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1.
Toxicol In Vitro ; 83: 105394, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2115544

ABSTRACT

We previously reported that delivery of nickel nanoparticles (NiNPs) and bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into the lungs of mice synergistically increased IL-6 production and inflammation, and male mice were more susceptible than female mice. The primary goal of this study was to utilize an in vitro human lung epithelial cell model (BEAS-2B) to investigate the intracellular signaling mechanisms that mediate IL-6 production by LPS and NiNPs. We also investigated the effect of sex hormones on NiNP and LPS-induced IL-6 production in vitro. LPS and NiNPs synergistically induced IL-6 mRNA and protein in BEAS-2B cells. TPCA-1, a dual inhibitor of IKK-2 and STAT3, blocked the synergistic increase in IL-6 caused by LPS and NiNPs, abolished STAT3 activation, and reduced C/EBPß. Conversely, SC144, an inhibitor of the gp130 component of the IL-6 receptor, enhanced IL-6 production induced by LPS and NiNPs. Treatment of BEAS-2B cells with sex hormones (17ß-estradiol, progesterone, or testosterone) or the anti-oxidant NAC, had no effect on IL-6 induction by LPS and NiNPs. These data suggest that LPS and NiNPs induce IL-6 via STAT3 and C/EBPß in BEAS-2B cells. While BEAS-2B cells are a suitable model to study mechanisms of IL-6 production, they do not appear to be suitable for studying the effect of sex hormones.


Subject(s)
Lipopolysaccharides , Nanoparticles , Animals , CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Protein-beta/metabolism , Cell Line , Epithelial Cells , Female , Humans , Interleukin-6/genetics , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , Male , Mice , Nickel , STAT3 Transcription Factor/metabolism
2.
Vet Microbiol ; 274: 109553, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2076830

ABSTRACT

Infection induces the production of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines such as interleukin-8 (IL-8) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Although they facilitate local antiviral immunity, their excessive release leads to life-threatening cytokine release syndrome, exemplified by the severe cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. In the present study, we found that interleukin-8 (IL-8) was upregulated by PDCoV infection. We then demonstrated that PDCoV E protein induced IL-8 production and that the TM domain and the C-terminal domain of the E protein were important for IL-8 production. Subsequently, we showed here that deleting the AP-1 and NF-κB binding motif in porcine IL-8 promoter abrogated its activation, suggesting that IL-8 expression was dependent on AP-1 and NF-κB. Furthermore, PDCoV E induced IL-8 production, which was also dependent on the NF-κB pathway through activating nuclear factor p65 phosphorylation and NF-κB inhibitor alpha (IκBα) protein phosphorylation, as well as inducing the nuclear translocation of p65, eventually resulting in the promotion of IL-8 production. PDCoV E also activated c-fos and c-jun, both of which are members of the AP-1 family. These findings provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms of PDCoV-induced IL-8 production and help us further understand the pathogenesis of PDCoV infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Swine Diseases , Swine , Animals , NF-kappa B/metabolism , NF-KappaB Inhibitor alpha , Interleukin-6/genetics , Transcription Factor AP-1/genetics , Transcription Factor AP-1/metabolism , Interleukin-8/genetics , Interleukin-8/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/veterinary , Cytokines , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology
3.
Ageing Res Rev ; 80: 101697, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2031135

ABSTRACT

Interleukin-6 is a pleiotropic cytokine regulating different tissues and organs in diverse and sometimes discrepant ways. The dual and sometime hermetic nature of IL-6 action has been highlighted in several contexts and can be explained by the concept of hormesis, in which beneficial or toxic effects can be induced by the same molecule depending on the intensity, persistence, and nature of the stimulation. According with hormesis, a low and/or controlled IL-6 release is associated with anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and pro-myogenic actions, whereas increased systemic levels of IL-6 can induce pro-inflammatory, pro-oxidant and pro-fibrotic responses. However, many aspects regarding the multifaceted action of IL-6 and the complex nature of its signal transduction remains to be fully elucidated. In this review we collect mechanistic insight into the molecular networks contributing to normal or pathologic changes during advancing age and in chronic diseases. We point out the involvement of IL-6 deregulation in aging-related diseases, dissecting the hormetic action of this key mediator in different tissues, with a special focus on skeletal muscle. Since IL-6 can act as an enhancer of detrimental factor associated with both aging and pathologic conditions, such as chronic inflammation and oxidative stress, this cytokine could represent a "Gerokine", a determinant of the switch from physiologic aging to age-related diseases.


