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1.
Elife ; 112022 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2203162

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in a step change in the scale of sequencing data, with more genomes of SARS-CoV-2 having been sequenced than any other organism on earth. These sequences reveal key insights when represented as a phylogenetic tree, which captures the evolutionary history of the virus, and allows the identification of transmission events and the emergence of new variants. However, existing web-based tools for exploring phylogenies do not scale to the size of datasets now available for SARS-CoV-2. We have developed Taxonium, a new tool that uses WebGL to allow the exploration of trees with tens of millions of nodes in the browser for the first time. Taxonium links each node to associated metadata and supports mutation-annotated trees, which are able to capture all known genetic variation in a dataset. It can either be run entirely locally in the browser, from a server-based backend, or as a desktop application. We describe insights that analysing a tree of five million sequences can provide into SARS-CoV-2 evolution, and provide a tool at cov2tree.org for exploring a public tree of more than five million SARS-CoV-2 sequences. Taxonium can be applied to any tree, and is available at taxonium.org, with source code at github.com/theosanderson/taxonium.


Since 2020, the SARS-CoV-2 virus has infected billions of people and spread to 185 countries. The virus spreads by making new copies of its genome inside human cells and exploits the cells' machinery to synthesise viral proteins it needs to infect further cells. Each time the virus copies its genetic material there's a chance that the replication process introduces an error to the genetic sequence. Over time, these mutations accumulate which can give rise to new variants with different properties. These new variants, originating from a common ancestor, may spread faster or be able to evade immune systems that have learnt to recognise previous variants. To understand where new variants of SARS-CoV-2 come from and how related they are to each other, scientists build family trees called 'phylogenetic trees' based on similarities in the genetic sequences of different variants of the virus. Looking at these trees researchers can track how a variant spreads geographically, and also attempt to identify new worrying variants that might lead to a new wave of infections. The scale of the COVID-19 pandemic together with the global effort by clinicians and researchers to sequence SARS-CoV-2 genetic material means a library of over 13 million SARS-CoV-2 genomes now exists, making it the largest such collection for any organism. Although phylogenetic trees of viruses have been studied for a long time, exploring the SARS-CoV-2 library presents technical and practical challenges due to its sheer size. Sanderson has developed an open-source web tool called Taxonium that allows users to explore phylogenetic trees with millions of sequences. With help from collaborators at the University of California, Santa Cruz, Sanderson built a website called Cov2Tree, that uses the Taxonium platform to allow immediate access to an expansive tree of all publicly available SARS-CoV-2 sequences. Cov2Tree enables users to visualise all SARS-CoV-2 genomes in a birds-eye view akin to a 'Google Earth for virus sequences' where anyone can zoom in on a related family of viruses down to the level of individual sequences. This can be used to compare variants and follow geographic spread. Using Taxonium, scientists can explore how virus sequences are related to each other. They can also see the individual mutations that have occurred at each branch of the tree, and can search for sequences based on mutation, geographical location, or other factors. Interestingly, a trend appearing in the SARS-CoV-2 phylogenetic tree is the emergence of identical mutations at different branches of the tree without a common origin. These mutations may be a result of convergent evolution, a phenomenon that occurs when a mutation appears independently in different variants as it confers an advantage to the virus making such mutations more likely to persist. This means that scientists may be able to expect certain mutations to appear in more distantly related variants if they have appeared independently in several different variants already. Overall, Taxonium is an important tool for monitoring SARS-CoV-2 genomes, but it also has broader applications. The tool can be used to browse phylogenetic trees of other viruses and organisms. Furthermore, the Taxonium website offers a way to browse a tree of life, with images and links to Wikipedia. The SARS-CoV-2 library might be the largest now, but in the future even bigger datasets will likely be available, highlighting the importance of tools like Taxonium.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Internet
2.
BMC Neurol ; 22(1): 440, 2022 Nov 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2139186

