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1.
Thromb Res ; 217: 52-56, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1937244

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Patients taking warfarin require frequent international normalized ratio (INR) monitoring in healthcare settings, putting them at increased risk of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) exposure during the pandemic. Thus, strategies to limit in-person visits to healthcare facilities were recommended by the Anticoagulation Forum. The objective of this study was to describe the number and types of changes made to anticoagulation therapy as a result of pharmacist intervention during the COVID-19 pandemic. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective chart review of patients included in a primary care COVID-19 anticoagulation intervention was conducted. During this intervention, pharmacists provided individualized recommendations for anticoagulation changes in patients taking warfarin to limit their healthcare facility exposure while also maintaining safe anticoagulation management practices. RESULTS: As a result of pharmacist intervention, 83 (55.7 %) of the 149 patients included in the intervention had changes in anticoagulation including: switching to a direct oral anticoagulant (n = 12), extending the INR monitoring interval (n = 48), switching to home INR monitoring (n = 21), or stopping anticoagulation (n = 2). For those patients who were taking warfarin for the entire 6 months pre- and post-intervention, the total number of healthcare facility and laboratory visits with an INR completed decreased from 8.8 to 6.4 (p < 0.001) per patient without a statistically significant decrease in time in therapeutic range (p = 0.76). CONCLUSIONS: This study depicts rapid implementation of a population health-based approach to assess all patients taking warfarin for options to minimize healthcare visits and decrease risk for COVID-19 exposure. Methods to reduce healthcare visit burden while maintaining patient safety should be considered as a regular component of anticoagulation management post-pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Warfarin , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Drug Monitoring/methods , Humans , International Normalized Ratio/methods , Pandemics , Pharmacists , Retrospective Studies , Warfarin/adverse effects
2.
Thromb Haemost ; 122(4): 471-474, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1915319
3.
Thromb Res ; 215: 14-18, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1821499

ABSTRACT

Anticoagulation with Vitamin K antagonists (VKA) has always posed challenges in terms of monitoring requirements. These challenges were further exacerbated in the setting of the COVID-19 pandemic, with limited access to and/or avoidance of laboratory testing. The importance of utilizing point of care (POC) health technology for individualized patient management is salient. The foundation of effective home INR monitoring is establishing patient knowledge about their therapy and INR testing proficiency. The eKITE series was developed to support patients in establishing foundational knowledge required for VKA (warfarin) management and INR monitoring. The primary objectives were to evaluate eKITE, a patient-oriented innovative online education program for warfarin therapy, participant learning stress, and patient preference for online learning. This multi-center prospective study provided patients access to warfarin online education. Participants were required to complete written quizzes assessing warfarin knowledge of key concepts proficiency and identifying knowledge deficits. Patient preference, evaluating calm (lack of anxiety) while learning, and an INR on a home meter was completed. Participants performed INR tests at home and reported INRs by telephone. The analysis included 144 children and caregivers enrolled at five US and CDN sites. Most indications for anticoagulation were cardiac (congenital or acquired heart disease) with varied INR target ranges. Mean knowledge scores for warfarin and INR self-testing modules were 97%, with low anxiety with TTR of 84%. Patient preferred online learning. eKITE is an effective teaching modality for warfarin/home INR monitoring with safe INR testing and warfarin management that is appropriate for pediatrics and adults alike. PROLOGUE: The whir in the hallways is deafening. Lights bright, alarms are ringing in a chorus of unsynchronized beeps and screeches. It has been more than a week since I have slept. Snuggled beside me is my precious child, whining and equally irritated with the asynchronous symphony, further compounded by anxiety, procedures, and pain. The sun has broken. The staff smiles are welcoming and incessant, as one after one, they approach hurried, urgent, assiduous, their need to coach me for our upcoming departure to the warmth of home. Each provides essential information that I will require to keep my child, my treasure, safe and healthy. Yet, my eyes are heavy, blurred, and my brain foggy, trapped in a dark heavy cloud. How am I to follow? Comprehend? and retain anything? As they instruct, my precious child yearns for loving arms, compassion and love, whining, crying in disquiet. Overwhelmed does not adequately describe my ineffable exhaustion. Amidst this, how am I to learn about warfarin? Such a challenging medication, with so much to know. Concentrate, I tell myself, focus; now is my only opportunity to learn. I must be alert. It seems to be nonsensical.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Education, Distance , Adult , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Child , Fibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , International Normalized Ratio/methods , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Warfarin/therapeutic use
4.
Thromb Haemost ; 122(3): 377-385, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1730367

