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1.
Brief Bioinform ; 22(2): 936-945, 2021 03 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1352108

ABSTRACT

Interleukin 6 (IL-6) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that stimulates acute phase responses, hematopoiesis and specific immune reactions. Recently, it was found that the IL-6 plays a vital role in the progression of COVID-19, which is responsible for the high mortality rate. In order to facilitate the scientific community to fight against COVID-19, we have developed a method for predicting IL-6 inducing peptides/epitopes. The models were trained and tested on experimentally validated 365 IL-6 inducing and 2991 non-inducing peptides extracted from the immune epitope database. Initially, 9149 features of each peptide were computed using Pfeature, which were reduced to 186 features using the SVC-L1 technique. These features were ranked based on their classification ability, and the top 10 features were used for developing prediction models. A wide range of machine learning techniques has been deployed to develop models. Random Forest-based model achieves a maximum AUROC of 0.84 and 0.83 on training and independent validation dataset, respectively. We have also identified IL-6 inducing peptides in different proteins of SARS-CoV-2, using our best models to design vaccine against COVID-19. A web server named as IL-6Pred and a standalone package has been developed for predicting, designing and screening of IL-6 inducing peptides (https://webs.iiitd.edu.in/raghava/il6pred/).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Computer Simulation , Interleukin-6/biosynthesis , Peptides/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Databases, Protein , Datasets as Topic , Humans , Interleukin-6/physiology , Machine Learning , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
2.
Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol ; 14(10): 1279-1287, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1287936

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Tocilizumab is one of the main repurposed therapies investigated for COVID-19 pneumonia since the start of the pandemic, but there has been conflicting evidence for its use.Areas covered: This review covers the physiology of interleukin-6 and its role in the pathophysiology of COVID-19. We discuss the use of tocilizumab in other diseases and the rationale for its use in COVID-19. We summarize the design, contrasting results, and implications of the clinical trials of tocilizumab in COVID-19 to date and discuss the current guidance for its use.Expert opinion: The evidence to date suggests benefit with the use of tocilizumab in some but not all patients with COVID-19. Benefit seems to be greatest when given early after clinical deterioration with the presence of systemic inflammation. However, questions remain around the optimal timing, patient selection, and concomitant treatments.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Interleukin-6/physiology , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/physiopathology , Humans
3.
Psychoneuroendocrinology ; 131: 105295, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1253500

ABSTRACT

The majority of COVID-19 survivors experience long-term neuropsychiatric symptoms such as fatigue, sleeping difficulties, depression and anxiety. We propose that neuroimmune cross-talk via inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6 (IL-6) could underpin these long-term COVID-19 symptoms. This hypothesis is supported by several lines of research, including population-based cohort and genetic Mendelian Randomisation studies suggesting that inflammation is associated with fatigue and sleeping difficulties, and that IL-6 could represent a possible causal driver for these symptoms. Immune activation following COVID-19 can disrupt T helper 17 (TH17) and regulatory T (Treg) cell responses, affect central learning and emotional processes, and lead to a vicious cycle of inflammation and mitochondrial dysfunction that amplifies the inflammatory process and results in immuno-metabolic constraints on neuronal energy metabolism, with fatigue being the ultimate result. Increased cytokine activity drives this process and could be targeted to interrupt it. Therefore, whether persistent IL-6 dysregulation contributes to COVID-19-related long-term fatigue, sleeping difficulties, depression, and anxiety, and whether targeting IL-6 pathways could be helpful for treatment and prevention of long COVID are important questions that require investigation. This line of research could inform new approaches for treatment and prevention of long-term neuropsychiatric symptoms of COVID-19. Effective treatment and prevention of this condition could also help to stem the anticipated rise in depression and other mental illnesses ensuing this pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Interleukin-6/physiology , Mental Disorders/etiology , Animals , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/etiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19/psychology , Cohort Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/etiology , Fatigue/epidemiology , Fatigue/etiology , Humans , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Interleukin-6/pharmacology , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Neuroimmunomodulation/drug effects , Neuroimmunomodulation/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Sleep Wake Disorders/epidemiology , Sleep Wake Disorders/etiology , Survivors/statistics & numerical data
4.
J Hepatol ; 75(3): 647-658, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1228069

