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2.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 10(1): 170, 2021 12 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1582005

ABSTRACT

A survey of hospitals on three continents was performed to assess their infection control preparedness and measures, and their infection rate in hospital health care workers during the COVID-19 pandemic. All surveyed hospitals used similar PPE but differences in preparedness, PPE shortages, and infection rates were reported.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Infection Control/methods , Personnel, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Hospitals , Humans , Internationality , Pandemics , Personal Protective Equipment , Surveys and Questionnaires
3.
Nutrients ; 14(1)2021 Dec 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580550

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 lockdown has had a significant impact on mental health. Patients with eating disorders (ED) have been particularly vulnerable. AIMS: (1) To explore changes in eating-related symptoms and general psychopathology during lockdown in patients with an ED from various European and Asian countries; and (2) to assess differences related to diagnostic ED subtypes, age, and geography. METHODS: The sample comprised 829 participants, diagnosed with an ED according to DSM-5 criteria from specialized ED units in Europe and Asia. Participants were assessed using the COVID-19 Isolation Scale (CIES). RESULTS: Patients with binge eating disorder (BED) experienced the highest impact on weight and ED symptoms in comparison with other ED subtypes during lockdown, whereas individuals with other specified feeding and eating disorders (OFSED) had greater deterioration in general psychological functioning than subjects with other ED subtypes. Finally, Asian and younger individuals appeared to be more resilient. CONCLUSIONS: The psychopathological changes in ED patients during the COVID-19 lockdown varied by cultural context and individual variation in age and ED diagnosis. Clinical services may need to target preventive measures and adapt therapeutic approaches for the most vulnerable patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Feeding and Eating Disorders/psychology , Quarantine/psychology , Social Isolation/psychology , Adolescent , Adult , Asia , Child , Europe , Female , Humans , Internationality , Longitudinal Studies , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
6.
Front Public Health ; 9: 790312, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574019

ABSTRACT

Empirical studies suggest that globalization (FDI and international trade) has been greatly affected by the COVID-19 and related anti-pandemic measures imposed by governments worldwide. This paper investigates the impact of globalization on intra-provincial income inequality in China and the data is based on the county level. The findings reveal that FDI is negatively associated with intra-provincial inequality, intra-provincial inequality increases as the primary industry sector (agriculture) declines. The result also finds that the increase in inequality stems not from the development in the tertiary or secondary industry sectors per se, but the unevenness in the distribution of these sectors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Internationality , China/epidemiology , Commerce , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(51)2021 12 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1569348

ABSTRACT

Simultaneously tracking the global impact of COVID-19 is challenging because of regional variation in resources and reporting. Leveraging self-reported survey outcomes via an existing international social media network has the potential to provide standardized data streams to support monitoring and decision-making worldwide, in real time, and with limited local resources. The University of Maryland Global COVID-19 Trends and Impact Survey (UMD-CTIS), in partnership with Facebook, has invited daily cross-sectional samples from the social media platform's active users to participate in the survey since its launch on April 23, 2020. We analyzed UMD-CTIS survey data through December 20, 2020, from 31,142,582 responses representing 114 countries/territories weighted for nonresponse and adjusted to basic demographics. We show consistent respondent demographics over time for many countries/territories. Machine Learning models trained on national and pooled global data verified known symptom indicators. COVID-like illness (CLI) signals were correlated with government benchmark data. Importantly, the best benchmarked UMD-CTIS signal uses a single survey item whereby respondents report on CLI in their local community. In regions with strained health infrastructure but active social media users, we show it is possible to define COVID-19 impact trajectories using a remote platform independent of local government resources. This syndromic surveillance public health tool is the largest global health survey to date and, with brief participant engagement, can provide meaningful, timely insights into the global COVID-19 pandemic at a local scale.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Public Health Surveillance/methods , Social Media , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Cross-Sectional Studies , Epidemiologic Methods , Humans , Internationality , Machine Learning , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data
9.
World Neurosurg ; 150: e790-e793, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1517507

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The global burden of neurosurgical disease is substantial, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Medical conferences are important in connecting those from LMICs to those from high-income countries for support and serve as an educational and networking tool. In this study, we sought to quantitatively assess the incorporation of global neurosurgery topics in international conferences related to the neurosurgical specialty. METHODS: A database of major international neurosurgical conferences, from the conference of a group of 9 major neurosurgical societies, that had global neurosurgery featured from 2015 to 2020 was created. We then did a retrospective analysis to study the characteristics of these conferences ranging from geographic location to number to different components of the conferences. RESULTS: There was an increase in the number of conferences with global neurosurgery since 2015. This, in addition to the occurrence of 3 wholly global neurosurgery-related conferences in recent years, is promising and suggests growth in the field. However, 52.6% of conferences took place in North American or European countries, the majority of which were high-income countries. Furthermore, a majority of the presence of global neurosurgery was in the form of individual talks (54.5%) as opposed to plenaries or sessions. CONCLUSIONS: The preponderance of conferences in North America and Europe can pose barriers for those from LMICs including travel time, expenses, and visa problems. As global neurosurgery becomes an increasing part of the global health movement, we hope that these barriers are addressed. Conferences may become an even stronger tool to promote equity in neurosurgical education and practice.