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In January 2021, the Dutch vaccination program against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was started. Clinical studies have shown that systemic reactions occur in up to 50% of vaccine recipients. Therefore, COVID-19 vaccination could affect anticoagulation control, potentially leading to an increased risk of thrombotic events and bleeding complications. AIMS: This article investigates whether the BNT162b2 vaccine affects anticoagulation control in outpatients using vitamin K antagonists (VKAs). METHODS: A case-crossover study was performed in a cohort of outpatient VKA users from four Dutch anticoagulation clinics who received a BNT162b2 vaccine. International normalized ratio (INR) results and VKA dosages before the first vaccination, the reference period, were compared with those after the first and second vaccination. RESULTS: A total of 3,148 outpatient VKA users were included, with a mean age (standard deviation) of 86.7 (8.7) years, of whom 43.8% were male, 67.0% used acenocoumarol, and 33.0% phenprocoumon. We observed a decrease of 8.9% of INRs within range in the standard intensity group (target INR 2.0-3.0). There was both an increased risk of supratherapeutic (odds ratio [OR] = 1.34 [95% confidence interval [CI] 1.08-1.67]) and subtherapeutic levels (OR = 1.40 [95% CI 1.08-1.83]) after first vaccination. In the high-intensity group (target INR 2.5-3.5), the risk of a supratherapeutic INR was 2.3 times higher after first vaccination (OR = 2.29 [95% CI 1.22-4.28]) and 3.3 times higher after second vaccination (OR = 3.25 [95% CI 1.06-9.97]). CONCLUSION: BNT162b2 was associated with an immediate negative effect on anticoagulation control in patients treated with VKAs, so it is advisable to monitor the INR shortly after vaccination, even in stable patients.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Blood Coagulation/drug effects , Vaccination/adverse effects , Vitamin K/antagonists & inhibitors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Ambulatory Care , Drug Monitoring , Female , Humans , International Normalized Ratio , Male , Netherlands , Predictive Value of Tests , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
5.
Br J Nurs ; 31(3): 142-146, 2022 Feb 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1687504

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Anticoagulation clinics faced an unprecedented challenge during the COVID-19 pandemic to safely manage patients on warfarin therapy. METHODS: A London teaching hospital trust received INR point-of-care (POC) testing devices from its clinical commissioning group. The Trust distributed the devices to patients who were cognitively and physically able to self-test and evaluated clinical outcomes and patient experience. FINDINGS: A significant improvement in warfarin control (mean time in therapeutic range (TTR) before POC 52%, standard deviation (SD) 24.8, vs mean after 60.7%, SD 19.7; P>0.009) and a 39% reduction in missed appointments were seen in self-testing patients. Positive patient satisfaction and lifestyle outcomes were identified through a telephone survey. A minority of patients struggled with the technique, leading to frustration. Some patients used many test strips through unsuccessful and additional tests. CONCLUSION: POC testing in a carefully selected group of patients on warfarin therapy resulted in positive clinical and patient satisfaction outcomes. Appropriate governance processes are needed, and clinical expertise is required to support patients. Cost-effectiveness of POC testing needs careful monitoring.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Warfarin , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Humans , International Normalized Ratio , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Self-Testing , Warfarin/adverse effects
6.
Int J Clin Pract ; 2022: 8436248, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662356