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: COVID-19 is associated with liver injury and elevated interleukin-6 (IL-6). We hypothesized that IL-6 trans-signaling in liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) leads to endotheliopathy (a proinflammatory and procoagulant state) and liver injury in COVID-19. METHODS: Coagulopathy, endotheliopathy, and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were retrospectively analyzed in a subset (n = 68), followed by a larger cohort (n = 3,780) of patients with COVID-19. Liver histology from 43 patients with COVID-19 was analyzed for endotheliopathy and its relationship to liver injury. Primary human LSECs were used to establish the IL-6 trans-signaling mechanism. RESULTS: Factor VIII, fibrinogen, D-dimer, von Willebrand factor (vWF) activity/antigen (biomarkers of coagulopathy/endotheliopathy) were significantly elevated in patients with COVID-19 and liver injury (elevated ALT). IL-6 positively correlated with vWF antigen (p = 0.02), factor VIII activity (p = 0.02), and D-dimer (p <0.0001). On liver histology, patients with COVID-19 and elevated ALT had significantly increased vWF and platelet staining, supporting a link between liver injury, coagulopathy, and endotheliopathy. Intralobular neutrophils positively correlated with platelet (p <0.0001) and vWF (p <0.01) staining, and IL-6 levels positively correlated with vWF staining (p <0.01). IL-6 trans-signaling leads to increased expression of procoagulant (factor VIII, vWF) and proinflammatory factors, increased cell surface vWF (p <0.01), and increased platelet attachment in LSECs. These effects were blocked by soluble glycoprotein 130 (IL-6 trans-signaling inhibitor), the JAK inhibitor ruxolitinib, and STAT1/3 small-interfering RNA knockdown. Hepatocyte fibrinogen expression was increased by the supernatant of LSECs subjected to IL-6 trans-signaling. CONCLUSION: IL-6 trans-signaling drives the coagulopathy and hepatic endotheliopathy associated with COVID-19 and could be a possible mechanism behind liver injury in these patients. LAY SUMMARY: Patients with SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) infection often have liver injury, but why this occurs remains unknown. High levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and its circulating receptor, which form a complex to induce inflammatory signals, have been observed in patients with COVID-19. This paper demonstrates that the IL-6 signaling complex causes harmful changes to liver sinusoidal endothelial cells and may promote blood clotting and contribute to liver injury.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Endothelial Cells/pathology , Interleukin-6/physiology , Liver Diseases/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Blood Coagulation Disorders/etiology , Fibrinogen/analysis , Humans , Interleukin-6/blood , Janus Kinase 1/metabolism , Nitriles , Pyrazoles/pharmacology , Pyrimidines , Retrospective Studies , STAT3 Transcription Factor/metabolism , Signal Transduction/physiology , von Willebrand Factor/analysis
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(6)2021 Mar 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1138734

ABSTRACT

Among patients suffering from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) syndrome, one of the worst possible scenarios is represented by the critical lung damage caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2)-induced cytokine storm, responsible for a potentially very dangerous hyperinflammatory condition. Within such a context, interleukin-6 (IL-6) plays a key pathogenic role, thus being a suitable therapeutic target. Indeed, the IL-6-receptor antagonist tocilizumab, already approved for treatment of refractory rheumatoid arthritis, is often used to treat patients with severe COVID-19 symptoms and lung involvement. Therefore, the aim of this review article is to focus on the rationale of tocilizumab utilization in the SARS-CoV-2-triggered cytokine storm, as well as to discuss current evidence and future perspectives, especially with regard to ongoing trials referring to the evaluation of tocilizumab's therapeutic effects in patients with life-threatening SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/pharmacology , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/chemistry , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/physiopathology , Humans , Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , Interleukin-6/physiology
6.
Br J Haematol ; 193(1): 43-51, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066629
8.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 89(Pt A): 107018, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-849661

