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1.
Nutrients ; 14(2)2022 Jan 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1613925

ABSTRACT

Despite the ongoing vaccination efforts, there is still an urgent need for safe and effective treatments to help curb the debilitating effects of COVID-19 disease. This systematic review aimed to investigate the efficacy of supplemental curcumin treatment on clinical outcomes and inflammation-related biomarker profiles in COVID-19 patients. We searched PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, EMBASE, ProQuest, and Ovid databases up to 30 June 2021 to find studies that assessed the effects of curcumin-related compounds in mild to severe COVID-19 patients. Six studies were identified which showed that curcumin supplementation led to a significant decrease in common symptoms, duration of hospitalization and deaths. In addition, all of these studies showed that the intervention led to amelioration of cytokine storm effects thought to be a driving force in severe COVID-19 cases. This was seen as a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in proinflammatory cytokines such as IL1ß and IL6, with a concomitant significant (p < 0.05) increase in anti-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-10, IL-35 and TGF-α. Taken together, these findings suggested that curcumin exerts its beneficial effects through at least partial restoration of pro-inflammatory/anti-inflammatory balance. In conclusion, curcumin supplementation may offer an efficacious and safe option for improving COVID-19 disease outcomes. We highlight the point that future clinical studies of COVID-19 disease should employ larger cohorts of patients in different clinical settings with standardized preparations of curcumin-related compounds.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Curcumin/administration & dosage , Dietary Supplements , Hospitalization , Phytotherapy/methods , Curcumin/pharmacology , Cytokines/metabolism , Female , Humans , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Interleukin-10/metabolism , Interleukin-1beta/metabolism , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Interleukins/metabolism , Male , Patient Acuity , Transforming Growth Factor alpha/metabolism , Treatment Outcome
2.
Biosci Rep ; 41(3)2021 03 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1392910

ABSTRACT

Experimental experience suggests that microbial agents including probiotics and prebiotics (representative microbial agents) play a critical role in defending against respiratory virus infection. We aim to systematically examine these agents' effect on respiratory viral infection and encourage research into clinical applications. An electronic literature search was conducted from published data with a combination of a microbial agents search component containing synonyms for microbial agents-related terms and a customized search component for respiratory virus infection. Hazard ratio (HR), risk ratio (RR) and standard deviation (SD) were employed as effect estimates. In 45 preclinical studies, the mortality rates decreased in the respiratory viral infection models that included prebiotics or prebiotics as interventions (HR: 0.70; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.56-0.87; P=0.002). There was a significant decrease in viral load due to improved gut microbiota (SD: -1.22; 95% CI: -1.50 to -0.94; P<0.001). Concentrations of interferon (IFN)-α (SD: 1.05; 95% CI: 0.33-1.77; P=0.004), IFN-γ (SD: 0.83; 95% CI: 0.01-1.65; P=0.05) and interleukin (IL)-12 (SD: 2.42; 95% CI: 0.32-4.52; P=0.02), IL-1ß (SD: 0.01; 95% CI: -0.37 to 0.40; P=0.94) increased, whereas those of TNF-α (SD: -0.58; 95% CI: -1.59 to 0.43; P=0.26) and IL-6 (SD: -0.59; 95% CI: -1.24 to 0.07; P=0.08) decreased. Six clinical studies had lower symptom scores (SD: -0.09; 95% CI: -0.44 to 0.26; P=0.61) and less incidence of infection (RR: 0.80; 95% CI: 0.64-1.01; P=0.06). Our research indicates that probiotics and prebiotics pose a defensive possibility on respiratory viral infection and may encourage the clinical application.


Subject(s)
Common Cold/microbiology , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/microbiology , Pneumonia, Viral/microbiology , Prebiotics/administration & dosage , Probiotics/therapeutic use , Animals , Common Cold/therapy , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Humans , Interferons/metabolism , Interleukins/metabolism , Mice , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy
3.
Front Immunol ; 12: 672523, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389182