ABSTRACT

Aims: In this study, we aim to unravel the relationship between coagulation parameters together with D-dimer and the severity of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) during hospitalization as well as hospitalization in the intensive care unit (ICU). Methods: This retrospective study was conducted in the Emergency Department (ED) of Pamukkale University Hospital (Denizli, Turkey) between March 1 and April 30, 2020. SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests and laboratory tests, including international normalized ratio (INR), prothrombin time (PT), D-dimer, and activated thromboplastin time (APTT), were requested from 289 people presenting to the ED with symptoms of upper respiratory tract infection (URTI), such as cough, fever, and sore throat. Results: While 110 patients turned out to be polymerase chain reaction (PCR) positive, 181 individuals were PCR negative. The mean D-dimer level of the patient group was 147 ng/ml DDU (min: 9, max: 2948), and their mean PT level was found as 12.8 seconds (min: 10.3, max: 34.7). Besides, the mean APTT was 31.25 seconds (min: 19, max: 46.9), and the mean INR level was calculated as 1.09 (min: 0.88, max: 2.93). 35 of the patients were not hospitalized, while 43 were admitted to the Infectious Diseases, 20 to the Chest Diseases, and 12 to the ICU. Conclusions: It can be concluded from our findings that D-dimer, PT, and INR levels remained elevated in the COVID-19-diagnosed patients, but these parameters were unable to discriminate accurately between the patients with positive and negative SARS-CoV-2 results. Our findings also suggest that coagulation parameters might occupy a critical role in documenting clinical severity in patients with COVID-19 infection and requiring hospitalization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Blood Coagulation Tests , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , International Normalized Ratio , Retrospective Studies
7.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 54(1): 20-28, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1653674

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to explore the effectiveness, and safety of internet-based warfarin management during the pandemic. In this single-center retrospective cohort study, we compared the safety and efficacy of online warfarin management using a smartphone app (the Alfalfa app) versus conventional outpatient clinic management from January 1, 2020 to March 31, 2020. Patients in the online management group used the Alfalfa app to communicate coagulation test results and other relevant information to a doctor or clinical pharmacist, who then responded with the dose adjustment plan and the date of the next blood test. The outcomes examined were the time in therapeutic range (TTR), incidence of clinical events (i.e., bleeding events, thrombotic events, warfarin-related emergency department visits, and warfarin-related hospital admissions), and the distribution of international normalized ratio (INR) values. Data from 117 patients were analyzed in this study. TTR was significantly higher in the online group than in the offline group (61.0% vs. 39.6%, P < 0.01). Incidence of major bleeding events, thrombotic events, and warfarin-related hospital admissions were comparable between the online and offline groups. However, minor bleeds (5.3% vs. 28.3%, P < 0.01) and warfarin-related emergency department visits (1.8% vs. 23.3%, P = 0.02) were significantly fewer in the online group than in the offline group. The proportion of INR values in the therapeutic range (53.8% vs. 40.1%, P < 0.01) was significantly higher in the online group. Warfarin management using the Alfalfa app appears to be a safe and effective method for warfarin management when patients cannot physically visit hospitals for follow-up.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mobile Applications , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Communicable Disease Control , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Hemorrhage/drug therapy , Humans , International Normalized Ratio/methods , Retrospective Studies , Warfarin/adverse effects
8.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 105: 108542, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1638183

ABSTRACT

It remains important to investigate the changing and impact of routine blood values (RBVs) in order to predict mortality and follow an appropriate treatment in COVID-19 patients. In the study, the importance of RBVs in the mortality of patients with COVID-19 was investigated. The changes in the biochemical, hematological, and immunological parameters of patients who recovered (n = 4364) and died (n = 233) from COVID-19 over time and their relationship with the mortality of the disease were evaluated retrospectively. Odds ratios of the parameters affecting one-month mortality were calculated by running multiple-logistic-regression analysis. The cut off values and diagnostic efficiencies of the parameters that posed a risk for mortality were obtained via receiver operating curve analysis. It was determined that the C-reactive protein (CRP), D-dimer, procalcitonin, erythrocyte-sedimentation-rate (ESR), troponin values were at abnormal levels until death occurred in the patients who died. In addition, the procalcitonin levels were consistently high in patients who died. The patients who died generally had a sustained increase in their leukocyte and neutrophil levels and biochemical variables, and an ongoing decrease in lymphopenia and eosinopenia levels. Although significant changes were observed in liver function tests, cardiac troponin, hemogram values, kidney function tests and parameters related to inflammation in deceased patients, high ESR, international-normalized-ratio (INR), prothrombin-time (PT), CRP, D-dimer, ferritin and red-cell-distribution width (RDW) values, respectively, were the most effective predictive mortality risk biomarkers of COVID-19. In addition, neutrophilia, leukocytosis, thrombocytopenia, erythrocytopenia were other risk predictors of mortality. Indicators was found in this study can be successfully used to predict mortality from COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Sedimentation , C-Reactive Protein , COVID-19/immunology , Erythrocyte Indices , Female , Ferritins , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products , Humans , International Normalized Ratio , Leukocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Procalcitonin , Retrospective Studies , Troponin
9.
Jt Comm J Qual Patient Saf ; 48(4): 214-221, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1636640