Subject(s)
Aging , Inflammation/metabolism , Interleukin-6 , Aging/physiology , Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic , Gene Expression Regulation , Humans , Interleukin-6/genetics , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Oxidative Stress , Signal Transduction
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(16)2022 Aug 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1987838

ABSTRACT

The epipharynx, located behind the nasal cavity, is responsible for upper respiratory tract immunity; however, it is also the site of frequent acute and chronic inflammation. Previous reports have suggested that chronic epipharyngitis is involved not only in local symptoms such as cough and postnasal drip, but also in systemic inflammatory diseases such as IgA nephropathy and myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) and Long COVID. Epipharyngeal Abrasive Therapy (EAT), which is an effective treatment for chronic epipharyngitis in Japan, is reported to be effective for these intractable diseases. The sedation of chronic epipharyngitis by EAT induces suppression of the inflammatory cytokines and improves systemic symptoms, which is considered to be one of the mechanisms, but there is no report that has proved this hypothesis. The purpose of this study was to clarify the anti-inflammatory effect of EAT histologically. The study subjects were 8 patients who were not treated with EAT and 11 patients who were treated with EAT for chronic epipharyngitis for 1 month or more. For immunohistochemical assessment, the expression pattern of IL-6 mRNA, which plays a central role in the human cytokine network, was analyzed using in situ hybridization. The expression of IL-6 in the EAT-treated group was significantly lower than those in the EAT nontreated group (p = 0.0015). In addition, EAT suppressed the expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), a crucial proinflammatory cytokine. As a result, continuous EAT suppressed submucosal cell aggregation and reduced inflammatory cytokines. Thus, EAT may contribute to the improvement of systemic inflammatory diseases through the suppression of IL-6 expression.


Subject(s)
Interleukin-6 , Pharyngitis , Cytokines/genetics , Humans , Interleukin-6/genetics , Pharyngitis/therapy , RNA, Messenger/genetics
5.
Front Immunol ; 13: 921728, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1987494

ABSTRACT

Fibroblasts of different origins are known to possess stromal memory after inflammatory episodes. However, there are no studies exploring human lung fibroblast memory which may predict a subsequent inflammatory response in chronic respiratory diseases and COVID-19. MRC-5 and HF19 human lung fibroblast cell lines were treated using different primary and secondary stimulus combinations: TNFα-WD-TNFα, Poly (I:C)-WD-TNFα, TNFα-WD-Poly (I:C), or LPS-WD-TNFα with a 24-h rest period (withdrawal period; WD) between the two 24-h stimulations. TLR3 and NF-κB inhibitors were used to determine pathways involved. The effect of SARS-Cov-2 spike protein to inflammatory response of lung fibroblasts was also investigated. mRNA expressions of genes and IL6 release were measured using qRT-PCR and ELISA, respectively. Statistical significance was determined by using one- or two-way ANOVA, followed by Bonferroni's post hoc analysis for comparison of multiple groups. Preexposure with Poly (I:C) significantly increased TNFα-induced IL6 gene expression and IL6 release in both cell lines, while it affected neither gene expressions of IL1B, IL2, IL8, and MMP8 nor fibrosis-related genes: ACTA2, COL1A1, POSTN, and TGFB1. Inhibition of TLR3 or NF-κB during primary stimulation significantly downregulated IL6 release. Simultaneous treatment of MRC-5 cells with SARS-CoV-2 spike protein further increased TNFα-induced IL6 release; however, preexposure to Poly (I:C) did not affect it. Human lung fibroblasts are capable of retaining inflammatory memory and showed an augmented response upon secondary exposure. These results may contribute to the possibility of training human lung fibroblasts to respond suitably on inflammatory episodes after viral infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Interleukin-6/genetics , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Fibroblasts/metabolism , Gene Expression , Humans , Inflammation/chemically induced , Inflammation/genetics , Inflammation/metabolism , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Lung/metabolism , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Poly I-C/metabolism , Poly I-C/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Toll-Like Receptor 3/genetics , Toll-Like Receptor 3/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism
6.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 640, 2022 Jul 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1957048

