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2.
Lancet ; 398(10308): 1317-1343, 2021 10 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1433921

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The rapid spread of COVID-19 renewed the focus on how health systems across the globe are financed, especially during public health emergencies. Development assistance is an important source of health financing in many low-income countries, yet little is known about how much of this funding was disbursed for COVID-19. We aimed to put development assistance for health for COVID-19 in the context of broader trends in global health financing, and to estimate total health spending from 1995 to 2050 and development assistance for COVID-19 in 2020. METHODS: We estimated domestic health spending and development assistance for health to generate total health-sector spending estimates for 204 countries and territories. We leveraged data from the WHO Global Health Expenditure Database to produce estimates of domestic health spending. To generate estimates for development assistance for health, we relied on project-level disbursement data from the major international development agencies' online databases and annual financial statements and reports for information on income sources. To adjust our estimates for 2020 to include disbursements related to COVID-19, we extracted project data on commitments and disbursements from a broader set of databases (because not all of the data sources used to estimate the historical series extend to 2020), including the UN Office of Humanitarian Assistance Financial Tracking Service and the International Aid Transparency Initiative. We reported all the historic and future spending estimates in inflation-adjusted 2020 US$, 2020 US$ per capita, purchasing-power parity-adjusted US$ per capita, and as a proportion of gross domestic product. We used various models to generate future health spending to 2050. FINDINGS: In 2019, health spending globally reached $8·8 trillion (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 8·7-8·8) or $1132 (1119-1143) per person. Spending on health varied within and across income groups and geographical regions. Of this total, $40·4 billion (0·5%, 95% UI 0·5-0·5) was development assistance for health provided to low-income and middle-income countries, which made up 24·6% (UI 24·0-25·1) of total spending in low-income countries. We estimate that $54·8 billion in development assistance for health was disbursed in 2020. Of this, $13·7 billion was targeted toward the COVID-19 health response. $12·3 billion was newly committed and $1·4 billion was repurposed from existing health projects. $3·1 billion (22·4%) of the funds focused on country-level coordination and $2·4 billion (17·9%) was for supply chain and logistics. Only $714·4 million (7·7%) of COVID-19 development assistance for health went to Latin America, despite this region reporting 34·3% of total recorded COVID-19 deaths in low-income or middle-income countries in 2020. Spending on health is expected to rise to $1519 (1448-1591) per person in 2050, although spending across countries is expected to remain varied. INTERPRETATION: Global health spending is expected to continue to grow, but remain unequally distributed between countries. We estimate that development organisations substantially increased the amount of development assistance for health provided in 2020. Continued efforts are needed to raise sufficient resources to mitigate the pandemic for the most vulnerable, and to help curtail the pandemic for all. FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Developing Countries/economics , Economic Development , Healthcare Financing , International Agencies/economics , COVID-19/economics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Financing, Government/economics , Financing, Government/organization & administration , Global Health/economics , Government Programs/economics , Government Programs/organization & administration , Government Programs/statistics & numerical data , Government Programs/trends , Gross Domestic Product , Health Expenditures/statistics & numerical data , Health Expenditures/trends , Humans , International Agencies/organization & administration , International Cooperation
5.
Support Care Cancer ; 29(4): 1713-1718, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1043511

ABSTRACT

This paper chronicles the third decade of MASCC from 2010. There was a generational change in this decade, building on the solid foundation of the founders. It included the first female President, and a new Executive Director with a background in strategy and business development and operations as applied to healthcare. The headquarters moved from Copenhagen to Toronto. The first meeting to be held outside of Europe or North America was held in Adelaide, Australia, and the membership in the Asia Pacific region expanded. A program of international affiliates saw national supportive care organisations formally link with MASCC. In cancer supportive care, there was a raft of new toxicities to manage as immunotherapies were added to conventional cytotoxic treatment. There was also a greater emphasis on the psychosocial needs of patients and families. New MASCC groups were formed to respond to this evolution in cancer management. The MASCC journal, Supportive Care in Cancer, continued to grow in impact, and MASCC published two editions of a textbook of supportive care and survivorship. The decade ended with the challenge of the COVID-19 pandemic, but that served to highlight the importance of good supportive care to patients with cancer.


Subject(s)
Neoplasms/therapy , Palliative Care/history , Palliative Care/trends , Societies, Medical/history , COVID-19/epidemiology , Congresses as Topic/history , Congresses as Topic/trends , Governing Board/history , Governing Board/trends , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , Humans , International Agencies/history , International Agencies/organization & administration , International Agencies/standards , International Agencies/trends , International Cooperation/history , Neoplasms/history , Palliative Care/organization & administration , Pandemics , Publications/history , Publications/trends , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Societies, Medical/organization & administration , Societies, Medical/standards , Societies, Medical/trends
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