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, warfarin users were required to complete in-person training in order to participate in approved international normalized ratio (INR) patient self-testing (PST) programs. To minimize in-person contact during the pandemic, a federal waiver of the in-person training requirement allowed new patients to begin PST after completing virtual training. However, it was uncertain whether such patients achieved comparable levels of INR control to patients receiving in-person training. METHODS: INR results for patients receiving virtual training upon PST commencement between April 1, 2020, and December 31, 2020, were compared to those of patients initiating PST with in-person training between April 1, 2019, and December 31, 2019. The primary outcome was the difference in warfarin time in therapeutic range (TTR) between the groups, with secondary outcomes including differences in the percentages of INR values within individually prescribed INR range and of critical INR values. RESULTS: The records of 33,683 patients were included in the analysis (13,568 in the "In-Person" sample; 20,115 in the "Virtual" sample). Patients in the Virtual sample achieved a TTR of 66.78%, compared to the In-Person sample (64.19%; absolute difference 2.59; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.50-2.68, p < 0.001). The TTR values were also statistically significantly higher in all subgroups evaluated across categories of patient age, gender, geography, and indication. Similarly favorable results were achieved for INR values in range and critical values. CONCLUSION: Virtual education for PST for warfarin therapy is effective and should continue to be an option for patients and providers throughout the pandemic, and possibly beyond.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Warfarin , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Humans , International Normalized Ratio , Pandemics , Self-Testing , Warfarin/therapeutic use
10.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 53(3): 626-632, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1460438

ABSTRACT

Warfarin has been used as an anticoagulant by millions of patients due to its effectiveness, availability, and low cost. Evidence on the safe extension of international normalized ratio (INR) testing frequency remains an area of interest, especially during the recent COVID-19 pandemic. The purpose of this study is to safely extend INR testing intervals in patients throughout a multisite, system-wide anticoagulation clinic. Updates were made to the pharmacist's collaborative practice agreement (CPA) and nurse protocol to optimize practice and allow INR testing interval extension up to a maximum of 8-weeks. The primary outcome was the change in duration between INR tests (INR testing interval) measured before and after providing staff education on clinic updates. The mean duration between INR tests (SD) was 23.69 days (11.29) in the pre-intervention period and 25.58 days (13.91) in the post-intervention period. During the COVID-19 pandemic (post2), intervals were extended further to 27.81 days (14.96), demonstrating a statistically significant increase in INR testing interval from pre-intervention to post-intervention and to post2 (p < 0.001 and p < 0.001, respectively). A secondary outcome indicated the mean time in therapeutic range (SD) showed no significant difference in pre-intervention 70.11% (25.95) versus post-intervention of 69.76% (25.69) with a difference of - 0.35% (29.93) (p = 0.956) or versus the post2 of 68.82% (27.20) with a difference of - 1.29% (33.20) (p = 0.120). This study showed that changes to the CPA and protocol allowed for a significant increase in INR testing interval while simultaneously maintaining a mean time in therapeutic range > 60% for the clinic population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Warfarin , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , International Normalized Ratio , Pandemics , Warfarin/therapeutic use
11.
Adv Med Sci ; 66(2): 372-380, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1379020

