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1.
Viruses ; 15(5)2023 05 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20242059

ABSTRACT

Interleukin-6 has been recognized as a major role player in COVID-19 severity, being an important regulator of the cytokine storm. Hence, the evaluation of the influence of polymorphisms in key genes of the IL-6 pathway, namely IL6, IL6R, and IL6ST, may provide valuable prognostic/predictive markers for COVID-19. The present cross-sectional study genotyped three SNPs (rs1800795, rs2228145, and rs7730934) at IL6. IL6R and IL6ST genes, respectively, in 227 COVID-19 patients (132 hospitalized and 95 non-hospitalized). Genotype frequencies were compared between these groups. As a control group, published data on gene and genotype frequencies were gathered from published studies before the pandemic started. Our major results point to an association of the IL6 C allele with COVID-19 severity. Moreover, IL-6 plasmatic levels were higher among IL6 CC genotype carriers. Additionally, the frequency of symptoms was higher at IL6 CC and IL6R CC genotypes. In conclusion, the data suggest an important role of IL6 C allele and IL6R CC genotype on COVID-19 severity, in agreement with indirect evidence from the literature about the association of these genotypes with mortality rates, pneumonia, and heightening of protein plasmatic levels pro-inflammatory driven effects.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Interleukin-6 , Humans , Interleukin-6/genetics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Receptors, Interleukin-6/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , Genotype , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Cytokine Receptor gp130/genetics
2.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2673: 317-327, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20234868

ABSTRACT

Interleukin 6 (IL6) is a major pro-inflammatory cytokine that plays a pivotal role in both innate and adaptive immune responses. In the past, a number of studies reported that high level of IL6 promotes the proliferation of cancer, autoimmune disorders, and cytokine storm in COVID-19 patients. Thus, it is extremely important to identify and remove the antigenic regions from a therapeutic protein or vaccine candidate that may induce IL6-associated immunotoxicity. In order to overcome this challenge, our group has developed a computational tool, IL6pred, for discovering IL6-inducing peptides in a vaccine candidate. The aim of this chapter is to describe the potential applications and methodology of IL6pred. It sheds light on the prediction, designing, and scanning modules of IL6pred webserver and standalone package ( https://webs.iiitd.edu.in/raghava/il6pred/ ).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Humans , Interleukin-6/genetics , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cytokines/metabolism , Internet
3.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1151058, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2318373

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) promotes opsonization, favoring phagocytosis and activation of the complement system in response to different microorganisms, and may influence the synthesis of inflammatory cytokines. This study investigated the association of MBL2 gene polymorphisms with the plasma levels of MBL and inflammatory cytokines in COVID-19. Methods: Blood samples from 385 individuals (208 with acute COVID-19 and 117 post-COVID-19) were subjected to real-time PCR genotyping. Plasma measurements of MBL and cytokines were performed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and flow cytometry, respectively. Results: The frequencies of the polymorphic MBL2 genotype (OO) and allele (O) were higher in patients with severe COVID-19 (p< 0.05). The polymorphic genotypes (AO and OO) were associated with lower MBL levels (p< 0.05). IL-6 and TNF-α were higher in patients with low MBL and severe COVID-19 (p< 0.05). No association of polymorphisms, MBL levels, or cytokine levels with long COVID was observed. Discussion: The results suggest that, besides MBL2 polymorphisms promoting a reduction in MBL levels and therefore in its function, they may also contribute to the development of a more intense inflammatory process responsible for the severity of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mannose-Binding Lectin , Humans , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/genetics , Interleukin-6/genetics , Cytokines/genetics , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome , COVID-19/genetics , Polymorphism, Genetic , Mannose-Binding Lectin/genetics
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(22)2022 Nov 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2298126

