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2.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 8(7): e17216, 2020 07 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-656023

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recent advancements in wearable sensor technology have shown the feasibility of remote physical therapy at home. In particular, the current COVID-19 pandemic has revealed the need and opportunity of internet-based wearable technology in future health care systems. Previous research has shown the feasibility of human activity recognition technologies for monitoring rehabilitation activities in home environments; however, few comprehensive studies ranging from development to clinical evaluation exist. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to (1) develop a home-based rehabilitation (HBR) system that can recognize and record the type and frequency of rehabilitation exercises conducted by the user using a smartwatch and smartphone app equipped with a machine learning (ML) algorithm and (2) evaluate the efficacy of the home-based rehabilitation system through a prospective comparative study with chronic stroke survivors. METHODS: The HBR system involves an off-the-shelf smartwatch, a smartphone, and custom-developed apps. A convolutional neural network was used to train the ML algorithm for detecting home exercises. To determine the most accurate way for detecting the type of home exercise, we compared accuracy results with the data sets of personal or total data and accelerometer, gyroscope, or accelerometer combined with gyroscope data. From March 2018 to February 2019, we conducted a clinical study with two groups of stroke survivors. In total, 17 and 6 participants were enrolled for statistical analysis in the HBR group and control group, respectively. To measure clinical outcomes, we performed the Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT), Fugl-Meyer Assessment of Upper Extremity, grip power test, Beck Depression Inventory, and range of motion (ROM) assessment of the shoulder joint at 0, 6, and 12 months, and at a follow-up assessment 6 weeks after retrieving the HBR system. RESULTS: The ML model created with personal data involving accelerometer combined with gyroscope data (5590/5601, 99.80%) was the most accurate compared with accelerometer (5496/5601, 98.13%) or gyroscope data (5381/5601, 96.07%). In the comparative study, the drop-out rates in the control and HBR groups were 40% (4/10) and 22% (5/22) at 12 weeks and 100% (10/10) and 45% (10/22) at 18 weeks, respectively. The HBR group (n=17) showed a significant improvement in the mean WMFT score (P=.02) and ROM of flexion (P=.004) and internal rotation (P=.001). The control group (n=6) showed a significant change only in shoulder internal rotation (P=.03). CONCLUSIONS: This study found that a home care system using a commercial smartwatch and ML model can facilitate participation in home training and improve the functional score of the WMFT and shoulder ROM of flexion and internal rotation in the treatment of patients with chronic stroke. This strategy can possibly be a cost-effective tool for the home care treatment of stroke survivors in the future. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical Research Information Service KCT0004818; https://tinyurl.com/y92w978t.


Subject(s)
Home Care Services , Internet , Stroke Rehabilitation/methods , Stroke/physiopathology , Telerehabilitation , Upper Extremity/physiopathology , Wearable Electronic Devices , Aged , Chronic Disease , Exercise Therapy/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Machine Learning , Middle Aged , Mobile Applications , Models, Theoretical , Prospective Studies , Survivors , Treatment Outcome
3.
Hum Genomics ; 14(1): 27, 2020 07 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-635422

ABSTRACT

The recent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused worldwide disruption which also extends to the arena of scientific meetings around the world. Here, we explore the lessons learned from moving two human genetics and genomics meetings quickly to an online format in early 2020. The tips presented herein may be useful not only for future virtual meetings but may also enrich future physical if not hybrid meetings once they resume.