ABSTRACT

The Greek Society of Migraine and Headache Patients (GSMHP), maintaining a strong commitment to research and information, conducted its second web-based online survey named "Migraine in Greece-2020", following its first one conducted in 2018. The 2020 study included 2,105 migraine patients who were called to answer 151 questions. The purposes of the current research were to record the demographic and clinical characteristics of migraine patients in Greece, including the severity and effects of migraine on respondents' quality of life, as well as to survey the effects of the coronavirus pandemic on the course of migraine. Our population, internet-based study provides data that will hopefully contribute to better comprehend the clinical phenotype and course of migraine during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Migraine Disorders , Humans , Pandemics , Greece/epidemiology , Quality of Life , Migraine Disorders/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Internet
3.
BMJ Open ; 12(11): e064716, 2022 Nov 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2137773

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To examine the prevalence and the associated factors of burnout among both healthcare workers (HCWs) and the general working population, which has not yet been unknown, using large-scale, nationwide data. DESIGN: Cross-sectional internet-based study. SETTING: Nationwide internet survey conducted between 8 and 26 February 2021 in Japan. PARTICIPANTS: Workers aged 20-64 years. We classified the workers as HCWs and the general working population. EXPOSURES: Demographic characteristics (age, sex and marital status), socioeconomic status (education, employment and income), health-related, work-related and industry-related factors (smoking, alcohol use, physical and psychiatric comorbidities, working hours, types of healthcare professionals, experience on the COVID-19 frontline and working industries). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Burnout defined as a score of ≥3 points on the Mini-Z Single-Item Burnout Scale. RESULTS: Of the included 12 650 workers, 1087 were HCWs. After inverse probability weighting on data from the 2016 Comprehensive Survey of Living Conditions, burnout in HCWs and the general working population was 33.5% (95% CI 29.2% to 38.0%) and 31.0% (95% CI 29.7% to 32.4%), respectively. In the weighted multivariable modified Poisson regression models, working 60 hours or more was associated with burnout in all workers (HCWs: prevalence ratio (PR) 2.52, 95% CI 1.68 to 3.76; general population: PR 1.26, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.48). Widowed/separated compared with married was associated with burnout only among HCWs (PR 1.69, 95% CI 1.16 to 2.47), whereas presence of physical or psychiatric comorbidities was associated with burnout among the general working population (PR 1.14, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.28; and PR 1.65, 95% CI 1.45 to 1.87, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Burnout was prevalent in both HCWs and the general working population in Japan. Both common and specific risk factors were observed. Our findings highlight the need for the general workplace policy and targeted interventions for burnout prevention.


Subject(s)
Burnout, Professional , COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Japan/epidemiology , Pandemics , Burnout, Professional/epidemiology , Burnout, Professional/etiology , Health Personnel/psychology , Internet
4.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(4): e27091, 2021 04 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141322

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Several studies have reported a low prevalence of current smoking among hospitalized COVID-19 cases; however, no definitive conclusions can be drawn. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association of tobacco smoke exposure with nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) test results for SARS-CoV-2 infection and disease severity accounting for possible confounders. METHODS: The nationwide, self-administered, cross-sectional web-based Italian National Epidemiological Survey on COVID-19 (EPICOVID19) was administered to an Italian population of 198,822 adult volunteers who filled in an online questionnaire between April 13 and June 2, 2020. For this study, we analyzed 6857 individuals with known NPS test results. The associations of smoking status and the dose-response relationship with a positive NPS test result and infection severity were calculated as odds ratios (ORs) with 95% CIs by means of logistic and multinomial regression models adjusting for sociodemographic, clinical, and behavioral characteristics. RESULTS: Out of the 6857 individuals (mean age 47.9 years, SD 14.1; 4516/6857, 65.9% female), 63.2% (4334/6857) had never smoked, 21.3% (1463/6857) were former smokers, and 15.5% (1060/6857) were current smokers. Compared to nonsmokers, current smokers were younger, were more educated, were less affected by chronic diseases, reported COVID-19-like symptoms less frequently, were less frequently hospitalized, and less frequently tested positive for COVID-19. In multivariate analysis, current smokers had almost half the odds of a positive NPS test result (OR 0.54, 95% CI 0.45-0.65) compared to nonsmokers. We also found a dose-dependent relationship with tobacco smoke: mild smokers (adjusted OR [aOR] 0.76, 95% CI 0.55-1.05), moderate smokers (aOR 0.56, 95% CI 0.42-0.73), and heavy smokers (aOR 0.38, 95% CI 0.27-0.53). This inverse association also persisted when considering the severity of the infection. Current smokers had a statistically significantly lower probability of having asymptomatic (aOR 0.50, 95% CI 0.27-0.92), mild (aOR 0.65, 95% CI 0.53-0.81), and severe infections (aOR 0.27, 95% CI 0.17-0.42) compared to those who never smoked. CONCLUSIONS: Current smoking was negatively associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection with a dose-dependent relationship. Ad hoc experimental studies are needed to elucidate the mechanisms underlying this association. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04471701; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04471701.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Smoking/epidemiology , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Internet , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Surveys and Questionnaires
5.
Acute Med ; 21(3): 124-125, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2146877