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) virus has spread all over the world. Scientists are trying to discover drugs as effective treatment for patients with COVID-19. So far about 30 drugs have been introduced that one of them is Tocilizumab. Recently Tocilizumab has been introduced to treat patients with COVID-19 and researchers are investigating further the efficacy of this drug for different are patients. In Iran and China, some reports showed a positive effect of Tocilizumab on Saturation of Peripheral Oxygen (SPO2) but results of CT scan in patients in different. In some patients, CT scan showed reduced infiltration, however in other no change was observed. Unfortunately, until now there has been no definitive and effective treatment for patients with COVID-19. Although Tocilizumab has been accepted by China Health Commission to treat infected patients, its positive effects still cannot be predicted in all patients. Based on evidence of the Tocilizumab's effect on the SARS COV 2, researchers hope this drug will make effective and promising treatment to improve lung tissue inflammation in patients with the fatal COVID-19 virus. The present study provides an overview of respiratory inflammation with COVID-19 and probable effect of Tocilizumab on SARS-COV 2.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Receptors, Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/adverse effects , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/pharmacology , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Interleukin-6/physiology
9.
F1000Res ; 92020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-830721

ABSTRACT

Biochemically, interleukin-6 belongs to the class of four-helical cytokines. The cytokine can be synthesised and secreted by many cells. It acts via a cell surface-expressed interleukin-6 receptor, which is not signalling competent. This receptor, when complexed with interleukin-6, associates with the signalling receptor glycoprotein 130 kDa (gp130), which becomes dimerised and initiates intracellular signalling via the Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription and rat sarcoma proto oncogene/mitogen-activated protein kinase/phosphoinositide-3 kinase pathways. Physiologically, interleukin-6 is involved in the regulation of haematopoiesis and the coordination of the innate and acquired immune systems. Additionally, interleukin-6 plays an important role in the regulation of metabolism, in neural development and survival, and in the development and maintenance of various cancers. Although interleukin-6 is mostly regarded as a pro-inflammatory cytokine, there are numerous examples of protective and regenerative functions of this cytokine. This review will explain the molecular mechanisms of the, in part opposing, activities of the cytokine interleukin-6.


Subject(s)
Cytokine Receptor gp130/physiology , Interleukin-6/physiology , Receptors, Interleukin-6/physiology , Signal Transduction , Humans , Neoplasms
10.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 16(9): e1008238, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-808078

ABSTRACT

During these days of global emergency for the COVID-19 disease outbreak, there is an urgency to share reliable information able to help worldwide life scientists to get better insights and make sense of the large amount of data currently available. In this study we used the results presented in [1] to perform two different Systems Biology analyses on the HCoV-host interactome. In the first one, we reconstructed the interactome of the HCoV-host proteins, integrating it with highly reliable miRNA and drug interactions information. We then added the IL-6 gene, identified in recent publications [2] as heavily involved in the COVID-19 progression and, interestingly, we identified several interactions with the reconstructed interactome. In the second analysis, we performed a Gene Ontology and a Pathways enrichment analysis on the full set of the HCoV-host interactome proteins and on the ones belonging to a significantly dense cluster of interacting proteins identified in the first analysis. Results of the two analyses provide a compact but comprehensive glance on some of the current state-of-the-art regulations, GO, and pathways involved in the HCoV-host interactome, and that could support all scientists currently focusing on SARS-CoV-2 research.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Gene Ontology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Interleukin-6/physiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Betacoronavirus/genetics , COVID-19 , Genes, Viral , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Proteins/genetics , Viral Proteins/physiology
11.
Ann Endocrinol (Paris) ; 81(5): 507-510, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-778380