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We report the first case of COVID-19 associated acute necrotizing encephalopathy (ANE) without pulmonary disease in a patient with an extremely high interleukin-6 (IL-6) level and Ran Binding Protein 2 (RANBP2) mutation. CASE PRESENTATION: A 29-year-old woman recently immunized with inactivated viral vaccine-BBIBP32-CorV (Sinopharm) presented with alteration of consciousness. Her body temperature was 37° Celsius, blood pressure 42/31 mmHg, heart rate 130 bpm, respiratory rate 20 per minute, and oxygen saturation 98%. Respiratory examination was unremarkable. Neurological examination revealed stupor but preserved brainstem reflexes. Non-contrast computerized tomography of the brain showed symmetrical hypodense lesions involving bilateral thalami and cerebellar hemispheres characteristic of ANE. No pulmonary infiltration was found on chest radiograph. SARS-CoV-2 was detected by PCR; whole genome sequencing later confirmed the Delta variant. RANBP2 gene analysis revealed heterozygous Thr585Met mutation. Serum IL-6 was 7390 pg/mL. Urine examination showed pyelonephritis. Her clinical course was complicated by seizure, septic shock, acute kidney injury, and acute hepatic failure. She later developed coma and passed away in 6 days. CONCLUSIONS: ANE is caused by cytokine storm leading to necrosis and hemorrhage of the brain. IL-6 was deemed as a prognostic factor and a potential treatment target of ANE in previous studies. RANBP2 missense mutation strongly predisposes this condition by affecting mitochondrial function, viral entry, cytokine signaling, immune response, and blood-brain barrier maintenance. Also, inactivated vaccine has been reported to precipitate massive production of cytokines by antibody dependent enhancement (ADE). The true incidence of COVID-19 associated ANE is not known as were the predictors of its development. We proposed these potential two factors (RANBP2 mutation and ADE) that could participate in the pathogenesis of ANE in COVID-19 apart from SARS-CoV2 infection by itself. Further study is needed to confirm this hypothesis, specifically in the post-vaccination period. Role of RANBP2 mutation and its application in COVID-19 and ANE should be further elaborated.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases , COVID-19 , Leukoencephalitis, Acute Hemorrhagic , Adult , Brain Diseases/complications , Female , Humans , Interleukin-6/genetics , Leukoencephalitis, Acute Hemorrhagic/diagnosis , Leukoencephalitis, Acute Hemorrhagic/genetics , Molecular Chaperones , Mutation , Nuclear Pore Complex Proteins , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vaccines, Inactivated/therapeutic use
7.
Viruses ; 14(6)2022 06 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1917783

ABSTRACT

A weak production of INF-ß along with an exacerbated release of pro-inflammatory cytokines have been reported during infection by the novel SARS-CoV-2 virus. SARS-CoV-2 encodes several proteins that are able to counteract the host immune system, which is believed to be one of the most important features contributing to the viral pathogenesis and development of a severe clinical outcomes. Previous reports demonstrated that the SARS-CoV-2 ORF6 protein strongly suppresses INF-ß production by hindering the RIG-I, MDA-5, and MAVS signaling cascade. In the present study, we better characterized the mechanism by which the SARS-CoV-2 ORF6 counteracts IFN-ß and interleukin-6 (IL-6), which plays a crucial role in the inflammation process associated with the viral infection. In the present study, we demonstrated that the SARS-CoV-2 ORF6 protein has evolved an alternative mechanism to guarantee host IFN-ß and IL-6 suppression, in addition to the transcriptional control exerted on the genes. Indeed, a block in movement through the nucleopore of newly synthetized messenger RNA encoding the immune-modulatory cytokines IFN-ß and IL-6 are reported here. The ORF6 accessory protein of SARS-CoV-2 displays a multifunctional activity and may represent one of the most important virulence factors. Where conventional antagonistic strategies of immune evasion-such as the suppression of specific transcription factors (e.g., IRF-3, STAT-1/2)-would not be sufficient, the SARS-CoV-2 ORF6 protein is the trump card for the virus, also blocking the movement of IFN-ß and IL-6 mRNAs from nucleus to cytoplasm. Conversely, we showed that nuclear translocation of the NF-κB transcription factor is not affected by the ORF6 protein, although inhibition of its cytoplasmic activation occurred. Therefore, the ORF6 protein exerts a 360-degree inhibition of the antiviral response by blocking as many critical points as possible.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Immune Evasion , Interferon-beta/genetics , Interleukin-6/genetics
8.
Drug Metab Pers Ther ; 37(2): 133-139, 2021 Dec 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1902684