Subject(s)
Congresses as Topic/trends , Global Health/trends , Internationality , Neurosurgeons/trends , Neurosurgical Procedures/trends , Cohort Studies , Humans , Neurosurgical Procedures/methods , Retrospective Studies
11.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(21)2021 11 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512303

ABSTRACT

The world of work is changing dramatically due to continuous technological advancements and globalization (the so-called industry 4 [...].


Subject(s)
Occupational Health , Industry , Internationality
12.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0259594, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1504862

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic has affected the lives of many people, including medical students. The present study explored internet addiction and changes in sleep patterns among medical students during the pandemic and assessed the relationship between them. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in seven countries, the Dominican Republic, Egypt, Guyana, India, Mexico, Pakistan, and Sudan, using a convenience sampling technique, an online survey comprising demographic details, information regarding COVID-19, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and the Internet Addiction Test (IAT). RESULTS: In total, 2749 participants completed the questionnaire. Of the total, 67.6% scored above 30 in the IAT, suggesting the presence of an Internet addiction, and 73.5% scored equal and above 5 in the PSQI, suggesting poor sleep quality. Internet addiction was found to be significant predictors of poor sleep quality, causing 13.2% of the variance in poor sleep quality. Participants who reported COVID-19 related symptoms had disturbed sleep and higher internet addiction levels when compared with those who did not. Participants who reported a diagnosis of COVID-19 reported poor sleep quality. Those living with a COVID-19 diagnosed patient reported higher internet addiction and worse sleep quality compared with those who did not have any COVID-19 patients in their surroundings. CONCLUSION: The results of this study suggest that internet addiction and poor sleep quality are two issues that require addressing amongst medical students. Medical training institutions should do their best to minimize their negative impact, particularly during the current COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Internet Addiction Disorder/complications , Internet Addiction Disorder/epidemiology , Sleep Wake Disorders/complications , Sleep Wake Disorders/epidemiology , Sleep , Students, Medical , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Internationality , Language , Male , Pandemics , Research Design , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
13.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0259362, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1504217

ABSTRACT

We analyze whether and to what extent strategies employed by governments to fight the COVID-19 pandemic made a difference for GDP growth developments in 2020. Based on the strength and speed with which governments imposed non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) when confronted with waves of infections we distinguish between countries pursuing an elimination strategy and countries following a suppression / mitigation strategy. For a sample of 44 countries fixed effect panel regression results show that NPI changes conducted by elimination strategy countries had a less severe effect on GDP growth than NPI changes in suppression / mitigation strategy countries: strategy matters. However, this result is sensitive to the countries identified as "elimination countries" and to the sample composition. Moreover, we find that exogenous country characteristics drive the choice of strategy. At the same time our results show that countries successfully applying the elimination strategy achieved better health outcomes than their peers without having to accept lower growth.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Federal Government , Government , Humans , Internationality , Models, Economic , Pandemics , Physical Distancing , Public Policy , Quarantine , Regression Analysis , Risk , SARS-CoV-2
14.
J Dent Res ; 100(13): 1425-1426, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488334
15.
Int J Palliat Nurs ; 27(8): 410-416, 2021 Oct 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1481214

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Mutually respectful and long-term global partnerships are critical to increasing hospice and palliative care access as a key component of universal health coverage. The importance of sustained, transnational palliative care collaboration has become more urgent since the COVID-19 pandemic. AIM: To provide an overview of characteristics for successful global palliative nursing partnerships. METHOD: The authors highlight the need to adapt approaches to meet the challenges and demands of COVID-19 in both clinical and academic spaces. Exemplars of thriving global partnerships are provided, alongside palliative nursing considerations and strategies to advance and sustain them. CONCLUSION: The role of nursing to drive and enhance palliative care partnerships, especially with equitable input from low- and middle-income country stakeholders, must be leveraged to advance shared goals and reduce serious health-related suffering around the world.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Global Health , Hospice and Palliative Care Nursing/methods , Stakeholder Participation , Hospice and Palliative Care Nursing/trends , Humans , Internationality , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Glob Health Promot ; 28(3): 3-5, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480404
17.
J Pediatr ; 239: 59-66.e1, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1479657

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate changes in electronic screen-based media use in 3- to 7-year-old children across 6 countries as a result of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. STUDY DESIGN: Between April and July 2020, parents of 2516 children completed online survey measures reporting current ("now") and retrospective ("before the pandemic") screen-based media use for the purposes of entertainment, educational app use, and socializing with family and friends. Parents also reported family socioeconomic characteristics and impacts of the pandemic to their physical wellbeing (eg, whether a family member or friend had been diagnosed with COVID-19) and social disruption (eg, whether family experienced a loss of income or employment due to the pandemic). RESULTS: On average, children engaged with screens more than 50 minutes more during the pandemic than before. This was largely driven by increases in screen use for entertainment purposes (nearly 40 minutes) and for use of educational apps (over 20 minutes). There was no overall change in screen use for socializing with family and friends. Children from lower socioeconomic status households increased screen use both for entertainment and educational app use more so than did children from higher socioeconomic status households. CONCLUSIONS: The global pandemic caused by COVID-19 has increased overall electronic screen-based media use. As lives become increasingly digital by necessity, further research is needed to better understand positive and negative consequences of electronic screen-based media use.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Screen Time , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Internationality , Male , Time Factors
18.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Oct 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470938