ABSTRACT

Lower respiratory infections are among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. These potentially deadly infections are further exacerbated due to the growing incidence of antimicrobial resistance. To combat these infections there is a need to better understand immune mechanisms that promote microbial clearance. This need in the context of lung infections has been further heightened with the emergence of SARS-CoV-2. Group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3s) are a recently discovered tissue resident innate immune cell found at mucosal sites that respond rapidly in the event of an infection. ILC3s have clear roles in regulating mucosal immunity and tissue homeostasis in the intestine, though the immunological functions in lungs remain unclear. It has been demonstrated in both viral and bacterial pneumonia that stimulated ILC3s secrete the cytokines IL-17 and IL-22 to promote both microbial clearance as well as tissue repair. In this review, we will evaluate regulation of ILC3s during inflammation and discuss recent studies that examine ILC3 function in the context of both bacterial and viral pulmonary infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Immunity, Mucosal/immunology , Lymphocytes/immunology , Pneumonia, Bacterial/immunology , Respiratory Mucosa/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Bacteria/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/pathology , Immunity, Innate/immunology , Inflammation/immunology , Interleukin-17/metabolism , Interleukins/metabolism , Lung/immunology , Lymphocyte Activation/immunology , Respiratory Mucosa/cytology
4.
J Med Microbiol ; 70(7)2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1327426

ABSTRACT

Introduction. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a highly contagious disease and ravages the world.Hypothesis/Gap Statement. We proposed that R. crenulata might have potential value in the treatment of COVID-19 patients by regulating the immune response and inhibiting cytokine storm.Aim. We aimed to explore the potential molecular mechanism for Rhodiola crenulata (R. crenulata), against the immune regulation of COVID-19, and to provide a referenced candidate Tibetan herb (R. crenulata) to overcome COVID-19.Methodology. Components and targets of R. crenulata were retrieved from the TCMSP database. GO analysis and Kyoto Encyclopaedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment were built by R bioconductor package to explore the potential biological effects for targets of R. crenulata. The R. crenulata-compound-target network, target pathway network and protein-protein interaction (PPI) network were constructed using Cytoscape 3.3.0. Autodock 4.2 and Discovery Studio software were applied for molecular docking.Result. Four bioactive components (quercetin, kaempferol, kaempferol-3-O-α-l-rhamnoside and tamarixetin) and 159 potential targets of R. crenulata were identified from the TCMSP database. The result of GO annotation and KEGG-pathway-enrichment analyses showed that target genes of R. crenulata were associated with inflammatory response and immune-related signalling pathways, especially IL-17 signalling pathway, and TNF signalling pathway. Targets-pathway network and PPI network showed that IL-6, IL-1B and TNF-α were considered to be hub genes. Molecular docking showed that core compound (quercetin) had a certain affinity with IL-1ß, IL-6 and TNF-α.Conclusion. R. crenulata might play an anti-inflammatory and immunoregulatory role in the cytokine storm of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Rhodiola/chemistry , COVID-19/metabolism , Humans , Inflammation/drug therapy , Inflammation/metabolism , Interleukins/metabolism , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/methods , Molecular Docking Simulation/methods , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Tibet
5.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 631, 2021 05 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1283664

ABSTRACT

IL22 is an important cytokine involved in the intestinal defense mechanisms against microbiome. By using ileum-derived organoids, we show that the expression of anti-microbial peptides (AMPs) and anti-viral peptides (AVPs) can be induced by IL22. In addition, we identified a bacterial and a viral route, both leading to IL22 production by T cells, but via different pathways. Bacterial products, such as LPS, induce enterocyte-secreted SAA1, which triggers the secretion of IL6 in fibroblasts, and subsequently IL22 in T cells. This IL22 induction can then be enhanced by macrophage-derived TNFα in two ways: by enhancing the responsiveness of T cells to IL6 and by increasing the expression of IL6 by fibroblasts. Viral infections of intestinal cells induce IFNß1 and subsequently IL7. IFNß1 can induce the expression of IL6 in fibroblasts and the combined activity of IL6 and IL7 can then induce IL22 expression in T cells. We also show that IL22 reduces the expression of viral entry receptors (e.g. ACE2, TMPRSS2, DPP4, CD46 and TNFRSF14), increases the expression of anti-viral proteins (e.g. RSAD2, AOS, ISG20 and Mx1) and, consequently, reduces the viral infection of neighboring cells. Overall, our data indicates that IL22 contributes to the innate responses against both bacteria and viruses.