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: COVID-19 continues to range around the world and set morbidity and mortality antirecords. Determining the role of genetic factors in the development of COVID-19 may contribute to the understanding of the pathogenetic mechanisms that lead to the development of complications and fatalities in this disease. The aim of our study was to analyze the effect of TNF-α (rs1800629), IL-6 (rs1800795) and VDR (rs731236 and rs1544410) genes variants on the development risk and the course of COVID-19 in intensive care patients. METHODS: The study group included 31 patients with diagnosis "viral COVID-19 pneumonia". All patients underwent standard daily repeated clinical, instrumental and laboratory examinations. Determination of IL-6, TNF-α, and VDR genes variants was performed using the PCR-RFLP method. RESULTS: It was found a significant increase in the rate of the CC genotype and C allele (38.7 vs. 12.0% and 0.6 vs. 0.4%, respectively) of the IL-6 gene in all patients of the study in comparison with population frequencies. There was a significantly higher rate of heterozygous genotypes TC and GA of the VDR gene in group of died patients. The rs1800629 variant of the TNF-α gene is associated with the need for respiratory support and its longer duration in patients with COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: The obtained results support a hypothesis about the influence of variants of IL-6, TNF-α and VDR genes on severity of COVID-19. However, in order to draw definite conclusions, further multifaceted research in this area are need.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Interleukin-6/genetics , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , Case-Control Studies , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Genotype , Humans , Pilot Projects , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics , Receptors, Calcitriol/genetics
9.
Cell Biol Int ; 46(7): 1109-1127, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1825908

ABSTRACT

Cytokines play pivotal functions in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pathogenesis. However, little is known about the rationale and importance of genetic variations associated with immune system responses, so-called "immunogenetic profiling." We studied whether polymorphisms of IL6, IL6R, TNFA, and IL1RN affect the disorder severity and outcome in patients infected with COVID19. We recruited 317 hospitalized patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 from Bu-Ali hospital and 317 high-risk participants who had high exposure to COVID-19 patients but with a negative real-time-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test. Multiple regression analyses were applied. We indicated that participants carrying the A allele in TNFA-rs361525, G>A (p < .004), the C allele in IL1RN-rs419598 T>C (p < .004), the A allele in IL6R-rs2228145, A>C (p = .047) are more susceptible to develop COVID-19. In contrast, those who carry the G allele of IL6-rs2069827, G>T (p = .01), are more protected from COVID-19. Also, we compared the various genotypes regarding the disorder severity and poor prognosis; we found that the AA genotype in TNFA is related to more aggressive illness and bad prognostic in contrast to the other inflammatory cytokines' genotypes. In addition, a high level of inflammatory indications, such as neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio and systemic immune-inflammation index, was observed in deceased patients compared with the survived subjects (p < .0001). We advised considering inflammatory cytokines polymorphisms as the main item to realize the therapeutic response against the acute respiratory distress syndrome induced by the SARS-CoV-2 virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , COVID-19/genetics , Cytokines/genetics , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Genotype , Humans , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/genetics , Interleukin-6/genetics , Iran/epidemiology , Receptors, Interleukin-6/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/genetics
11.
Cytokine ; 154: 155889, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1797004