ABSTRACT

This study is a successor of our previous work concerning changes in the chemokine profile in infection that are associated with different SARS-CoV-2 genetic variants. The goal of our study was to take into account both the virus and the host immune system by assessing concentrations of cytokines in patients infected with different SARS-CoV-2 variants (ancestral Wuhan strain, Alpha, Delta and Omicron). Our study was performed on 340 biological samples taken from COVID-19 patients and healthy donors in the timespan between May 2020 and April 2022. We performed genotyping of the virus in nasopharyngeal swabs, which was followed by assessment of cytokines' concentration in blood plasma. We noted that out of nearly 30 cytokines, only four showed stable elevation independently of the variant (IL-6, IL-10, IL-18 and IL-27), and we believe them to be 'constant' markers for COVID-19 infection. Cytokines that were studied as potential biomarkers lose their diagnostic value as the virus evolves, and the specter of potential targets for predictive models is narrowing. So far, only four cytokines (IL-6, IL-10, IL-18, and IL-27) showed a consistent rise in concentrations independently of the genetic variant of the virus. Although we believe our findings to be of scientific interest, we still consider them inconclusive; further investigation and comparison of immune responses to different variants of SARS-CoV-2 is required.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cytokines , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , COVID-19/genetics , Cytokines/genetics , Cytokines/metabolism , Interleukin-10/genetics , Interleukin-10/metabolism , Interleukin-18/genetics , Interleukin-18/metabolism , Interleukin-27/genetics , Interleukin-27/metabolism , Interleukin-6/genetics , Interleukin-6/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
5.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 11(7): e2172, 2023 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2291714

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vitamin D (Vit.D) has an important role in protecting COVID-19 patients. This study investigated the changes in vitamin D receptor (VDR) expression and interleukin 6 levels in patients with COVID-19. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 120 hospitalized patients and 120 healthy people participated in this study, both group adjusted by sex and age. Vit.D was measured with HPLC, the expression of VDR gene was done with Real-time PCR, and IL-6 was measured with ELISA assay. RESULTS: Our findings showed no significant difference in the case of Vit.D (25-OH-D3) between the two studied groups, interestingly the expression of VDR was statistically lower in the patients with COVID-19, p-value = 0.003. VDR expression was lower in the patient with diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular disease, significantly, p-value = 0.002. The level of IL-6 was statistically higher in the COVID-19 group, p-value = 0.003. CONCLUSION: Alongside the important role of 25-OH-D3 in COVID-19 patients, the quality and quantity of the VDR expression and its role in the level of IL-6 are the promising risk factors in the future. Further studies are needed to determine the factors increasing the expression level of VDR, especially in the patients with diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Hypertension , Humans , Receptors, Calcitriol/genetics , Interleukin-6/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , Vitamin D , Vitamins , Hypertension/genetics
6.
Mol Biol Rep ; 50(6): 5177-5183, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2302333

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global pandemic, and mortality and clinical consequences vary across countries. One of the factors influencing COVID-19 outcomes is genetic polymorphism. Two Kurdish populations, Sorani and Hawrami, live in the Sulaimani province of the Kurdistan Region of Iraq. It seems Hawrami had a milder COVID-19 outcome. According to previous research conducted on various ethnic groups across the globe, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the interferon-induced transmembrane protein 3 (IFITM3) and interluken-6 (IL6) genes were associated with the severity of COVID-19 in those populations. METHODS AND RESULTS: We hypothesized that Hawrami may have protective SNPs. So, in this study, we used DNA sequencing to genotype three IFITM3 SNPs and nine IL6 SNPs by DNA sequencing to investigate the association of Sorani and Hawrami population polymorphisms. Genotype AA for the rs12252 SNP in IFITM3 was insignificantly more common in the Sorani group (54% vs. 44%). The Hawrami population showed a higher percentage of the CC genotype of the rs34481144 SNP in the IFITM3 gene (62% vs. 44.3%) and a higher proportion of the non-risky GG genotype of the rs1800795 SNP in the IL6 gene (53.4 vs. 43.3); however, the SNPs were insignificantly associated between the two populations. CONCLUSIONS: IFITM3 and IL6 SNPs have no statistically significant association between the two Kurdish populations. The decreased proportion of non-risk alleles at rs34481144 and rs1800795 in the Hawrami population may partially support the research hypothesis. However, contrary to our hypothesis, the Sorani group had an insignificantly higher protective variant of the rs12252 SNP.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Humans , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Interleukin-6/genetics , Membrane Proteins/genetics , RNA-Binding Proteins/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , Genotype , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics
7.
PLoS Med ; 20(1): e1004174, 2023 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2261992