Subject(s)
Congresses as Topic , Genomics , Human Genetics , Internet , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , International Cooperation , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology
4.
Ann Biol Clin (Paris) ; 78(4): 446-448, 2020 Aug 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-634852

ABSTRACT

Training and education are essential for medical students. During the COVID-19 outbreak, numerous schools and universities have had to close. Ensuring pedagogical continuity requires alternatives to the traditional classroom, especially in medical education. Usual distance learning tools such as videos and downloadable handouts are not sufficient to promote efficient teaching. Distance learning requires self-motivation and does not give you direct access to your instructor. Some students fear the loss of human contact with an instructor - like asking questions during and after class - which promotes learning, understanding and communication. Moreover, classical distance learning methods do not offer immediate feedback that can help students in their understanding of the lecture. In this context, interactive pedagogic tools (IPT) could be useful for medical education continuity and for maintaining human contact necessary in pedagogy. We briefly evaluated interactive pedagogic tool compared to traditionnal distancial tools on medical students. This study showed the importance to have direct contact with a teacher and feedback during a lecture and to not exclusively perform distance learning without direct interaction and feedback. Hence, in the present context, we encourage teacher to use this type of tools to maintain direct interaction with students - which is essential in pedagogy - and ensure a qualitative pedagogical continuity.


Subject(s)
Computer-Assisted Instruction/methods , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Education, Distance/methods , Education, Medical, Continuing/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Simulation Training , Software , Betacoronavirus , Clinical Laboratory Services/organization & administration , Computer-Assisted Instruction/standards , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Disease Outbreaks , Education, Distance/organization & administration , Education, Distance/standards , Education, Medical, Continuing/organization & administration , Humans , Internet/organization & administration , Internet/standards , Learning , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Problem-Based Learning/methods , Problem-Based Learning/organization & administration , Problem-Based Learning/standards , Simulation Training/methods , Simulation Training/organization & administration , Simulation Training/standards , Students, Medical/psychology , Students, Medical/statistics & numerical data , Video Recording/methods , Video Recording/standards
6.
BMC Med Res Methodol ; 20(1): 159, 2020 06 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-628826

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We aimed to assess the feasibility of using multiple technologies to recruit and conduct cognitive interviews among young people across the United States to test items measuring sexual and reproductive empowerment. We sought to understand whether these methods could achieve a diverse sample of participants. With more researchers turning to approaches that maintain social distancing in the context of COVID-19, it has become more pressing to refine these remote research methods. METHODS: We used several online sites to recruit for and conduct cognitive testing of survey items. To recruit potential participants we advertised the study on the free online bulletin board, Craigslist, and the free online social network, Reddit. Interested participants completed an online Qualtrics screening form. To maximize diversity, we purposefully selected individuals to invite for participation. We used the video meeting platform, Zoom, to conduct the cognitive interviews. The interviewer opened a document with the items to be tested, shared the screen with the participant, and gave them control of the mouse and keyboard. After the participant self-administered the survey, the interviewer asked about interpretation and comprehension. After completion of the interviews we sent participants a follow-up survey about their impressions of the research methods and technologies used. We describe the processes, the advantages and disadvantages, and offer recommendations for researchers. RESULTS: We recruited and interviewed 30 young people from a range of regions, gender identities, sexual orientations, ages, education, and experiences with sexual activity. These methods allowed us to recruit a purposefully selected diverse sample in terms of race/ethnicity and region. It also may have offered potential participants a feeling of safety and anonymity leading to greater participation from gay, lesbian, and transgender people who would not have agreed to participate in-person. Conducting the interviews using video chat may also have facilitated the inclusion of individuals who would not volunteer for in-person meetings. Disadvantages of video interviewing included participant challenges to finding a private space for the interview and problems with electronic devices. CONCLUSIONS: Online technologies can be used to achieve a diverse sample of research participants, contributing to research findings that better respond to young people's unique identities and situations.


Subject(s)
Cognition/physiology , Health Surveys/statistics & numerical data , Interviews as Topic/statistics & numerical data , Psychometrics/statistics & numerical data , Sexual Behavior/statistics & numerical data , Sexual and Gender Minorities/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Betacoronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Feasibility Studies , Female , Health Surveys/methods , Humans , Internet , Interviews as Topic/methods , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Psychometrics/methods , Reproducibility of Results , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
7.
Percept Mot Skills ; 127(5): 960-979, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-626367