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Emerged coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-COV-2). Disease severity is associated with elevated levels of proinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-6 (IL-6). Genetic polymorphisms in the regulatory regions of cytokine genes may be associated with differential cytokine production in COVID-19 patients. This study aimed to investigate the association between three potentially functional single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the promoter region of IL-6 and the severity of susceptibility to COVID-19 in an Iranian population. METHODS: In total, 346 individuals (175 patients with severe COVID-19 and 171 patients with mild COVID-19) were recruited for this cohort study. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes of patients to determine the genotypes of three selected SNPs (rs1800795 (-174 G > C), rs1800796 (-572 G > C), and rs1800797 (-597 G > A)) in the promoter region of the IL-6 gene using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in the genotype or allele distribution of selected SNPs (rs1800795 (-174 G > C), rs1800796 (-572 G > C), and rs1800797 (-597 G > A)) in the promoter region of the IL-6 gene in patients with severe COVID-19 and patients with mild COVID-19. DISCUSSION: Our study indicated that these SNPs are not associated with COVID-19 severity in the Kurdish population from Kermanshah, Iran.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Interleukin-6 , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/pathology , Case-Control Studies , Cohort Studies , Cytokines/genetics , Gene Frequency/genetics , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Genotype , Humans , Interleukin-6/genetics , Iran/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Egypt J Immunol ; 29(2): 1-9, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1790704

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is the causative agent of coronavirus disease started in 2019 (COVID-19). IL-6 gene is located on chromosome 7. A considerable number of polymorphisms was identified in the IL-6 gene. Polymorphism in IL-6-174C allele is associated with a higher level of IL-6 production and this may lead to severity of in COVID-19 patients. We intended to investigate the role of polymorphism in the promotor region of IL-6 gene as a predictor for disease severity in COVID-19 patients. Fifty patients diagnosed with COVID-19 and classified into moderate and severe groups and twenty apparently healthy controls were enrolled in the study. Genotyping for IL-6 gene (-174G/C) was done by using TaqMan SNP genotyping assay for all studied groups. The distribution of different IL-6-174G/C genotypes among COVID-19 patients was 76% for GG genotype, 22% for GC genotype and 2% for CC genotype. Whereas the distribution of genotypes among the control group was 80% for GG genotype, 20% for GC genotype and 0.0% for CC genotype. The G allele distribution was 87% and 90% in the patients and control groups, respectively, while the C allele was 13% and 10% in the patients and control groups, respectively. There was no significant statistical association between different genotypes, severity and treatment outcome in the patients group. In conclusion, this study showed no relation between -174G/C IL-6 gene polymorphism and disease, in COVID-19 patients. Keywords: Interleukin-6, Promotor region, Polymorphism, COVID-19, Severity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Interleukin-6/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , Gene Frequency , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Genotype , Humans , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Promoter Regions, Genetic/genetics , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(7)2022 Apr 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776254

ABSTRACT

In the novel pandemic of Coronavirus Disease 2019, high levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines lead to endothelial activation and dysfunction, promoting a pro-coagulative state, thrombotic events, and microvasculature injuries. The aim of the present work was to investigate the effect of SARS-CoV-2 on pro-inflammatory cytokines, tissue factor, and chemokine release, with Human Microvascular Endothelial Cells (HMEC-1). ACE2 receptor expression was evaluated by western blot analysis. SARS-CoV-2 infection was assessed by one-step RT-PCR until 7 days post-infection (p.i.), and by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). IL-6, TNF-α, IL-8, IFN-α, and hTF mRNA expression levels were detected by RT-PCR, while cytokine release was evaluated by ELISA. HMEC-1 expressed ACE2 receptor and SARS-CoV-2 infection showed a constant viral load. TEM analysis showed virions localized in the cytoplasm. Expression of IL-6 at 24 h and IFN-α mRNA at 24 h and 48 h p.i. was higher in infected than uninfected HMEC-1 (p < 0.05). IL-6 levels were significantly higher in supernatants from infected HMEC-1 (p < 0.001) at 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h p.i., while IL-8 levels were significantly lower at 24 h p.i. (p < 0.001). These data indicate that in vitro microvascular endothelial cells are susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection but slightly contribute to viral amplification. However, SARS-CoV-2 infection might trigger the increase of pro-inflammatory mediators.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Chemokines/genetics , Chemokines/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Humans , Interleukin-6/genetics , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Interleukin-8/genetics , Interleukin-8/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/genetics , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 7(1): 112, 2022 04 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1773956