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: D-dimer elevations, suggesting a pro-thrombotic state and coagulopathy, predict adverse outcomes in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, the clinical significance of other coagulation markers, particularly the international normalized ratio (INR), is not well established. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the INR in COVID-19. METHODS: A literature search was conducted in PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus, between January 2020 and February 2021, for studies reporting INR values, measures of COVID-19 severity, and mortality (PROSPERO registration number: CRD42021241468). RESULTS: Thirty-eight studies in 7440 COVID-19 patients with low disease severity or survivor status during follow up (50 â€‹% males, mean age 57 years) and 2331 with high severity or non-survivor status (60 â€‹% males, mean age 69 years) were identified. The INR was significantly prolonged in patients with severe disease or non-survivor status than in patients with mild disease or survivor status (standard mean difference, SMD, 0.60; 95 â€‹% confidence interval, CI 0.42 to 0.77; p â€‹< â€‹0.001). There was extreme between-study heterogeneity (I2 â€‹= â€‹90.2 â€‹%; p â€‹< â€‹0.001). Sensitivity analysis, performed by sequentially removing each study and re-assessing the pooled estimates, showed that the magnitude and direction of the effect size was not modified. The Begg's and Egger's t-tests did not show publication bias. In meta-regression, the SMD of the INR was significantly associated with C-reactive protein (p â€‹= â€‹0.048) and D-dimer (p â€‹= â€‹0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Prolonged INR values were significantly associated with COVID-19 severity and mortality. Both INR prolongation and D-dimer elevations can be useful in diagnosing COVID-19-associated coagulopathy and predicting clinical outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , International Normalized Ratio , Thrombophilia , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Humans , International Normalized Ratio/methods , International Normalized Ratio/statistics & numerical data , Mortality , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Thrombophilia/blood , Thrombophilia/diagnosis , Thrombophilia/etiology
12.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 875, 2021 Aug 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1371965

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Warfarin treatment requires frequent monitoring of INR (international normalized ratio) to adjust dosage in a therapeutic range. In China, patients living in small towns usually go to tertiary hospitals to get warfarin monitoring and dosing, resulting in low frequencies of follow-ups and high incidence of complications. Influenced by the COVID-19 pandemic, patients on warfarin have further reduced their visits to healthcare institutions. While patient self-testing (PST) via using a point-of-care testing device for INR measuring at home has been widely used in developed countries and demonstrated improved clinical outcomes compared to usual care in clinics, it is rarely applied in developing countries, including China. This proposed study will develop and assess the "Safe Multidisciplinary App-assisted Remote patient-self-Testing (SMART) model" for warfarin home management in China during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: This is a multi-center randomized controlled trial. We will carry out the study in three county hospitals, three small tertiary hospitals and three large tertiary hospitals with anticoagulation clinics in Hunan province of China. Eligible patients will be randomly assigned to the SMART model group (n = 360) or the control group (usual care clinic group, n = 360; anticoagulation clinic group, n = 120). Patients in the SMART model group do PST at home once every two to 4 weeks. Controls receive usual care in the clinics. All the patients will be followed up through outpatient clinics, phone call or online interviews at the 3rd, 6th, 9th and 12th month. The percentage of time in therapeutic range (TTR), incidence of warfarin associated major bleeding and thromboembolic events and costs will be compared between the SMART model group and control groups. DISCUSSION: Patients in the SMART model group would show improved TTR, lower incidence of complications and better quality of life compared to the control groups. Our design, implementation and usage of the SMART model will provide experience and evidence in developing a novel model for chronic disease management to solve the problem of healthcare service maldistribution, an issue particularly obvious in developing countries during the COVID-19 pandemic. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ChiCTR, ChiCTR 2000038984 . Registered 11 October, 2020.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mobile Applications , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Humans , International Normalized Ratio , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Pandemics/prevention & control , Quality of Life , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Self-Testing , Warfarin/adverse effects
13.
Kardiologiia ; 61(7): 55-59, 2021 Jul 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1359484

ABSTRACT

Aim    The aim of this study was to investigate the short-term effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on the management of warfarin therapy used for atrial fibrillation (AF) and prosthetic valve disease.Material and methods    The study included 139 Atrial fibrillation (AF) patients and 173 prosthetic valve patients (PVP) who were using warfarin. The time in therapeutic range (TTR), International Normalized Ratio (INR) averages, the numbers of INR tests, and the non-adherence to INR monitoring (NIM) were compared for the pre-covid period (PCP) and the COVID-19 period (CP). Also, adherence to warfarin therapy was evaluated with a questionnaire.Results    For all patients, the INR values were higher in the CP (2.47 vs 2.60, p<0.001), and the NIM percentage was higher (19.2 % vs 71.5 %, p<0.001) in the CP. The number of INR tests was lower during the CP (p<0.001).The percentage of patients with TTR≥70 % was lower during the CP (41.7 % vs 33 % p=0.017). Subgroup analysis showed that for PVP, TTR values and the percentage of patients with TTR ≥70 % were similar in both the PCP and CP periods. The questionnaire showed that for 94.1 % of respondents, the major cause of NIM in the CP was the COVID-19 pandemic. However, during the CP, adherence to warfarin medication was high (95.5 %).Conclusion    Lower TTR during the COVID-19 pandemic can increase bleeding and thromboembolic cases.Therefore, patients taking warfarin should be followed more closely, and more practical ways should be considered for INR testing.