Subject(s)
Interleukins/biosynthesis , Interleukins/metabolism , Animals , Anti-Bacterial Agents/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Cell Culture Techniques , Cytokines/immunology , Cytokines/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Enterocytes/immunology , Enterocytes/metabolism , Female , Fibroblasts/immunology , Fibroblasts/metabolism , Interleukins/immunology , Intestinal Mucosa/metabolism , Intestines/physiology , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Myeloid Cells/immunology , Myeloid Cells/metabolism , Organoids/metabolism , Pore Forming Cytotoxic Proteins/genetics , Pore Forming Cytotoxic Proteins/metabolism
6.
Cell Rep ; 35(13): 109320, 2021 06 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275189

ABSTRACT

Memory B cells seem to be more durable than antibodies and thus crucial for the long-term immunity against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Here we investigate SARS-CoV-2 spike-specific memory B cells and their dependence on CD4+ T cell help in different settings of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Compared with severely ill individuals, those who recovered from mild COVID-19 develop fewer but functionally superior spike-specific memory B cells. Generation and affinity maturation of these cells is best associated with IL-21+CD4+ T cells in recovered individuals and CD40L+CD4+ T cells in severely ill individuals. The increased activation and exhaustion of memory B cells observed during COVID-19 correlates with CD4+ T cell functions. Intriguingly, CD4+ T cells recognizing membrane protein show a stronger association with spike-specific memory B cells than those recognizing spike or nucleocapsid proteins. Overall, we identify CD4+ T cell subsets associated with the generation of B cell memory during SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
B-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , CD40 Ligand/immunology , CD40 Ligand/metabolism , Cross Reactions , Humans , Immunologic Memory , Interleukins/immunology , Interleukins/metabolism
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1264471

ABSTRACT

Interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) comprise different fibrotic lung disorders characterized by cellular proliferation, interstitial inflammation, and fibrosis. The JAK/STAT molecular pathway is activated under the interaction of a broad number of profibrotic/pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-6, IL-11, and IL-13, among others, which are increased in different ILDs. Similarly, several growth factors over-expressed in ILDs, such as platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), transforming growth factor ß1 (TGF-ß1), and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) activate JAK/STAT by canonical or non-canonical pathways, which indicates a predominant role of JAK/STAT in ILDs. Between the different JAK/STAT isoforms, it appears that JAK2/STAT3 are predominant, initiating cellular changes observed in ILDs. This review analyzes the expression and distribution of different JAK/STAT isoforms in ILDs lung tissue and different cell types related to ILDs, such as lung fibroblasts and alveolar epithelial type II cells and analyzes JAK/STAT activation. The effect of JAK/STAT phosphorylation on cellular fibrotic processes, such as proliferation, senescence, autophagy, endoplasmic reticulum stress, or epithelial/fibroblast to mesenchymal transition will be described. The small molecules directed to inhibit JAK/STAT activation were assayed in vitro and in in vivo models of pulmonary fibrosis, and different JAK inhibitors are currently approved for myeloproliferative disorders. Recent evidence indicates that JAK inhibitors or monoclonal antibodies directed to block IL-6 are used as compassionate use to attenuate the excessive inflammation and lung fibrosis related to SARS-CoV-2 virus. These altogether indicate that JAK/STAT pathway is an attractive target to be proven in future clinical trials of lung fibrotic disorders.


Subject(s)
Janus Kinases/metabolism , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/pathology , STAT Transcription Factors/metabolism , Cellular Senescence , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress , Humans , Interleukins/metabolism , Janus Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors , Janus Kinases/genetics , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/drug therapy , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/metabolism , Protein Isoforms/genetics , Protein Isoforms/metabolism , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/chemistry , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/metabolism , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , STAT Transcription Factors/antagonists & inhibitors , STAT Transcription Factors/genetics , Signal Transduction
8.
Inflamm Res ; 70(8): 877-889, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1258183

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, known as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) causes cytokine release syndrome (CRS), leading to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), acute kidney and cardiac injury, liver dysfunction, and multiorgan failure. Although several studies have discussed the role of 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) in viral infections, such as influenzae and SARS, it remains unexplored in the pathophysiology of COVID-19. 5-LOX acts on free arachidonic acid (AA) to form proinflammatory leukotrienes (LTs). Of note, numerous cells involved with COVID-19 (e.g., inflammatory and smooth muscle cells, platelets, and vascular endothelium) widely express leukotriene receptors. Moreover, 5-LOX metabolites induce the release of cytokines (e.g., tumour necrosis factor-α [TNF-α], interleukin-1α [IL-1α], and interleukin-1ß [IL-1ß]) and express tissue factor on cell membranes and activate plasmin. Since macrophages, monocytes, neutrophils, and eosinophils can express lipoxygenases, activation of 5-LOX and the subsequent release of LTs may contribute to the severity of COVID-19. This review sheds light on the potential implications of 5-LOX in SARS-CoV-2-mediated infection and the anticipated therapeutic role of 5-LOX inhibitors.