ABSTRACT

As the Covid 19 crisis has revealed, the internet is a first-line tool for learning critical health-related information. However, internet searches are a complex and dynamic process that can be fraught with subtleties and potential error. The mechanics of searching for and using electronic health (eHealth) information is ostensibly cognitively demanding; yet we know little about the role of neurocognitive abilities in this regard. Fifty-six young adults completed two naturalistic eHealth search tasks: fact-finding (eHealth Fact) and symptom-diagnosis (eHealth Search). Participants also completed neurocognitive tests of attention, psychomotor speed, learning/memory, and executive functions. Shorter eHealth symptom-diagnosis search time was related to better executive functions, while better eHealth symptom-diagnosis search accuracy was related to better episodic and prospective memory. In contrast, neither eHealth Fact search time nor its accuracy were related to any of the neurocognitive measures. Our findings suggest a differential relationship between neurocognitive abilities and eHealth search behaviors among young adults such that higher-order abilities may be implicated in eHealth searches requiring greater synthesis of information. Future work should examine the cognitive architecture of eHealth search in persons with neurocognitive disorders, as well as that of other aspects of eHealth search behaviors (e.g., search term generation, website reliability, and decision-making).


Subject(s)
Aptitude , Attention , Cognition , Consumer Health Information , Executive Function , Information Seeking Behavior , Internet , Memory , Adolescent , Adult , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Decision Making , Female , Health Behavior , Health Literacy , Humans , Learning , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Psychomotor Performance , Telemedicine , Young Adult
8.
F1000Res ; 9: 570, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-769915

ABSTRACT

The 2019-2020 global pandemic has been caused by a disease called coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This disease has been caused by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). By April 30 2020, the World Health Organization reported 3,096,626 cases and 217,896 deaths, which implies an exponential growth for infection and deaths worldwide. Currently, there are various computer-based approaches that present COVID-19 data through different types of charts, which is very useful to recognise its behavior and trends. Nevertheless, such approaches do not allow for observation of any projection regarding confirmed cases and deaths, which would be useful to understand the trends of COVID-19. In this work, we have designed and developed an online dashboard that presents actual information about COVID-19. Furthermore, based on this information, we have designed a mathematical model in order to make projections about the evolution of cases and deaths worldwide and by country.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Data Analysis , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Software , Betacoronavirus , Humans , Internet , Models, Theoretical , Pandemics
9.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(8): e20673, 2020 08 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-769051

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although "infodemiological" methods have been used in research on coronavirus disease (COVID-19), an examination of the extent of infodemic moniker (misinformation) use on the internet remains limited. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper is to investigate internet search behaviors related to COVID-19 and examine the circulation of infodemic monikers through two platforms-Google and Instagram-during the current global pandemic. METHODS: We have defined infodemic moniker as a term, query, hashtag, or phrase that generates or feeds fake news, misinterpretations, or discriminatory phenomena. Using Google Trends and Instagram hashtags, we explored internet search activities and behaviors related to the COVID-19 pandemic from February 20, 2020, to May 6, 2020. We investigated the names used to identify the virus, health and risk perception, life during the lockdown, and information related to the adoption of COVID-19 infodemic monikers. We computed the average peak volume with a 95% CI for the monikers. RESULTS: The top six COVID-19-related terms searched in Google were "coronavirus," "corona," "COVID," "virus," "corona virus," and "COVID-19." Countries with a higher number of COVID-19 cases had a higher number of COVID-19 queries on Google. The monikers "coronavirus ozone," "coronavirus laboratory," "coronavirus 5G," "coronavirus conspiracy," and "coronavirus bill gates" were widely circulated on the internet. Searches on "tips and cures" for COVID-19 spiked in relation to the US president speculating about a "miracle cure" and suggesting an injection of disinfectant to treat the virus. Around two thirds (n=48,700,000, 66.1%) of Instagram users used the hashtags "COVID-19" and "coronavirus" to disperse virus-related information. CONCLUSIONS: Globally, there is a growing interest in COVID-19, and numerous infodemic monikers continue to circulate on the internet. Based on our findings, we hope to encourage mass media regulators and health organizers to be vigilant and diminish the use and circulation of these infodemic monikers to decrease the spread of misinformation.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Online Social Networking , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Search Engine , Web Browser , Communication , Humans , Internet , Mass Media
10.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem ; 28: e3361, 2020 Sep 07.
Article in English, Spanish, Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-750916