Subject(s)
Atrial Fibrillation , COVID-19 , Stroke , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Atrial Fibrillation/complications , Atrial Fibrillation/drug therapy , Atrial Fibrillation/epidemiology , Humans , International Normalized Ratio , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome , Warfarin/adverse effects
15.
J Clin Pharm Ther ; 47(3): 407-410, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1334480

ABSTRACT

WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Favipiravir is a promising treatment candidate for managing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Warfarin has many drug interactions, but no interactions with favipiravir have been reported. CASE SUMMARY: Our patient was taking warfarin for deep vein thrombosis. The international normalized ratio (INR) was stable (1.65 to 2.0); however, it increased to 4.63 after administering favipiravir. The patient had no other factors justifying this change. WHAT IS NEW AND CONCLUSION: Favipiravir and warfarin might have previously unidentified drug interactions that elevated the INR. Therefore, INR must be closely monitored when they are concomitantly administered in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Warfarin , Amides , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Interactions , Humans , International Normalized Ratio , Pyrazines , Warfarin/therapeutic use
17.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0252939, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1278183

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coagulopathy and thromboembolic events are among the complications of Corona Virus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Abnormal coagulation parameters in COVID-19 patients are important prognostic factors of disease severity. The aim of this study was to analyze coagulation profiles of hospitalized COVID-19 patients in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. METHODS: This prospective cross-sectional study was conducted among 455 Covid-19 patients admitted at Millennium COVID-19 care and treatment center, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia from July 1- October 23, 2020. Prothrombin Time (PT), Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (APTT) and International normalized ratio (INR) were determined on HUMACLOT DUE PLUS® coagulation analyzer (Wiesbaden, Germany). In all statistical analysis of results, p<0.05 was defined as statistically significant. RESULT: A prolonged prothrombin time was found in 46.8% of study participants with COVID-19 and a prolonged prothrombin time and elevated INR in 53.3% of study subjects with severe and 51% of critically COVID patients. Thrombocytopenia was detected in 22.1% of COVID-19 patients. 50.5% and 51.3% of COVID-19 patients older than 55 years had thrombocytopenia and prolonged APTT respectively. CONCLUSION: In this study, prolonged prothrombin time and elevated INR were detected in more than 50% of severe and critical COVID-19 patients. Thrombocytopenia and prolonged APTT were dominant in COVID-19 patients older than 55 years. Thus, we recommend emphasis to be given for monitoring of platelet count, PT, APTT and INR in hospitalized and admitted COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Severity of Illness Index , Thrombocytopenia/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Child , Child, Preschool , Critical Illness , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ethiopia/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Humans , International Normalized Ratio , Middle Aged , Partial Thromboplastin Time , Platelet Count , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Prothrombin Time , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sex Factors , Thrombocytopenia/blood , Thrombocytopenia/diagnosis , Thrombocytopenia/etiology , Young Adult
18.
Clin Appl Thromb Hemost ; 27: 10760296211021495, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1277870