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has led to an excess in community mortality across the globe. We review recent evidence on the clinical pathology of COVID-19, comorbidity factors, immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection, and factors influencing infection outcomes. The latter specifically includes diet and lifestyle factors during pandemic restrictions. We also cover the possibility of SARS-CoV-2 transmission through food products and the food chain, as well as virus persistence on different surfaces and in different environmental conditions, which were major public concerns during the initial days of the pandemic, but have since waned in public attention. We discuss useful measures to avoid the risk of SARS-CoV-2 spread through food, and approaches that may reduce the risk of contamination with the highly contagious virus. While hygienic protocols are required in food supply sectors, cleaning, disinfection, avoidance of cross-contamination across food categories, and foodstuffs at different stages of the manufacturing process are still particularly relevant because the virus persists at length on inert materials such as food packaging. Moreover, personal hygiene (frequent washing and disinfection), wearing gloves, and proper use of masks, clothes, and footwear dedicated to maintaining hygiene, provide on-site protections for food sector employees as well as supply chain intermediates and consumers. Finally, we emphasize the importance of following a healthy diet and maintaining a lifestyle that promotes physical well-being and supports healthy immune system function, especially when government movement restrictions ("lockdowns") are implemented.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Diet/methods , Internationality , Outcome Assessment, Health Care/methods , Outcome Assessment, Health Care/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/prevention & control , China , Europe , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
19.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0257840, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1456088

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic has initiated an upheaval in society and has been the cause of considerable stress during this period. Healthcare professionals have been on the front line during this health crisis, particularly paramedical staff. The aim of this study was to assess the high level of stress of healthcare workers during the first wave of the pandemic. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The COVISTRESS international study is a questionnaire disseminated online collecting demographic and stress-related data over the globe, during the pandemic. Stress levels were evaluated using non-calibrated visual analog scale, from 0 (no stress) to 100 (maximal stress). RESULTS: Among the 13,537 individuals from 44 countries who completed the survey from January to June 2020, we included 10,051 workers (including 1379 healthcare workers, 631 medical doctors and 748 paramedical staff). The stress levels during the first wave of the pandemic were 57.8 ± 33 in the whole cohort, 65.3 ± 29.1 in medical doctors, and 73.6 ± 27.7 in paramedical staff. Healthcare professionals and especially paramedical staff had the highest levels of stress (p < 0.001 vs non-healthcare workers). Across all occupational categories, women had systematically significantly higher levels of work-related stress than men (p < 0.001). There was a negative correlation between age and stress level (r = -0.098, p < 0.001). Healthcare professionals demonstrated an increased risk of very-high stress levels (>80) compared to other workers (OR = 2.13, 95% CI 1.87-2.41). Paramedical staff risk for very-high levels of stress was higher than doctors' (1.88, 1.50-2.34). The risk of high levels of stress also increased in women (1.83, 1.61-2.09; p < 0.001 vs. men) and in people aged <50 (1.45, 1.26-1.66; p < 0.001 vs. aged >50). CONCLUSIONS: The first wave of the pandemic was a major stressful event for healthcare workers, especially paramedical staff. Among individuals, women were the most at risk while age was a protective factor.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Personnel/psychology , Internationality , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult
20.
Glob Health Sci Pract ; 9(3): 682-689, 2021 Sep 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1449261

ABSTRACT

Lessons learned from one global health program can inform responses to challenges faced by other programs. One way to disseminate these lessons is through courses. However, such courses are often delivered by and taught to people based in high-income countries and thus may not present a truly global perspective. The Synthesis and Translation of Research and Innovations from Polio Eradication (STRIPE) is a consortium of 8 institutions in Afghanistan, Bangladesh, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, India, Indonesia, Nigeria, and the United States that seeks to carry out such a transfer of the lessons learned in polio eradication. This short report describes the collaborative process of developing content and curriculum for an international course, the learnings that emerged, the barriers we faced, and recommendations for future similar efforts. Various parts of our course were developed by teams of researchers from countries across South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. We held a series of regional in-person team meetings hosted in different countries to improve rapport and provide a chance to work together in person. The course content reflects the diversity of team members' knowledge in a variety of contexts. Challenges to this effort included team coordination (e.g., scheduling across time zones); hierarchies across and between countries; and the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. We recommend planning for these hierarchies ahead of time and ensuring significant in-person meeting time to make the most of international collaboration.


Subject(s)
Curriculum , Disease Eradication/methods , Global Health/education , Immunization Programs/methods , Internationality , Poliomyelitis/prevention & control , Afghanistan , Bangladesh , Democratic Republic of the Congo , Ethiopia , Humans , India , Indonesia , Nigeria , Poliomyelitis/drug therapy , United States
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