ABSTRACT

Critical coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with high mortality and potential genetic factors have been reported to be involved in the development of critical COVID-19. We performed a genome-wide association study to identify the genetic factors responsible for developing critical COVID-19. 632 critical patients with COVID-19 and 3021 healthy controls from the Chinese population were recruited. First, we identified a genome-wide significant difference of IL-6 rs2069837 (p = 9.73 × 10-15, OR = 0.41) between 437 critical patients with COVID-19 and 2551 normal controls in the discovery cohort. When replicated these findings in a set of 195 patients with critical COVID-19 and 470 healthy controls, we detected significant association of rs2069837 with COVID-19 (p = 8.89 × 10-3, OR = 0.67). This variant surpassed the formal threshold for genome-wide significance (combined p = 4.64 × 10-16, OR = 0.49). Further analysis revealed that there was a significantly stronger expression of IL-6 in the serum from patients with critical COVID-19 than in that from patients with asymptomatic COVID-19. An in vitro assay showed that the A to G allele changes in rs2069837 within IL-6 obviously decreased the luciferase expression activity. When analyzing the effect of this variant on the IL-6 in the serum based on the rs2069837 genotype, we found that the A to G variation in rs2069837 decreased the expression of IL-6, especially in the male. Overall, we identified a genetic variant in IL-6 that protects against critical conditions with COVID-19 though decreasing IL-6 expression in the serum.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Interleukin-6/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , Genetic Predisposition to Disease/genetics , Genome-Wide Association Study , Humans , Male , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics
15.
J Immunol ; 207(5): 1275-1287, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1771322

ABSTRACT

The airway epithelial cells (AECs) lining the conducting passageways of the lung secrete a variety of immunomodulatory factors. Among these, PGE2 limits lung inflammation and promotes bronchodilation. By contrast, IL-6 drives intense airway inflammation, remodeling, and fibrosis. The signaling that differentiates the production of these opposing mediators is not understood. In this study, we find that the production of PGE2 and IL-6 following stimulation of human AECs by the damage-associated molecular pattern extracellular ATP shares a common requirement for Ca2+ release-activated Ca2+ (CRAC) channels. ATP-mediated synthesis of PGE2 required activation of metabotropic P2Y2 receptors and CRAC channel-mediated cytosolic phospholipase A2 signaling. By contrast, ATP-evoked synthesis of IL-6 occurred via activation of ionotropic P2X receptors and CRAC channel-mediated calcineurin/NFAT signaling. In contrast to ATP, which elicited the production of both PGE2 and IL-6, the uridine nucleotide, UTP, stimulated PGE2 but not IL-6 production. These results reveal that human AECs employ unique receptor-specific signaling mechanisms with CRAC channels as a signaling nexus to regulate release of opposing immunomodulatory mediators. Collectively, our results identify P2Y2 receptors, CRAC channels, and P2X receptors as potential intervention targets for airway diseases.


Subject(s)
Dinoprostone/metabolism , Inflammation/immunology , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Respiratory Mucosa/metabolism , Adenosine Triphosphate/pharmacokinetics , Alarmins/metabolism , Calcium Release Activated Calcium Channels/metabolism , Cells, Cultured , Humans , Immunomodulation , Interleukin-6/genetics , NFATC Transcription Factors/metabolism , Phospholipases A2/metabolism , Receptors, Purinergic P2X/metabolism , Respiratory Mucosa/pathology , Signal Transduction , Uracil Nucleotides/metabolism
16.
J Virol ; 96(5): e0208621, 2022 03 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736026