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Sepsis is characterised by dysregulated, life-threatening immune responses, which are thought to be driven by cytokines such as interleukin 6 (IL-6). Genetic variants in IL6R known to down-regulate IL-6 signalling are associated with improved Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) outcomes, a finding later confirmed in randomised trials of IL-6 receptor antagonists (IL6RAs). We hypothesised that blockade of IL6R could also improve outcomes in sepsis. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We performed a Mendelian randomisation (MR) analysis using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in and near IL6R to evaluate the likely causal effects of IL6R blockade on sepsis (primary outcome), sepsis severity, other infections, and COVID-19 (secondary outcomes). We weighted SNPs by their effect on CRP and combined results across them in inverse variance weighted meta-analysis, proxying the effect of IL6RA. Our outcomes were measured in UK Biobank, FinnGen, the COVID-19 Host Genetics Initiative (HGI), and the GenOSept and GainS consortium. We performed several sensitivity analyses to test assumptions of our methods, including utilising variants around CRP and gp130 in a similar analysis. In the UK Biobank cohort (N = 486,484, including 11,643 with sepsis), IL6R blockade was associated with a decreased risk of our primary outcome, sepsis (odds ratio (OR) = 0.80; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.66 to 0.96, per unit of natural log-transformed CRP decrease). The size of this effect increased with severity, with larger effects on 28-day sepsis mortality (OR = 0.74; 95% CI 0.47 to 1.15); critical care admission with sepsis (OR = 0.48, 95% CI 0.30 to 0.78) and critical care death with sepsis (OR = 0.37, 95% CI 0.14 to 0.98). Similar associations were seen with severe respiratory infection: OR for pneumonia in critical care 0.69 (95% CI 0.49 to 0.97) and for sepsis survival in critical care (OR = 0.22; 95% CI 0.04 to 1.31) in the GainS and GenOSept consortium, although this result had a large degree of imprecision. We also confirm the previously reported protective effect of IL6R blockade on severe COVID-19 (OR = 0.69, 95% CI 0.57 to 0.84) in the COVID-19 HGI, which was of similar magnitude to that seen in sepsis. Sensitivity analyses did not alter our primary results. These results are subject to the limitations and assumptions of MR, which in this case reflects interpretation of these SNP effects as causally acting through blockade of IL6R, and reflect lifetime exposure to IL6R blockade, rather than the effect of therapeutic IL6R blockade. CONCLUSIONS: IL6R blockade is causally associated with reduced incidence of sepsis. Similar but imprecisely estimated results supported a causal effect also on sepsis related mortality and critical care admission with sepsis. These effects are comparable in size to the effect seen in severe COVID-19, where IL-6 receptor antagonists were shown to improve survival. These data suggest that a randomised trial of IL-6 receptor antagonists in sepsis should be considered.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sepsis , Humans , Interleukin-6/genetics , Hospitalization , Receptors, Interleukin-6/genetics , Sepsis/drug therapy , Sepsis/genetics , Mendelian Randomization Analysis
8.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 17(3): 327-334, 2023 03 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2260522

