 receptor (IL-6Rα) induces homodimerization and recruitment of the glycoprotein (gp130) to form a hexameric signaling complex. Anti-IL-6 and IL-6R antibodies are clinically approved inhibitors of IL-6 signaling pathway for treating rheumatoid arthritis and Castleman's disease, respectively. There is a potential to develop novel small molecule IL-6 antagonists derived from understanding the structural basis for IL-6/IL-6Rα interactions. Here, we combine homology modeling with extensive molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to examine the association of hIL-6 with IL-6Rα. A comparison with MD of apo hIL-6 reveals that the binding of hIL-6 to IL-6Rα induces structural and dynamic rearrangements in the AB loop region of hIL-6, disrupting intraprotein contacts and increasing the flexibility of residues 48 to 58 of the AB loop. In contrast, due to the involvement of residues 59 to 78 in forming contacts with the receptor, these residues of the AB loop are observed to rigidify in the presence of the receptor. The binary complex is primarily stabilized by two pairs of salt bridges, Arg181 (hIL-6)- Glu182 (IL-6Rα) and Arg184 (hIL-6)- Glu183 (IL-6Rα) as well as hydrophobic and aromatic stacking interactions mediated essentially by Phe residues in both proteins. An interplay of electrostatic, hydrophobic, hydrogen bonding, and aromatic stacking interactions facilitates the formation of the hIL-6/IL-6Rα complex.


Subject(s)
Apoproteins/chemistry , Interleukin-6/chemistry , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Receptors, Interleukin-6/chemistry , Apoproteins/metabolism , Binding Sites , Crystallography, X-Ray , Humans , Hydrogen Bonding , Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Protein Binding , Protein Conformation, alpha-Helical , Protein Conformation, beta-Strand , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs , Receptors, Interleukin-6/metabolism , Static Electricity , Structural Homology, Protein , Thermodynamics
3.
Electromagn Biol Med ; 40(1): 11-25, 2021 Jan 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-872877

ABSTRACT

Among haematological parameters of patients seriously ill with the coronavirus infectious disease 2019 (COVID-19), leucocytosis, lymphocytopenia, and the abnormal release of circulating cytokines, termed cytokine storm syndrome (CSS, also known as cytokine release syndrome or CRS), were found associated with disease severity. In particular, according to the serum cytokine profiling, pro-inflammatory interleukin 6 (IL-6) and anti-inflammatory interleukin 10 (IL-10) were observed to be considerably higher in patients experiencing respiratory distress, septic shock and/or multi-organ failure, namely "critical cases" requiring intensive care unit (ICU) admission, very often resulting in death. Interestingly, the production of these cytokines from human lymphocytes was found to be modulated by exposure of 24 h to a 554.2-553.8 mT inhomogeneous static magnetic field (SMF), which elicits IL-10 and suppresses IL-6. Thus, herein, with the aim of restoring lymphocyte count and physiological serum levels of IL-6 and IL-10, the infusion of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched and SMF-exposed allogenic lymphocytes is proposed for the first time as an easy and affordable treatment option for COVID-19 patients. Even if the count of lymphocytes in COVID-19 patients is very low, SMF exposure may be a valuable tool for reprogramming autologous lymphocytes towards physiological conditions. Furthermore, the same procedure could be extended to include the whole autologous or allogenic white blood cells (WBCs). Time-varying/pulsed magnetic fields exerting comparable cell effects could also be employed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cytokine Release Syndrome/therapy , HLA Antigens/immunology , Lymphocytes/cytology , Lymphopenia/therapy , Magnetic Fields , Cytokine Release Syndrome/complications , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/pathology , Humans , Immunotherapy , Interleukin-6/chemistry , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Lymphocytes/immunology , Lymphopenia/complications , Lymphopenia/immunology , Lymphopenia/pathology , Models, Molecular , Protein Conformation , Signal Transduction/immunology
4.
Front Immunol ; 11: 1424, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-703801

ABSTRACT

Cytokines are small signaling proteins that have central roles in inflammation and cell survival. In the half-century since the discovery of the first cytokines, the interferons, over fifty cytokines have been identified. Amongst these is interleukin (IL)-6, the first and prototypical member of the IL-6 family of cytokines, nearly all of which utilize the common signaling receptor, gp130. In the last decade, there have been numerous advances in our understanding of the structural mechanisms of IL-6 family signaling, particularly for IL-6 itself. However, our understanding of the detailed structural mechanisms underlying signaling by most IL-6 family members remains limited. With the emergence of new roles for IL-6 family cytokines in disease and, in particular, roles of IL-11 in cardiovascular disease, lung disease, and cancer, there is an emerging need to develop therapeutics that can progress to clinical use. Here we outline our current knowledge of the structural mechanism of signaling by the IL-6 family of cytokines. We discuss how this knowledge allows us to understand the mechanism of action of currently available inhibitors targeting IL-6 family cytokine signaling, and most importantly how it allows for improved opportunities to pharmacologically disrupt cytokine signaling. We focus specifically on the need to develop and understand inhibitors that disrupt IL-11 signaling.


Subject(s)
Interleukin-11 , Interleukin-6 , Signal Transduction/immunology , Animals , Humans , Interleukin-11/chemistry , Interleukin-11/immunology , Interleukin-11/metabolism , Interleukin-6/chemistry , Interleukin-6/immunology , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Structure-Activity Relationship
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