Subject(s)
Arachidonate 5-Lipoxygenase/metabolism , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/enzymology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Interleukins/metabolism , Lipoxygenase Inhibitors/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Arachidonic Acid/metabolism , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Cytokines/metabolism , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Humans , Inflammation , Leukotrienes/metabolism , Treatment Outcome , Virus Diseases/drug therapy
10.
Molecules ; 25(11)2020 Jun 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-981163

ABSTRACT

Flavonoids are widely used as phytomedicines. Here, we report on flavonoid phytomedicines with potential for development into prophylactics or therapeutics against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). These flavonoid-based phytomedicines include: caflanone, Equivir, hesperetin, myricetin, and Linebacker. Our in silico studies show that these flavonoid-based molecules can bind with high affinity to the spike protein, helicase, and protease sites on the ACE2 receptor used by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 to infect cells and cause COVID-19. Meanwhile, in vitro studies show potential of caflanone to inhibit virus entry factors including, ABL-2, cathepsin L, cytokines (IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-8, Mip-1α, TNF-α), and PI4Kiiiß as well as AXL-2, which facilitates mother-to-fetus transmission of coronavirus. The potential for the use of smart drug delivery technologies like nanoparticle drones loaded with these phytomedicines to overcome bioavailability limitations and improve therapeutic efficacy are discussed.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus OC43, Human/drug effects , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/chemistry , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Betacoronavirus/chemistry , Betacoronavirus/growth & development , Binding Sites , COVID-19 , Chloroquine/chemistry , Chloroquine/pharmacology , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Coronavirus OC43, Human/chemistry , Coronavirus OC43, Human/growth & development , Drug Carriers/administration & dosage , Drug Carriers/chemistry , Flavonoids/chemistry , Humans , Interleukins/antagonists & inhibitors , Interleukins/chemistry , Interleukins/genetics , Interleukins/metabolism , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/drug effects , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/virology , Lung/drug effects , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Mice , Molecular Docking Simulation , Nanoparticles/administration & dosage , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Phytotherapy/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/genetics , Primary Cell Culture , Protein Binding , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases/chemistry , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases/genetics , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/antagonists & inhibitors , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Thermodynamics , Virus Internalization/drug effects
12.
FASEB J ; 34(8): 10505-10515, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-602184

ABSTRACT

Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) plays an important role in inflammation, which is attributable at least, in part, to the conversion of the pro-inflammatory angiotensin (Ang) II peptide into angiotensin 1-7 (Ang 1-7), a peptide which opposes the actions of AngII. ACE2 and AngII are present in many tissues but information on the cornea is lacking. We observed that mice deficient in the Ace2 gene (Ace2-/- ), developed a cloudy cornea phenotype as they aged. Haze occupied the central cornea, accompanied by corneal edema and neovascularization. In severe cases with marked chronic inflammation, a cell-fate switch from a transparent corneal epithelium to a keratinized, stratified squamous, psoriasiform-like epidermis was observed. The stroma contained a large number of CD11c, CD68, and CD3 positive cells. Corneal epithelial debridement experiments in young ACE2-deficient mice showed normal appearing corneas, devoid of haze. We hypothesized, however, that these mice are "primed" for a corneal inflammatory response, which once initiated, would persist. In vitro studies reveal that interleukins (IL-1a, IL-1b), chemokines (CCL2, CXCL8), and TNF-α, are all significantly elevated, resulting in a cytokine storm-like phenotype. This phenotype could be partially rescued by treatment with the AngII type 1 receptor (AT1R) antagonist, losartan, suggesting that the observed effect was mediated by AngII acting on its main receptor. Since the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) utilizes human ACE2 as the receptor for entry with subsequent downregulation of ACE2, corneal inflammation in Ace2-/- mice may have a similar mechanism with that in COVID-19 patients. Thus the Ace2-/- cornea, because of easy accessibility, may provide an attractive model to explore the molecular mechanisms, immunological changes, and treatment modalities in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Cornea/pathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/physiopathology , Disease Models, Animal , Angiotensin II/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19 , Cells, Cultured , Chemokines/metabolism , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Humans , Interleukins/metabolism , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Knockout , SARS-CoV-2 , THP-1 Cells , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism
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