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is mainly precipitated by an uncontrolled inflammatory response and cytokine storm. Pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6 and IL-8 levels were markedly increased in complicated cases. Genetic polymorphisms may have a role in this dysregulated expression during SARS-CoV-2 infection. Our aim was to assess the influence of IL-6 and IL-8 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on COVID-19 outcomes. METHODOLOGY: 240 subjects were involved in the study; 80 cases with severe COVID-19, 80 cases with mild COVID-19, and 80 healthy subjects. IL-6rs1800795(G/C) and IL-8 rs2227306(C/T) genotyping was performed using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). RESULTS: Ages ranged between 20-67 years in all groups. There was a statistically significant association between the male gender and severe COVID-19. A significantly higher expression of IL-6rs1800795GG and IL-8rs2227306CC genotypes was observed among patients with severe COVID-19 than other groups. At the allele level, IL-6rs1800795G and IL-8rs2227306C alleles were more frequent among patients with severe COVID-19 when compared with other groups. Haplotypes' frequency clarified that the coexistence of IL-6 rs1800795G and IL-8rs2227306C alleles in the same person increased the risk of severe COVID-19 outcomes. Carriers of IL-6rs1800795C and IL-8 rs2227306T alleles are at lower risk of developing severe COVID-19. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that old age, male gender, IL-6 rs1800795CG+GG, and IL-8 rs2227306CT+CC genotypes could be independent risk factors for severe COVID-19 outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: IL-6 rs1800795G and IL-8 rs2227306C alleles are significantly associated with severe COVID-19 outcomes, especially if they coexist. They may be used as prognostic markers for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Interleukin-6 , Humans , Male , Young Adult , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Interleukin-6/genetics , Interleukin-8/genetics , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , COVID-19/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Genotype , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Alleles , Case-Control Studies
9.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 120(10): e2217199120, 2023 03 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2255882

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 remains a global pandemic of an unprecedented magnitude with millions of people now developing "COVID lung fibrosis." Single-cell transcriptomics of lungs of patients with long COVID revealed a unique immune signature demonstrating the upregulation of key proinflammatory and innate immune effector genes CD47, IL-6, and JUN. We modeled the transition to lung fibrosis after COVID and profiled the immune response with single-cell mass cytometry in JUN mice. These studies revealed that COVID mediated chronic immune activation reminiscent to long COVID in humans. It was characterized by increased CD47, IL-6, and phospho-JUN (pJUN) expression which correlated with disease severity and pathogenic fibroblast populations. When we subsequently treated a humanized COVID lung fibrosis model by combined blockade of inflammation and fibrosis, we not only ameliorated fibrosis but also restored innate immune equilibrium indicating possible implications for clinical management of COVID lung fibrosis in patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Fibrosis , Humans , Animals , Mice , Pulmonary Fibrosis/etiology , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome , CD47 Antigen , Interleukin-6/genetics , Immunity, Innate
10.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 12(1): 2157338, 2023 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2222491

ABSTRACT

Cytokine dynamics in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have been studied in blood but seldomly in respiratory specimens. We studied different cell markers and cytokines in fresh nasopharyngeal swab specimens for the diagnosis and for stratifying the severity of COVID-19. This was a retrospective case-control study comparing Myeloperoxidase (MPO), Adenosine deaminase (ADA), C-C motif chemokine ligand 22 (CCL22), Tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) and Interleukin-6 (IL-6) mRNA expression in 490 (327 patients and 163 control) nasopharyngeal specimens from 317 (154 COVID-19 and 163 control) hospitalized patients. Of the 154 COVID-19 cases, 46 died. Both total and normalized MPO, ADA, CCL22, TNFα, and IL-6 mRNA expression levels were significantly higher in the nasopharyngeal specimens of infected patients when compared with controls, with ADA showing better performance (OR 5.703, 95% CI 3.424-9.500, p < 0.001). Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve showed that the cut-off value of normalized ADA mRNA level at 2.37 × 10-3 had a sensitivity of 81.8% and specificity of 83.4%. While patients with severe COVID-19 had more respiratory symptoms, and elevated lactate dehydrogenase, multivariate analysis showed that severe COVID-19 patients had lower CCL22 mRNA (OR 0.211, 95% CI 0.060-0.746, p = 0.016) in nasopharyngeal specimens, while lymphocyte count, C-reactive protein, and viral load in nasopharyngeal specimens did not correlate with disease severity. In summary, ADA appears to be a better biomarker to differentiate between infected and uninfected patients, while CCL22 has the potential in stratifying the severity of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/diagnosis , Interleukin-6/genetics , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/genetics , Retrospective Studies , Adenosine Deaminase/genetics , Adenosine Deaminase/analysis , Adenosine Deaminase/metabolism , Case-Control Studies , Peroxidase , Ligands , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Cytokines , Chemokines , Nasopharynx , Chemokine CCL22
11.
Toxicol In Vitro ; 83: 105394, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2115544