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus infections induce the expression of multiple proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. We have previously shown that in cells infected with gammacoronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and IL-8 were drastically upregulated, and the MAP kinase p38 and the integrated stress response pathways were implicated in this process. In this study, we report that coronavirus infection activates a negative regulatory loop that restricts the upregulation of a number of proinflammatory genes. As revealed by the initial transcriptomic and subsequent validation analyses, the anti-inflammatory adenine-uridine (AU)-rich element (ARE)-binding protein, zinc finger protein 36 (ZFP36), and its related family members were upregulated in cells infected with IBV and three other coronaviruses, alphacoronaviruses porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E), and betacoronavirus HCoV-OC43, respectively. Characterization of the functional roles of ZFP36 during IBV infection demonstrated that ZFP36 promoted the degradation of transcripts coding for IL-6, IL-8, dual-specificity phosphatase 1 (DUSP1), prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2) and TNF-α-induced protein 3 (TNFAIP3), through binding to AREs in these transcripts. Consistently, knockdown and inhibition of JNK and p38 kinase activities reduced the expression of ZFP36, as well as the expression of IL-6 and IL-8. On the contrary, overexpression of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 3 (MKK3) and MAPKAP kinase-2 (MK2), the upstream and downstream kinases of p38, respectively, increased the expression of ZFP36 and decreased the expression of IL-8. Taken together, this study reveals an important regulatory role of the MKK3-p38-MK2-ZFP36 axis in coronavirus infection-induced proinflammatory response. IMPORTANCE Excessive and uncontrolled induction and release of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, the so-called cytokine release syndrome (CRS), would cause life-threatening complications and multiple organ failure in severe coronavirus infections, including severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) and COVID-19. This study reveals that coronavirus infection also induces the expression of ZFP36, an anti-inflammatory ARE-binding protein, promoting the degradation of ARE-containing transcripts coding for IL-6 and IL-8 as well as a number of other proteins related to inflammatory response. Furthermore, the p38 MAP kinase, its upstream kinase MKK3 and downstream kinase MK2 were shown to play a regulatory role in upregulation of ZFP36 during coronavirus infection cycles. This MKK3-p38-MK2-ZFP36 axis would constitute a potential therapeutic target for severe coronavirus infections.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Interleukin-8/metabolism , Tristetraprolin/metabolism , p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , Adenine/metabolism , Animals , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation , Humans , Infectious bronchitis virus/metabolism , Infectious bronchitis virus/pathogenicity , Interleukin-6/genetics , Interleukin-8/genetics , Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/metabolism , Phosphorylation , Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism , Transcriptional Activation , Up-Regulation , Uridine/metabolism , Vero Cells
18.
Med Sci Monit ; 28: e934102, 2022 Jan 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1651076

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Heat-clearing and detoxifying herbs (HDHs) play an important role in the prevention and treatment of coronavirus infection. However, their mechanism of action needs further study. This study aimed to explore the anti-coronavirus basis and mechanism of HDHs. MATERIAL AND METHODS Database mining was performed on 7 HDHs. Core ingredients and targets were screened according to ADME rules combined with Neighborhood, Co-occurrence, Co-expression, and other algorithms. GO enrichment and KEGG pathway analyses were performed using the R language. Finally, high-throughput molecular docking was used for verification. RESULTS HDHs mainly acts on NOS3, EGFR, IL-6, MAPK8, PTGS2, MAPK14, NFKB1, and CASP3 through quercetin, luteolin, wogonin, indirubin alkaloids, ß-sitosterol, and isolariciresinol. These targets are mainly involved in the regulation of biological processes such as inflammation, activation of MAPK activity, and positive regulation of NF-kappaB transcription factor activity. Pathway analysis further revealed that the pathways regulated by these targets mainly include: signaling pathways related to viral and bacterial infections such as tuberculosis, influenza A, Ras signaling pathways; inflammation-related pathways such as the TLR, TNF, MAPK, and HIF-1 signaling pathways; and immune-related pathways such as NOD receptor signaling pathways. These pathways play a synergistic role in inhibiting lung inflammation and regulating immunity and antiviral activity. CONCLUSIONS HDHs play a role in the treatment of coronavirus infection by regulating the body's immunity, fighting inflammation, and antiviral activities, suggesting a molecular basis and new strategies for the treatment of COVID-19 and a foundation for the screening of new antiviral drugs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus/drug effects , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Alkaloids/chemistry , Alkaloids/pharmacology , Caspase 3/drug effects , Caspase 3/genetics , Coronavirus/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Cyclooxygenase 2/drug effects , Cyclooxygenase 2/genetics , Databases, Pharmaceutical , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Flavanones/chemistry , Flavanones/pharmacology , Humans , Indoles/chemistry , Indoles/pharmacology , Interleukin-6/genetics , Lignin/chemistry , Lignin/pharmacology , Luteolin/chemistry , Luteolin/pharmacology , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 14/drug effects , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 14/genetics , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 8/drug effects , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 8/genetics , Molecular Docking Simulation , NF-kappa B p50 Subunit/drug effects , NF-kappa B p50 Subunit/genetics , Naphthols/chemistry , Naphthols/pharmacology , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III/drug effects , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III/genetics , Protein Interaction Maps , Quercetin/chemistry , Quercetin/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Sitosterols/chemistry , Sitosterols/pharmacology , Transcriptome/drug effects , Transcriptome/genetics
19.
Epigenomics ; 14(3): 153-162, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1622527