ABSTRACT

The World Health Organization (WHO) declared the COVID-19 epidemic to be a global pandemic in March 2020. COVID-19 is an infection caused by SARS-CoV-2, a coronavirus that utilizes the angiotensin-2 converting enzyme to penetrate thyroid and pituitary cells, and may result in a "cytokine storm". Based on the pathophysiological involvement of the pituitary-thyroid axis, the current review discusses the diagnosis of abnormal thyroid function test, and the management of patients presenting with thyrotoxicosis, thyroid-associated orbitopathy and hypothyroidism in the context of SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Thyroid Diseases/etiology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Apoptosis , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/physiopathology , Disease Susceptibility , Graves Ophthalmopathy/complications , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Hypothyroidism/blood , Hypothyroidism/etiology , Hypothyroidism/physiopathology , Interleukin-6/physiology , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/analysis , Pituitary Gland/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Receptors, Virus/analysis , SARS-CoV-2 , Thyroid Diseases/blood , Thyroid Diseases/physiopathology , Thyroid Gland/chemistry , Thyroid Gland/pathology , Thyroid Gland/physiopathology , Thyroid Hormones/blood , Thyrotoxicosis/blood , Thyrotoxicosis/etiology , Thyrotoxicosis/physiopathology , Thyrotropin/blood
12.
ACS Chem Neurosci ; 11(17): 2774-2781, 2020 09 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-713083

ABSTRACT

The rapid recovery of smell and taste functions in COVID-19 patients could be attributed to a decrease in interleukin-6 levels rather than central nervous system ischemic injury or viral damage to neuronal cells. To correlate interleukin-6 levels in COVID-19 patients with olfactory or gustatory dysfunctions and to investigate the role of IL-6 in the onset of these disorders, this observational study investigated 67 COVID-19 patients with taste or smell disorders or both, who did not require intensive care admission, admitted at COVID Hospital of Policlinico of Bari from March to May 2020. Interleukin-6 was assayed in COVID-19 patients with taste or smell disturbances at the time of admission and at the time of swab negativization. At the same time, patients have been given a specific survey to evaluate the severity of taste and smell disturbances. Of 125 patients with smell or taste dysfunctions at onset of disease, 67 fulfilled the inclusion criteria, while 58 were excluded because 35 of them required intensive care admission, 5 were unable to answer, 5 died, 7 had finished chemotherapy recently, and 5 refused to participate. The evaluation of taste and smell disorders was carried out using a survey performed at the time of admission and at the time of swab negativization. Sinonasal outcome test 22 (SNOT-22) was used as a reference for olfactory function assessment, and Taste and Smell Questionnaire Section of the US NHANES 2011-2014 protocol (CDC 2013b) was used as reference for gustatory function assessment. A venous blood sample was taken for each patient to measure IL-6 levels upon entry and at swab negativization. Interleukin-6 levels in COVID-19 patients in relation to olfactory or gustatory disorders were correlated from the time of their admission to the time of swab negativization. Statistically significant correlations were obtained between the decrease of interleukin-6 levels and the improvement of smell (p value < 0.05) and taste (p = 0.047) functions at swab negativization. The acquired results demonstrate the key role of interleukin-6 in the pathogenesis of chemosensitive disorders in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Interleukin-6/blood , Olfaction Disorders/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Taste Disorders/blood , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Female , Health Surveys/methods , Humans , Interleukin-6/physiology , Male , Middle Aged , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Taste/physiology , Taste Disorders/diagnosis , Taste Disorders/etiology
14.
In Vivo ; 34(3 Suppl): 1589-1592, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-544470

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is viral respiratory infection with frequently fatal lung complications in the elderly or in people with serious comorbidities. Lung destruction appears to be associated with a cytokine storm related to an increased level of interleukin-6 (IL6). Therapeutic targeting of the interleukin-6 signaling pathway can attenuate such a cytokine storm and can be beneficial for patients with COVID-19 in danger of pulmonary failure. This article demonstrates the importance of IL6 in progression of disease and the possibility of inhibition of IL6 signaling in COVID-19 therapy.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Interleukin-6/physiology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Clinical Trials as Topic , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Cytokine Receptor gp130/antagonists & inhibitors , Cytokine Receptor gp130/physiology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/physiopathology , Humans , Immunotherapy , Indoles/therapeutic use , Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , Lung/pathology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Receptors, Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , Receptors, Interleukin-6/physiology , Receptors, Virus/drug effects , Signal Transduction
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