ABSTRACT

We previously reported that delivery of nickel nanoparticles (NiNPs) and bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into the lungs of mice synergistically increased IL-6 production and inflammation, and male mice were more susceptible than female mice. The primary goal of this study was to utilize an in vitro human lung epithelial cell model (BEAS-2B) to investigate the intracellular signaling mechanisms that mediate IL-6 production by LPS and NiNPs. We also investigated the effect of sex hormones on NiNP and LPS-induced IL-6 production in vitro. LPS and NiNPs synergistically induced IL-6 mRNA and protein in BEAS-2B cells. TPCA-1, a dual inhibitor of IKK-2 and STAT3, blocked the synergistic increase in IL-6 caused by LPS and NiNPs, abolished STAT3 activation, and reduced C/EBPß. Conversely, SC144, an inhibitor of the gp130 component of the IL-6 receptor, enhanced IL-6 production induced by LPS and NiNPs. Treatment of BEAS-2B cells with sex hormones (17ß-estradiol, progesterone, or testosterone) or the anti-oxidant NAC, had no effect on IL-6 induction by LPS and NiNPs. These data suggest that LPS and NiNPs induce IL-6 via STAT3 and C/EBPß in BEAS-2B cells. While BEAS-2B cells are a suitable model to study mechanisms of IL-6 production, they do not appear to be suitable for studying the effect of sex hormones.


Subject(s)
Lipopolysaccharides , Nanoparticles , Animals , CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Protein-beta/metabolism , Cell Line , Epithelial Cells , Female , Humans , Interleukin-6/genetics , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , Male , Mice , Nickel , STAT3 Transcription Factor/metabolism
12.
Vet Microbiol ; 274: 109553, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2076830

ABSTRACT

Infection induces the production of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines such as interleukin-8 (IL-8) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Although they facilitate local antiviral immunity, their excessive release leads to life-threatening cytokine release syndrome, exemplified by the severe cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. In the present study, we found that interleukin-8 (IL-8) was upregulated by PDCoV infection. We then demonstrated that PDCoV E protein induced IL-8 production and that the TM domain and the C-terminal domain of the E protein were important for IL-8 production. Subsequently, we showed here that deleting the AP-1 and NF-κB binding motif in porcine IL-8 promoter abrogated its activation, suggesting that IL-8 expression was dependent on AP-1 and NF-κB. Furthermore, PDCoV E induced IL-8 production, which was also dependent on the NF-κB pathway through activating nuclear factor p65 phosphorylation and NF-κB inhibitor alpha (IκBα) protein phosphorylation, as well as inducing the nuclear translocation of p65, eventually resulting in the promotion of IL-8 production. PDCoV E also activated c-fos and c-jun, both of which are members of the AP-1 family. These findings provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms of PDCoV-induced IL-8 production and help us further understand the pathogenesis of PDCoV infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Swine Diseases , Swine , Animals , NF-kappa B/metabolism , NF-KappaB Inhibitor alpha , Interleukin-6/genetics , Transcription Factor AP-1/genetics , Transcription Factor AP-1/metabolism , Interleukin-8/genetics , Interleukin-8/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/veterinary , Cytokines , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology
13.
Ageing Res Rev ; 80: 101697, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2031135