ABSTRACT

Smoking could predispose individuals to a more severe COVID-19 by upregulating a particular gene known as mdig, which is mediated through a number of well-known histone modifications. Smoking might regulate the transcription-activating H3K4me3 mark, along with the transcription-repressing H3K9me3 and H3K27me3 marks, in a way to favor SARS-CoV-2 entry by enhancing the expression of ACE2, NRP1 and NRP2, AT1R, CTSD and CTSL, PGE2 receptors 2-4, SLC6A20 and IL-6, all of which interact either directly or indirectly with important receptors, facilitating viral entry in COVID-19.


Lay abstract The role of smoking in development of several respiratory diseases has been clearly established. A significant proportion of these deleterious effects is mediated through epigenetic mechanisms, particularly histone modifications. Recent evidence indicates that smoking induces the expression of a mediator known as mdig, which in turn alters the transcription of several key proteins that have been implicated in development of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , Dioxygenases/genetics , Epigenesis, Genetic , Histone Demethylases/genetics , Histones/genetics , Nuclear Proteins/genetics , Protein Processing, Post-Translational , Smoking/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Cathepsin D/genetics , Cathepsin D/metabolism , Cathepsin L/genetics , Cathepsin L/metabolism , Dioxygenases/metabolism , Histone Demethylases/metabolism , Histones/metabolism , Humans , Interleukin-6/genetics , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Membrane Transport Proteins/genetics , Membrane Transport Proteins/metabolism , Methylation , Neuropilin-1/genetics , Neuropilin-1/metabolism , Neuropilin-2/genetics , Neuropilin-2/metabolism , Nuclear Proteins/metabolism , Protein Isoforms/genetics , Protein Isoforms/metabolism , Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1/genetics , Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1/metabolism , Receptors, Prostaglandin E/genetics , Receptors, Prostaglandin E/metabolism , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Smoking/metabolism , Smoking/pathology , Virus Internalization
20.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 149(2): 569-578, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1587444

ABSTRACT

Our understanding of risk factors and interventions influencing outcomes from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has continued to evolve, revealing advances emerging from hypotheses formed at the start of the pandemic. Epidemiologic studies have shown that asthma control, rather than a diagnosis of asthma, is a determinant of COVID-19 severity. Clinical outcomes in patients with primary immunodeficiencies, even in those with impaired cellular immunity, are variable. IL-6 has emerged as a reliable biomarker of COVID-19 severity, and large clinical trials have shown the potential for improving outcomes through inhibition of IL-6 signaling in some patients. Studies of genetic risk factors for severe COVID-19 have also revealed the importance of interferon homeostasis in the defense against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. Because COVID-19 vaccines constitute the primary tool for ending this pandemic, strategies have been developed to address potential allergic and immune-mediated reactions. Here, we discuss advances in our understanding of COVID-19 risk factors and outcomes within the context of allergic and immunologic mechanisms.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Asthma/therapy , Biological Products/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes/therapy , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Asthma/immunology , Asthma/mortality , Asthma/virology , Azetidines/therapeutic use , Biomarkers/metabolism , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Humans , Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes/immunology , Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes/mortality , Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes/virology , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/therapeutic use , Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , Interleukin-6/genetics , Interleukin-6/immunology , Prognosis , Purines/therapeutic use , Pyrazoles/therapeutic use , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Sulfonamides/therapeutic use , Survival Analysis , Treatment Outcome
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