ABSTRACT

The screen time app on my iPhone tells me that I spend over ten hours a week on Twitter. And I'm not alone. As Netflix's The Social Dilemma illustrated, social media platforms are designed to keep us scrolling for hours, even if we only opened the app for a second. Thousands of UK healthcare workers use Twitter every day, discussing everything from cutting edge COVID treatments to staff room fridge etiquette. As strange as it sounds, this esoteric little corner of the internet - affectionately if unoriginally nicknamed "MedTwitter" - has become a thriving online community.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Medicine , Social Media , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Internet , Health Personnel
6.
Front Public Health ; 10: 1034450, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2142361

ABSTRACT

Background: Online health care services have been encouraged by the Chinese government in recent years, and the COVID-19 pandemic catalyzed the rapid growing of internet hospitals. As an integral part of online health care services, little is known about the economic value and characteristics of cloud pharmacy especially for children. This study aimed to reveal the economic value and comprehensive characteristics of pediatric cloud pharmacy during the COVID-19 pandemic in a tertiary children's hospital in western China. Methods: A total of 33,254 online prescriptions over the course of February 2020 through December 2021 were analyzed with respect to the user profiles, diseases, consulting behaviors, distribution of departments, delivery region and distance, drug information and degree of satisfaction. The cost savings for patients calculated lost wages and the high-speed railway fees for transport to and from hospital. Results: A total of 33,254 prescriptions, including 56,216 drugs were delivered to 27 provinces and municipalities of China. The internet cloud pharmacy saved a total of more than RMB 11.17 million in financial costs for patients. Of the 33,254 delivered prescriptions, 50.40% were sent to Chongqing Province, the top 5 provinces for out-of-province prescription deliveries were Sichuan (37.77%), Guizhou (8.00%), Yunnan (1.18%), Hubei (0.66%) and Guangdong (0.42%). In terms of department distribution, neurology (31.7%), respiratory (15.0%) and endocrinology (14.6%) were the top three departments. Epilepsy (16.2%), precocious puberty (10.3%) and asthma (8.7%) were the top three frequently consulted diseases. The peak times of day for online prescriptions occurred at 9 AM and 8 PM. 99.67% of users gave full marks for their internet counseling. Conclusion: The pediatric cloud pharmacy is efficient, cost-saving and convenient for children with chronic disease or mild symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic. The widespread use of this pediatric cloud pharmacy can help alleviating pressure on offline hospitals and facilitated people's lives beyond geographical and time-related limitations. Further efforts are needed to be made to improve the quality and acceptance of pediatric cloud pharmacy, as well as to regulate and standardize the management of this novel online health care service.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pharmacy , Humans , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , China/epidemiology , Hospitals , Internet
7.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 2140, 2022 11 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2139233