ABSTRACT

Interleukin-6 is a pleiotropic cytokine regulating different tissues and organs in diverse and sometimes discrepant ways. The dual and sometime hermetic nature of IL-6 action has been highlighted in several contexts and can be explained by the concept of hormesis, in which beneficial or toxic effects can be induced by the same molecule depending on the intensity, persistence, and nature of the stimulation. According with hormesis, a low and/or controlled IL-6 release is associated with anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and pro-myogenic actions, whereas increased systemic levels of IL-6 can induce pro-inflammatory, pro-oxidant and pro-fibrotic responses. However, many aspects regarding the multifaceted action of IL-6 and the complex nature of its signal transduction remains to be fully elucidated. In this review we collect mechanistic insight into the molecular networks contributing to normal or pathologic changes during advancing age and in chronic diseases. We point out the involvement of IL-6 deregulation in aging-related diseases, dissecting the hormetic action of this key mediator in different tissues, with a special focus on skeletal muscle. Since IL-6 can act as an enhancer of detrimental factor associated with both aging and pathologic conditions, such as chronic inflammation and oxidative stress, this cytokine could represent a "Gerokine", a determinant of the switch from physiologic aging to age-related diseases.


Subject(s)
Aging , Inflammation/metabolism , Interleukin-6 , Aging/physiology , Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic , Gene Expression Regulation , Humans , Interleukin-6/genetics , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Oxidative Stress , Signal Transduction
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(16)2022 Aug 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1987838

ABSTRACT

The epipharynx, located behind the nasal cavity, is responsible for upper respiratory tract immunity; however, it is also the site of frequent acute and chronic inflammation. Previous reports have suggested that chronic epipharyngitis is involved not only in local symptoms such as cough and postnasal drip, but also in systemic inflammatory diseases such as IgA nephropathy and myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) and Long COVID. Epipharyngeal Abrasive Therapy (EAT), which is an effective treatment for chronic epipharyngitis in Japan, is reported to be effective for these intractable diseases. The sedation of chronic epipharyngitis by EAT induces suppression of the inflammatory cytokines and improves systemic symptoms, which is considered to be one of the mechanisms, but there is no report that has proved this hypothesis. The purpose of this study was to clarify the anti-inflammatory effect of EAT histologically. The study subjects were 8 patients who were not treated with EAT and 11 patients who were treated with EAT for chronic epipharyngitis for 1 month or more. For immunohistochemical assessment, the expression pattern of IL-6 mRNA, which plays a central role in the human cytokine network, was analyzed using in situ hybridization. The expression of IL-6 in the EAT-treated group was significantly lower than those in the EAT nontreated group (p = 0.0015). In addition, EAT suppressed the expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), a crucial proinflammatory cytokine. As a result, continuous EAT suppressed submucosal cell aggregation and reduced inflammatory cytokines. Thus, EAT may contribute to the improvement of systemic inflammatory diseases through the suppression of IL-6 expression.


Subject(s)
Interleukin-6 , Pharyngitis , Cytokines/genetics , Humans , Interleukin-6/genetics , Pharyngitis/therapy , RNA, Messenger/genetics
15.
Front Immunol ; 13: 921728, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1987494

ABSTRACT

Fibroblasts of different origins are known to possess stromal memory after inflammatory episodes. However, there are no studies exploring human lung fibroblast memory which may predict a subsequent inflammatory response in chronic respiratory diseases and COVID-19. MRC-5 and HF19 human lung fibroblast cell lines were treated using different primary and secondary stimulus combinations: TNFα-WD-TNFα, Poly (I:C)-WD-TNFα, TNFα-WD-Poly (I:C), or LPS-WD-TNFα with a 24-h rest period (withdrawal period; WD) between the two 24-h stimulations. TLR3 and NF-κB inhibitors were used to determine pathways involved. The effect of SARS-Cov-2 spike protein to inflammatory response of lung fibroblasts was also investigated. mRNA expressions of genes and IL6 release were measured using qRT-PCR and ELISA, respectively. Statistical significance was determined by using one- or two-way ANOVA, followed by Bonferroni's post hoc analysis for comparison of multiple groups. Preexposure with Poly (I:C) significantly increased TNFα-induced IL6 gene expression and IL6 release in both cell lines, while it affected neither gene expressions of IL1B, IL2, IL8, and MMP8 nor fibrosis-related genes: ACTA2, COL1A1, POSTN, and TGFB1. Inhibition of TLR3 or NF-κB during primary stimulation significantly downregulated IL6 release. Simultaneous treatment of MRC-5 cells with SARS-CoV-2 spike protein further increased TNFα-induced IL6 release; however, preexposure to Poly (I:C) did not affect it. Human lung fibroblasts are capable of retaining inflammatory memory and showed an augmented response upon secondary exposure. These results may contribute to the possibility of training human lung fibroblasts to respond suitably on inflammatory episodes after viral infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Interleukin-6/genetics , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Fibroblasts/metabolism , Gene Expression , Humans , Inflammation/chemically induced , Inflammation/genetics , Inflammation/metabolism , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Lung/metabolism , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Poly I-C/metabolism , Poly I-C/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Toll-Like Receptor 3/genetics , Toll-Like Receptor 3/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism
16.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 640, 2022 Jul 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1957048