ABSTRACT

The treatment process of patients using warfarin is expected to be hindered during the COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore we investigated whether the time in therapeutic range (TTR) and bleeding complications were affected during the COVID-19 pandemic. 355 patients using warfarin were included between March 2019 to March 2021. Demographic parameters, INR (international normalized ratio), and bleeding rates were recorded retrospectively. The TTR value was calculated using Rosendaal's method. The mean age of the patients was 61 ± 12 years and 55% of them were female. The mean TTR value during the COVID-19 pandemic was lower than the pre-COVID-19 period (56 ± 21 vs 68 ± 21, P < 0.001). Among the patients, 41% had a lack of outpatient INR control. During the COVID-19 pandemic, 71 (20%) patients using VKA suffered bleeding. Among patients with bleeding, approximately 60% did not seek medical help and 6% of patients performed self-reduction of the VKA dose. During the COVID-19 pandemic, TTR values have decreased with the lack of monitoring. Furthermore, the majority of patients did not seek medical help even in case of bleeding.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/pharmacology , Bleeding Time , Blood Coagulation/drug effects , COVID-19/blood , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , International Normalized Ratio , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombophilia/blood , Warfarin/pharmacology , Aged , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Atrial Fibrillation/complications , Atrial Fibrillation/drug therapy , COVID-19/complications , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Female , Heart Valve Prosthesis/adverse effects , Hemorrhage/psychology , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Male , Medication Adherence , Middle Aged , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies , Self Medication , Thrombophilia/drug therapy , Thrombophilia/etiology , Warfarin/administration & dosage , Warfarin/adverse effects , Warfarin/therapeutic use
19.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 98: 107838, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1253060

ABSTRACT

Since February-2020, the world has been battling a tragic public-health crisis with the emergence and spread of 2019-nCoV. Due to the lack of information about the pathogenesis-specific treatment of Covid-19, early diagnosis and timely treatment are important. However, there is still a lack of information about routine-blood-parameteres (RBP) findings and effects in the disease process. Although the literature includes various interventions, existing studies need to be generalized and their reliability improved. In this study, the efficacy of routine blood values used in the diagnosis and prognosis of Covid-19 and independent biomarkers obtained from them were evaluated retrospectively in a large patient group. Low lymphocyte (LYM) and white-blood-cell (WBC), high CRP and Ferritin were effective in the diagnosis of the disease. The (d-CWL) = CRPWBC∗LYM and (d-CFL) = CRP∗FerritinLYM biomarkers derived from them were the most important risk factors in diagnosing the disease and were more successful than direct RBP values. High d-CWL and d-CFL values largely confirmed the Covid-19 diagnosis. The most effective RBP in the prognosis of the disease was CRP. (d-CIT) = CRP*INR*Troponin; (d-CT) = CRP*Troponin; (d-PPT) = PT*Troponin*Procalcitonin biomarkers were found to be more successful than direct RBP values and biomarkers used in previous studies in the prognosis of the disease. In this study, biomarkers derived from RBP were found to be more successful in both diagnosis and prognosis of Covid-19 than previously used direct RBP and biomarkers.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers/blood , Blood Platelets , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis , Lymphocytes , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Female , Ferritins/blood , Humans , International Normalized Ratio , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Platelet Count , Predictive Value of Tests , Procalcitonin/blood , Prognosis , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , Troponin/blood , Young Adult
20.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(8)2021 Apr 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1178411

ABSTRACT

Prothrombin time (PT) is a significant coagulation (hemostasis) biomarker used to diagnose several thromboembolic and hemorrhagic complications based on its direct correlation with the physiological blood clotting time. Among the entire set of PT dependents, candidates with cardiovascular ailments are the major set of the population requiring lifelong anticoagulation therapy and supervised PT administration. Additionally, the increasing incidence of COVID affected by complications in coagulation dynamics has been strikingly evident. Prolonged PT along with sepsis-induced coagulopathy (SIC score > 3) has been found to be very common in critical COVID or CAC-affected cases. Considering the growing significance of an efficient point-of-care PT assaying platform to counter the increasing fatalities associated with cardio-compromised and coagulation aberrations propping up from CAC cases, the following review discusses the evolution of lab-based PT to point of care (PoC) PT assays. Recent advances in the field of PoC PT devices utilizing optics, acoustics, and mechanical and electrochemical methods in microsensors to detect blood coagulation are further elaborated. Thus, the following review holistically aims to motivate the future PT assay designers/researchers by detailing the relevance of PT and associated protocols for cardio compromised and COVID affected along with the intricacies of previously engineered PoC PT diagnostics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Blood Coagulation Tests , Humans , International Normalized Ratio , Prothrombin Time , SARS-CoV-2
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