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: After emerging in China, the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) quickly spread to all parts of the country and became a global public health emergency. The Chinese government immediately took a series of protective and quarantine measures to prevent the spread of the virus, and these measures may have negative effects on behavior and psychological health. This study aimed to examine the associations between factors related to COVID-19 measures and mental health symptoms among Chinese college students in different pandemic areas. METHODS: An online survey was administered to 14,789 college students from February 4 to 12, 2020. After excluding the participants who did not complete the questionnaire, the quality of the questionnaire was checked. Finally, the sample included 11,787 college students from 16 cities and 21 universities in China. The areas included the city of Wuhan (Area 1), the neighboring province of Hubei (Area 2), first-tier cities (Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou [Area 3]), and other provinces (Area 4). RESULTS: The average age of the participants was 20.51 ± 1.88 years. One-third of the participants were men. In total, 25.9 and 17.8% reported depression and anxiety, respectively. We also explored COVID-19-related factors, such as infection risk, perceived resistance to COVID-19 (or susceptibility to COVID-19 infection), perceived physical symptoms, family or friends, direct or indirect contact with confirmed cases, and having sought psychological counseling, which were significantly associated with anxiety and depression symptoms. Higher screen time, lower physical activity, higher soda and tea beverages (also called sugar sweetened beverages intake), use of alternative medicines or food supplements (including Chinese herbal medicines and vitamins), and decreased meal frequency were all correlated with higher depression and anxiety symptoms (depression: χ2 = 25.57 and anxiety: χ2 = 39.42). Coping with COVID-19 partially mediated the associations between some related lifestyle behaviors, anxiety, and depression. The conditional process model analysis results supported our hypotheses that lifestyle health behaviors and coping style were both predictors of anxiety and depression symptoms, and their direct and indirect effects were moderated by sex. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with the city of Wuhan, other epidemic areas had a lower risk of mental health problems. Lifestyle health behaviors and coping styles alleviated mental health symptoms. COVID-19-related social stressors were positively associated with mental health symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Health , Male , Humans , Adolescent , Young Adult , Adult , Female , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , China/epidemiology , Students/psychology , Life Style , Internet
8.
Sci Justice ; 62(6): 778-784, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2132292

ABSTRACT

The move to online instruction forced many educators towards the task of producing recorded content, many for the first time. The result was that many instructors, usually those with limited or no remote-teaching experience, produced 60- to 90-minute audioonly lectures, recorded using Powerpoint or a conferencing platform, and posted them to a Learning Management System (LMS). Instructors more well-versed in online pedagogy or those who utilized instructional design best-practice training, produced video content more in-line with established research, which states that videos should be no longer than 6 to 15 min. Regardless of video length and quality, creating recorded content is time-consuming, resource-intensive, and arduous even for experienced educators. The alternative to self-created content is to mine the wealth of freely available forensic science videos, webinars, and web-based resources already posted to the internet. Prior to the move to remote instruction, some forensic educators integrated YouTube clips into lecture material. Post-pandemic, the quantity, and often quality, of online content has greatly increased. However, on-demand resources are spread widely across the internet. Whilst some repositories of material, such as webinars from individual organizations exist, other sources of content require more intentional searching. Identified content is meaningless unless integrated into a course or module's learning objectives. Instructors may need to shorten lengthy webinars or edit extraneous material in order to maintain educational best practice. Finally, once content is captured and posted to a course LMS, an instructor must set up an accountability structure to ensure students are viewing and digesting required material. The first half of this paper will outline the types and locations of free, on-demand online forensic materials and resources. As forensic science education looks to the future, the creation and use of web-based resources is likely to increase. The second half of this paper will address what to do once content is identified and how to effectively utilize it within the framework of remote instruction best-practice. Existing content can help the educator work smarter, not harder. The wealth of online forensic resources can help illustrate concepts and add variety to LMS-posted content, leading to a more enriching experience for the student.


Subject(s)
Internet , Humans
9.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277501, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2112668

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study aimed to develop and examine the effects of an internet-based intervention program on environmental perception and behavior among Korean pregnant women based on revised protection motivation theory. METHOD: This study was a non-equivalent control group pre-post-test design. The experimental program consisted of prenatal education, reduction of fine dust, birth education, environmental health promotion, and postnatal management education using zoom video conferences. The face-to-face interventions were provided through regular prenatal classes at public health services for the control group. The total participant was 49 pregnant women: 25 in the experimental group and 24 in the control group. The program adaptation was conducted between April 2021 and November 2021 in Korea. The data were analyzed by ANCOVA and t-test to examine the effects using SPSS 26.0 program. RESULTS: After intervention of the program, environmental severity (F = 17.96, p < .001), response efficacy (F = 15.69, p < .001), and total environmental perception (F = 7.80, p = .008) were higher in the experimental group than in the control group. There were no significant differences in feasibility, accessibility, satisfaction, susceptibility, self-efficacy, barrier, personal environmental behavior, and community environmental behavior between the two groups. CONCLUSION: The internet-based educational program can be the alternative for the face-to-face prenatal class to promote environmental health perceptions during pregnancy in the pandemic situations.