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We report the first case of COVID-19 associated acute necrotizing encephalopathy (ANE) without pulmonary disease in a patient with an extremely high interleukin-6 (IL-6) level and Ran Binding Protein 2 (RANBP2) mutation. CASE PRESENTATION: A 29-year-old woman recently immunized with inactivated viral vaccine-BBIBP32-CorV (Sinopharm) presented with alteration of consciousness. Her body temperature was 37° Celsius, blood pressure 42/31 mmHg, heart rate 130 bpm, respiratory rate 20 per minute, and oxygen saturation 98%. Respiratory examination was unremarkable. Neurological examination revealed stupor but preserved brainstem reflexes. Non-contrast computerized tomography of the brain showed symmetrical hypodense lesions involving bilateral thalami and cerebellar hemispheres characteristic of ANE. No pulmonary infiltration was found on chest radiograph. SARS-CoV-2 was detected by PCR; whole genome sequencing later confirmed the Delta variant. RANBP2 gene analysis revealed heterozygous Thr585Met mutation. Serum IL-6 was 7390 pg/mL. Urine examination showed pyelonephritis. Her clinical course was complicated by seizure, septic shock, acute kidney injury, and acute hepatic failure. She later developed coma and passed away in 6 days. CONCLUSIONS: ANE is caused by cytokine storm leading to necrosis and hemorrhage of the brain. IL-6 was deemed as a prognostic factor and a potential treatment target of ANE in previous studies. RANBP2 missense mutation strongly predisposes this condition by affecting mitochondrial function, viral entry, cytokine signaling, immune response, and blood-brain barrier maintenance. Also, inactivated vaccine has been reported to precipitate massive production of cytokines by antibody dependent enhancement (ADE). The true incidence of COVID-19 associated ANE is not known as were the predictors of its development. We proposed these potential two factors (RANBP2 mutation and ADE) that could participate in the pathogenesis of ANE in COVID-19 apart from SARS-CoV2 infection by itself. Further study is needed to confirm this hypothesis, specifically in the post-vaccination period. Role of RANBP2 mutation and its application in COVID-19 and ANE should be further elaborated.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases , COVID-19 , Leukoencephalitis, Acute Hemorrhagic , Adult , Brain Diseases/complications , Female , Humans , Interleukin-6/genetics , Leukoencephalitis, Acute Hemorrhagic/diagnosis , Leukoencephalitis, Acute Hemorrhagic/genetics , Molecular Chaperones , Mutation , Nuclear Pore Complex Proteins , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vaccines, Inactivated/therapeutic use
17.
Drug Metab Pers Ther ; 37(2): 133-139, 2021 12 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1902684