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: amidst the greatest health crisis in history triggered by COVID-19, this documental study was intended to understand the meanings individuals who have lost loved ones in this context assign to the phenomenon of suppressed funeral rituals. METHOD: based on the theory of grief, the corpus of this study was composed of documents published in digital media containing personal writings and reports of experiences freely and easily available to the public. Two researchers with expertise in the field used inductive thematic analysis to interpret data. RESULTS: the experiences shared in the reports reflect the suffering experienced by the sudden death of a significant person, which is amplified by the absence or impediment to performing familial farewell rituals. The suppression or abbreviation of funeral rituals is a traumatic experience because family members are prevented from fulfilling their last homage to the loved one who has suddenly passed away, causing feelings of disbelief and indignation. CONCLUSION: alternatives and new ways to celebrate passage rituals in emergencies of strong social commotion such as a pandemic are needed to provide support and comfort to family members, friends, and relatives. These rituals help survivors to overcome the critical moment, decreasing the risk of developing complicated grief.


Subject(s)
Bereavement , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Funeral Rites , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Betacoronavirus , Humans , Internet , Pandemics
13.
BMJ Open ; 10(8): e040448, 2020 08 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-739117

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of describing an antibody-positive test result using the terms Immunity and Passport or Certificate, alone or in combination, on perceived risk of becoming infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and protective behaviours. DESIGN: 2×3 experimental design. SETTING: Online. PARTICIPANTS: 1204 adults from a UK research panel. INTERVENTION: Participants were randomised to receive one of six descriptions of an antibody test and results showing SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, differing in the terms describing the type of test (Immunity vs Antibody) and the test result (Passport vs Certificate vs Test). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Primary outcome: proportion of participants perceiving no risk of infection with SARS-CoV-2 given an antibody-positive test result. Other outcomes include: intended changes to frequency of hand washing and physical distancing. RESULTS: When using the term Immunity (vs Antibody), 19.1% of participants (95% CI 16.1% to 22.5%) (vs 9.8% (95% CI 7.5% to 12.4%)) perceived no risk of catching coronavirus given an antibody-positive test result (adjusted OR (AOR): 2.91 (95% CI 1.52 to 5.55)). Using the terms Passport or Certificate-as opposed to Test-had no significant effect (AOR: 1.24 (95% CI 0.62 to 2.48) and AOR: 0.96 (95% CI 0.47 to 1.99) respectively). There was no significant interaction between the effects of the test and result terminology. Across groups, perceiving no risk of infection was associated with an intention to wash hands less frequently (AOR: 2.32 (95% CI 1.25 to 4.28)); there was no significant association with intended avoidance of physical contact (AOR: 1.37 (95% CI 0.93 to 2.03)). CONCLUSIONS: Using the term Immunity (vs Antibody) to describe antibody tests for SARS-CoV-2 increases the proportion of people believing that an antibody-positive result means they have no risk of catching coronavirus in the future, a perception that may be associated with less frequent hand washing. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: Open Science Framework: https://osf.io/tjwz8/files/.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral , Communication , Coronavirus Infections , Health Behavior , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Immunity , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus , Certification , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Disclosure , Female , Humans , Internet , Male , Odds Ratio , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Risk Assessment , United Kingdom
14.
Radiographics ; 40(5): 1309-1317, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-737819