Subject(s)
Internet-Based Intervention , Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women/psychology , Republic of Korea , Environmental Health , Perception , Internet
10.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(22)2022 Nov 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2110095

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the impact of increased depressive feelings during the COVID-19 pandemic on the suicidal behavior of Korean high school students using the 17th Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey (KYRBS). We classified the independent variables into four groups ("no depressive mood and no increase in depressive feelings [group A]", "no depressive mood and increase in depressive feelings [group B]", "depressive mood and no increase in depressive feelings [group C]", and "depressive mood and increase in depressive feelings [group D]"). Compared to group A, group D showed an odds ratio of 18.30 in men and 14.87 in women for suicidal behavior after accounting for demographic and health behavioral characteristics. We found that depressive mood and a relatively short-term increase in depressive feelings had a synergistic effect, rather than an additive one, on suicidal behavior. Based on this result, we claim that an appropriate intervention method is necessary to prevent adolescents' depressive mood from developing into suicidal behavior during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Suicidal Ideation , Male , Humans , Adolescent , Female , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Risk-Taking , Internet
11.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 19640, 2022 Nov 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2117426

ABSTRACT

We conducted an internet survey to assess sociodemographic variables, lifestyle factors, sleep problems, and comorbidities for sleep apnea syndrome (SAS) in COVID-19 and influenza (FLU) infections. Data from 10,323 workers (50.0% male) were analyzed. COVID-19 was diagnosed in 144 subjects (COVID-19+), and 8,693 were classified as not suspected to be infected (COVID-19-). SAS had been diagnosed in 35.4% of the COVID-19+ subjects, but only 231 (2.7%) of the 8,693 COVID-19- subjects. COVID-19+ subjects were more susceptible to FLU (35.4%) compared to COVID-19- subjects (3.0%). A multivariate analysis revealed that higher risks of COVID-19+ were linked to the following factors: going out without a face mask (OR 7.05, 95% CI 4.53-11.00), FLU+ (OR 6.33, 95% CI 3.80-10.54), excessive exercise before going to sleep (OR 2.10, 95% CI 1.63-2.70), SAS+ (OR 5.08, 95% CI 2.88-8.94), younger age (OR 1.05, 95% CI 1.03-1.07), falling sleep while sitting or talking with someone (OR 3.70, 95% CI 2.30-5.95), and use of hypnotics (OR 2.28, 95% CI 1.20-4.30). Since sleep impairment played a relatively small role in COVID-19+/SAS- subjects, we assume that SAS itself was a more significant risk factor for COVID-19 infection rather than sleep impairment. A better understanding of the mechanisms that result in increased susceptibility to COVID-19 in SAS is vital for helping prevent COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Life Style , Sleep , Female , Humans , Male , COVID-19/epidemiology , Internet , Japan/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Sleep Apnea Syndromes/epidemiology
12.
Psychiatr Danub ; 33(4): 634-638, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100819

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To explore the effect of social work intervention on psychological intervention of medical workers after the epidemic under the mode of "internet plus Music Therapy". SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The observation objects in this study were all medical workers in fever clinic under the epidemic situation in COVID-19. A total of 60 cases were selected, and the proportion of anxiety and depression of medical workers in fever clinic was investigated by electronic questionnaire. After completing the investigation, social work intervention measures under the mode of "internet plus Music Therapy" were implemented. RESULTS: After implementation, the proportion of anxiety and depression of medical workers were significantly lower than those before intervention (P<0.05). The development of music therapy activities has alleviated the job anxiety of medical workers to a great extent, and the job anxiety test, total score and scores of various factors have all decreased. CONCLUSIONS: Social work intervention under the mode of "internet plus Music Therapy" can relieve anxiety and depression, and ensure the mental health of frontline medical staff during the epidemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Music Therapy , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/therapy , Humans , Internet , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Work
13.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(21)2022 Nov 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099556