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: COVID-19 continues to range around the world and set morbidity and mortality antirecords. Determining the role of genetic factors in the development of COVID-19 may contribute to the understanding of the pathogenetic mechanisms that lead to the development of complications and fatalities in this disease. The aim of our study was to analyze the effect of TNF-α (rs1800629), IL-6 (rs1800795) and VDR (rs731236 and rs1544410) genes variants on the development risk and the course of COVID-19 in intensive care patients. METHODS: The study group included 31 patients with diagnosis "viral COVID-19 pneumonia". All patients underwent standard daily repeated clinical, instrumental and laboratory examinations. Determination of IL-6, TNF-α, and VDR genes variants was performed using the PCR-RFLP method. RESULTS: It was found a significant increase in the rate of the CC genotype and C allele (38.7 vs. 12.0% and 0.6 vs. 0.4%, respectively) of the IL-6 gene in all patients of the study in comparison with population frequencies. There was a significantly higher rate of heterozygous genotypes TC and GA of the VDR gene in group of died patients. The rs1800629 variant of the TNF-α gene is associated with the need for respiratory support and its longer duration in patients with COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: The obtained results support a hypothesis about the influence of variants of IL-6, TNF-α and VDR genes on severity of COVID-19. However, in order to draw definite conclusions, further multifaceted research in this area are need.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Interleukin-6/genetics , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , Case-Control Studies , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Genotype , Humans , Pilot Projects , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics , Receptors, Calcitriol/genetics
18.
Cell Biol Int ; 46(7): 1109-1127, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1825908

ABSTRACT

Cytokines play pivotal functions in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pathogenesis. However, little is known about the rationale and importance of genetic variations associated with immune system responses, so-called "immunogenetic profiling." We studied whether polymorphisms of IL6, IL6R, TNFA, and IL1RN affect the disorder severity and outcome in patients infected with COVID19. We recruited 317 hospitalized patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 from Bu-Ali hospital and 317 high-risk participants who had high exposure to COVID-19 patients but with a negative real-time-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test. Multiple regression analyses were applied. We indicated that participants carrying the A allele in TNFA-rs361525, G>A (p < .004), the C allele in IL1RN-rs419598 T>C (p < .004), the A allele in IL6R-rs2228145, A>C (p = .047) are more susceptible to develop COVID-19. In contrast, those who carry the G allele of IL6-rs2069827, G>T (p = .01), are more protected from COVID-19. Also, we compared the various genotypes regarding the disorder severity and poor prognosis; we found that the AA genotype in TNFA is related to more aggressive illness and bad prognostic in contrast to the other inflammatory cytokines' genotypes. In addition, a high level of inflammatory indications, such as neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio and systemic immune-inflammation index, was observed in deceased patients compared with the survived subjects (p < .0001). We advised considering inflammatory cytokines polymorphisms as the main item to realize the therapeutic response against the acute respiratory distress syndrome induced by the SARS-CoV-2 virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , COVID-19/genetics , Cytokines/genetics , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Genotype , Humans , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/genetics , Interleukin-6/genetics , Iran/epidemiology , Receptors, Interleukin-6/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/genetics
20.
Cytokine ; 154: 155889, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1797004

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Emerged coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-COV-2). Disease severity is associated with elevated levels of proinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-6 (IL-6). Genetic polymorphisms in the regulatory regions of cytokine genes may be associated with differential cytokine production in COVID-19 patients. This study aimed to investigate the association between three potentially functional single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the promoter region of IL-6 and the severity of susceptibility to COVID-19 in an Iranian population. METHODS: In total, 346 individuals (175 patients with severe COVID-19 and 171 patients with mild COVID-19) were recruited for this cohort study. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes of patients to determine the genotypes of three selected SNPs (rs1800795 (-174 G > C), rs1800796 (-572 G > C), and rs1800797 (-597 G > A)) in the promoter region of the IL-6 gene using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in the genotype or allele distribution of selected SNPs (rs1800795 (-174 G > C), rs1800796 (-572 G > C), and rs1800797 (-597 G > A)) in the promoter region of the IL-6 gene in patients with severe COVID-19 and patients with mild COVID-19. DISCUSSION: Our study indicated that these SNPs are not associated with COVID-19 severity in the Kurdish population from Kermanshah, Iran.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Interleukin-6 , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/pathology , Case-Control Studies , Cohort Studies , Cytokines/genetics , Gene Frequency/genetics , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Genotype , Humans , Interleukin-6/genetics , Iran/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
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