ABSTRACT

The recent shutting down of in-person events owing to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has elevated the popularity of web-based conferencing. This development provides an opportunity for educators to test their teaching skills on what, for many, is a new platform. Many of the basic elements of what constitutes an effective presentation are the same regardless of whether they are delivered in person or online. However, there are advantages and disadvantages of each mode of presentation, and understanding how to best leverage the features of an online platform will lead to a better educational experience for the presenter and audience. The effectiveness of any presentation is dependent on the ability of the speaker to communicate with the audience. This is accomplished by including as much audience participation as possible. Many of the techniques used to encourage audience participation in person can be adapted for use in online presentations (eg, the use of features such as chat, hand raising, polling, and question-and-answer sessions). In any type of presentation, both the quality of the content and the oral delivery are important. The author reviews the common elements of an effective presentation and how they can be optimized for online platforms. ©RSNA, 2020.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Internet , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Radiology/methods , Videoconferencing , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Data Display , Guidelines as Topic , Humans , Marketing , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Radiology/trends , Speech , Videoconferencing/organization & administration , Videoconferencing/trends
16.
Front Med ; 14(4): 506-510, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-734860

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread rapidly around the world. As of May 30, 2020, a total of 84 568 confirmed COVID-19 cases have been recorded in China, with a mortality rate of approximately 5.5%. Taizhou is a prefecture-level city in Zhejiang Province. A total of 146 cases were diagnosed in this epidemic, with a fatality rate of 0%. This condition is due to the establishment of an "Internet +" diagnosis and treatment model based on online medical application (APP), telemedicine, WeChat service, and consultation hotline in Taizhou. Taizhou led in opening the "COVID-19 Prevention and Treatment Special Line" in China, which is conducive to pre-hospital screening, suppressing social panic, and clinical support. Hospitals also carried out related online lectures and popularization of science. We summarize Taizhou's COVID-19 prevention and control experience with telemedicine features, with a view to providing reference for the control of the epidemic at home and abroad.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Telemedicine/organization & administration , China , Humans , Internet
17.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0238340, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-732995

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Sri Lanka diagnosed its first local case of COVID-19 on 11 March 2020. The government acted swiftly to contain transmission, with extensive public health measures. At the end of 30 days, Sri Lanka had 197 cases, 54 recovered and 7 deaths; a staged relaxing of the lockdown is now underway. This paper proposes a theoretical basis for estimating the limits within which transmission should be constrained in order to ensure that the case load remains within the capacity of Sri Lanka's health system. METHODS: We used the Susceptible, Infected, Recovered (SIR) model to explore the number of new infections and estimate ICU bed requirement at different levels of R0 values after lifting lockdown restrictions. We developed a web-based application that enables visualization of cases and ICU bed requirements with time, with adjustable parameters that include: population at risk; number of identified and recovered cases; percentage identified; infectious period; R0 or doubling time; percentage critically ill; available ICU beds; duration of ICU stay; and uncertainty of projection. RESULTS: The three-day moving average of the caseload suggested two waves of transmission from Day 0 to 17 (R0 = 3.32, 95% CI 1.85-5.41) and from Day 18-30 (R = 1.25, 95%CI: 0.93-1.63). We estimate that if there are 156 active cases with 91 recovered at the time of lifting lockdown restrictions, and R increases to 1.5 (doubling time 19 days), under the standard parameters for Sri Lanka, the ICU bed capacity of 300 is likely to be saturated by about 100 days, signaled by 18 new infections (95% CI 15-22) on Day 14 after lifting lockdown restrictions. CONCLUSION: Our model suggests that to ensure that the case load remains within the available capacity of the health system after lifting lockdown restrictions, transmission should not exceed R = 1.5. This model and the web-based application may be useful in other low and middle income countries which have similar constraints on health resources.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Decision Making , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Betacoronavirus , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Humans , Internet , Models, Theoretical , Public Health , Software , Sri Lanka/epidemiology
18.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(8): e20073, 2020 08 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-729602