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to assess the frequency and clinical correlates of users of an Internet drug forum who changed their alcohol use during the March-May 2020 COVID-19 lockdown in France. METHODS: An anonymous Internet-based cross-sectional survey during the COVID-19 lockdown was used via messages on a French Internet drug forum. Participants reported any increase in their alcohol consumption during the lockdown. Alcohol craving and depressive/anxiety symptoms were assessed using the Obsessive and Compulsive Drinking scale (OCDS) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale (HADS). RESULTS: Of 1310 respondents, 974 (79% of 1270) participants reported alcohol use before lockdown. During the lockdown, 405 participants (41.6%; IC95 (38.5-44.7)) reported an increase. Odds of an increase in alcohol consumption was higher for those with HADS scores higher than 7 (aOR: 2.19; p = 0.00002), OCDS scores greater than 7 (aOR: 3.50; p < 0.001), and daily psychostimulant use (aOR: 1.85; p = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: Users of an Internet drug forum who reported high levels of depressive symptoms, high levels of alcohol craving, and the use of psychostimulants were more likely to increase alcohol consumption during a COVID-19 lockdown.


Subject(s)
Alcoholism , COVID-19 , Humans , Alcoholism/epidemiology , Alcoholism/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Communicable Disease Control , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Internet
14.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(2): 266-272, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100757

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Occurrence of symptoms of fear and depression among general population during the outbreak of COVID-19 seems to present an emerging problem worldwide. The aim of this study was to examine levels of fear and depressive symptoms in association with COVID-19 outbreak and to assess other contributing factors in the population of Bosnia and Herzegovina. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Link to an anonymous questionnaire, mainly based on The Fear of COVID-19 Scale (Ahorsu et al. 2020) and two-item and nine-item Patient Health Questionnaires (PHQs) (Maurer et al. 2018) (background information, fear assessment and information regarding depression) was distributed online to general population of Bosnia and Herzegovina. RESULTS: Out of 1201 respondents, 217 (18.0%) reported experiencing fear and 341 (28.4%) reported having symptoms of depression during COVID-19 outbreak. The mean age of the subjects was 30.57±11.26. Being older (OR=1.044; 95% CI 1.031-1.057; p<0.001) and having moderate to severe depressive symptoms (OR=1.093; 95% CI 1.067-1.120; p<0.001) were independent significant predictors for developing fear; living in rural environment (OR=0.551; 95% Cl 0.325-0.935; p=0.0027) significantly decreased the risk of developing fear; being female (OR=1.750; 95% CI 1.242-2.466; p=0.001), unemployed (OR=1.557; 95% CI 1.040-2.330; p=0.032) or student (OR=1.943; 95% CI 1.450-2.604; p<0.001) were independent significant predictors for developing moderate to severe depressive symptoms in association with COVID-19. Mann Whitney U-test showed that being older was statistically associated with fear (p<0.001) and being younger was statistically associated with depressive symptoms (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, based on our findings, fear and depressive symptoms in general population of Bosnia and Herzegovina during the outbreak of COVID-19 were present in 18.06% (fear) and 28.39% (depression) of subjects and it was statistically associated with age, gender, occupation, living environment and may present a secondary uprising problem connected to outbreak of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Depression/epidemiology , Fear , Health Surveys , Internet , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Bosnia and Herzegovina/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics
15.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(1): 25-31, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100748

ABSTRACT

Deep emotional traumas in societies overwhelmed by large-scale human disasters, like, global pandemic diseases, natural disasters, man-made tragedies, war conflicts, social crises, etc., can cause massive stress-related disorders. Motivated by the ongoing global coronavirus pandemic, the article provides an overview of scientific evidence regarding adverse impact of diverse human disasters on mental health in afflicted groups and societies. Following this broader context, psychosocial impact of COVID-19 as a specific global human disaster is presented, with an emphasis on disturbing mental health aspects of the ongoing pandemic. Limited resources of mental health services in a number of countries around the world are illustrated, which will be further stretched by the forthcoming increase in demand for mental health services due to the global COVID-19 pandemic. Mental health challenges are particularly important for the Republic of Croatia in the current situation, due to disturbing stress of the 2020 Zagreb earthquake and the high pre-pandemic prevalence of chronic Homeland-War-related posttraumatic stress disorders. Comprehensive approach based on digital psychiatry is proposed to address the lack of access to psychiatric services, which includes artificial intelligence, telepsychiatry and an array of new technologies, like internet-based computer-aided mental health tools and services. These tools and means should be utilized as an important part of the whole package of measures to mitigate negative mental health effects of the global coronavirus pandemic. Our scientific and engineering experiences in the design and development of digital tools and means in mitigation of stress-related disorders and assessment of stress resilience are presented. Croatian initiative on enhancement of interdisciplinary research of psychiatrists, psychologists and computer scientists on the national and EU level is important in addressing pressing mental health concerns related to the ongoing pandemic and similar human disasters.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Disasters , Mental Health Services , Mental Health , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Psychiatry , Telemedicine , Artificial Intelligence , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Croatia , Humans , Internet , Pandemics , Psychiatry/trends , SARS-CoV-2 , Telemedicine/trends , User-Computer Interface
16.
Psicothema ; 34(4): 518-527, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2090821