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization considers coronavirus disease (COVID-19) to be a public emergency threatening global health. During the crisis, the public's need for web-based information and communication is a subject of focus. Digital inequality research has shown that internet access is not evenly distributed among the general population. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to provide a timely understanding of how different people use the internet to meet their information and communication needs and the outcomes they gain from their internet use in relation to the COVID-19 pandemic. We also sought to reveal the extent to which gender, age, personality, health, literacy, education, economic and social resources, internet attitude, material access, internet access, and internet skills remain important factors in obtaining internet outcomes after people engage in the corresponding uses. METHODS: We used a web-based survey to draw upon a sample collected in the Netherlands. We obtained a dataset with 1733 respondents older than 18 years. RESULTS: Men are more likely to engage in COVID-19-related communication uses. Age is positively related to COVID-19-related information uses and negatively related to information and communication outcomes. Agreeableness is negatively related to both outcomes and to information uses. Neuroticism is positively related to both uses and to communication outcomes. Conscientiousness is not related to any of the uses or outcomes. Introversion is negatively related to communication outcomes. Finally, openness relates positively to all information uses and to both outcomes. Physical health has negative relationships with both outcomes. Health perception contributes positively to information uses and both outcomes. Traditional literacy has a positive relationship with information uses and both outcomes. Education has a positive relationship with information and communication uses. Economic and social resources played no roles. Internet attitude is positively related to information uses and outcomes but negatively related to communication uses and outcomes. Material access and internet access contributed to all uses and outcomes. Finally, several of the indicators and outcomes became insignificant after accounting for engagement in internet uses. CONCLUSIONS: Digital inequality is a major concern among national and international scholars and policy makers. This contribution aimed to provide a broader understanding in the case of a major health pandemic by using the ongoing COVID-19 crisis as a context for empirical work. Several groups of people were identified as vulnerable, such as older people, less educated people, and people with physical health problems, low literacy levels, or low levels of internet skills. Generally, people who are already relatively advantaged are more likely to use the information and communication opportunities provided by the internet to their benefit in a health pandemic, while less advantaged individuals are less likely to benefit. Therefore, the COVID-19 crisis is also enforcing existing inequalities.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus/pathogenicity , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Evaluation Studies as Topic , Female , Humans , Internet , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Treatment Outcome
19.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(8): e19104, 2020 08 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-727349

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Artificial intelligence (AI) and the Internet of Intelligent Things (IIoT) are promising technologies to prevent the concerningly rapid spread of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and to maximize safety during the pandemic. With the exponential increase in the number of COVID-19 patients, it is highly possible that physicians and health care workers will not be able to treat all cases. Thus, computer scientists can contribute to the fight against COVID-19 by introducing more intelligent solutions to achieve rapid control of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus that causes the disease. OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this review were to analyze the current literature, discuss the applicability of reported ideas for using AI to prevent and control COVID-19, and build a comprehensive view of how current systems may be useful in particular areas. This may be of great help to many health care administrators, computer scientists, and policy makers worldwide. METHODS: We conducted an electronic search of articles in the MEDLINE, Google Scholar, Embase, and Web of Knowledge databases to formulate a comprehensive review that summarizes different categories of the most recently reported AI-based approaches to prevent and control the spread of COVID-19. RESULTS: Our search identified the 10 most recent AI approaches that were suggested to provide the best solutions for maximizing safety and preventing the spread of COVID-19. These approaches included detection of suspected cases, large-scale screening, monitoring, interactions with experimental therapies, pneumonia screening, use of the IIoT for data and information gathering and integration, resource allocation, predictions, modeling and simulation, and robotics for medical quarantine. CONCLUSIONS: We found few or almost no studies regarding the use of AI to examine COVID-19 interactions with experimental therapies, the use of AI for resource allocation to COVID-19 patients, or the use of AI and the IIoT for COVID-19 data and information gathering/integration. Moreover, the adoption of other approaches, including use of AI for COVID-19 prediction, use of AI for COVID-19 modeling and simulation, and use of AI robotics for medical quarantine, should be further emphasized by researchers because these important approaches lack sufficient numbers of studies. Therefore, we recommend that computer scientists focus on these approaches, which are still not being adequately addressed.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Artificial Intelligence , Health Personnel , Humans , Internet , Risk Factors
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