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aim was to estimate the rate of PIU in Spanish university students during the lockdown, taking sex and age into account, and to analyze its relationship with depression and suicidal ideation. METHOD: 921 university students (55% women) from 18 to 30 years old (M = 24.8 years; SD = 3) participated. RESULTS: The results showed that 21% of the participants presented PIU, 25.1% moderate depression, 2.1% severe depression, and 6.6% suicidal ideation. The 18 to 21-year-old age group presented the highest rate of PIU (37.8%). A positive correlation was observed between PIU and depression (r = .38; p (241.813) = -8.21; < d = .78) in university students with PIU (M = 9.8; SD = 5.1) than those without it (M = 6.4; SD = 4.1). The rate of severe depression was six times greater (χ2 (3) = 73.25; p < .001) in undergraduates with PIU (6.2%) than those without PIU (0.8%). Moreover, 3.6% of university students with PIU presented suicidal ideation. CONCLUSIONS: These findings establish the association between PIU and depression and suicidal ideation in the university population, providing novel contributions for prevention policies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Suicidal Ideation , Humans , Female , Adolescent , Young Adult , Adult , Male , Universities , Internet Use , Communicable Disease Control , Students , Internet , Depression/epidemiology
17.
Asian J Psychiatr ; 78: 103308, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2085887

ABSTRACT

WHO recognized Dementia as public health priority and developed iSupport, a knowledge and skills training program for carers of people living with Dementia. This Mixed-Method study assessed the effectiveness of web-based training sessions among carers at old age homes in and around Puducherry, India, using WHO-iSupport for dementia hardcopy manual as a training tool. We registered the clinical trial protocol with Clinical Trial Registry-India (CTRI), CTRI/2020/11/029154. We determined the change in 35 carer's knowledge and attitude following the training sessions using pre and post-test questionnaires quantitatively. Further, we explored their learning experience by conducting eight descriptive one-to-one telephonic interviews. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, we conducted this study online. i.e., obtained virtual consents, pre and post-test using Google forms, and training sessions through a webbased platform. We divided carers into groups where each carer attended two training sessions, and each session lasted for 2 h. Training sessions improved the carer's knowledge from a pre-test score of Median (IQR) 12 (9, 15) to a post-test score of 17 (16, 20) and attitude score from 30 (27.3, 34.8) to 33.5 (30.3, 39) in post-test. They perceived that the training sessions were helpful as they gained knowledge on dementia care, and their attitude has changed optimistically towards people living with Dementia. These findings suggest that web-based training has an effect and indicates the need for training among carers in various old age homes for betterment in providing care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dementia , Aged , Humans , Caregivers/education , Dementia/therapy , Homes for the Aged , Internet , Pandemics , World Health Organization
18.
Front Public Health ; 10: 952739, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2080287

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has triggered multiple global healthcare system crises. Apart from the pandemic itself, the travel restriction and social distance policy for the purpose of epidemic control has cast a shadow on the management of cancer survivors. Cancer survivors suffered a double blow from both the epidemic and cancer. To deal with the challenge, we explored a new Internet-based patient management model. This model has overcome the limitation of time and space and thus can help oncologists to provide remote multidisciplinary healthcare services for cancer survivors. These patients can get high-quality cancer management from multidisciplinary experts without too much transportation. This model has been applied in patients with genitourinary cancers and proved to be effective and efficient. Our study demonstrated that more patients benefited from this model during the pandemic of COVID-19, especially in those affected heavily by COVID-19. These results suggested that it can also give insight into the management of other cancer survivors in China. Given the long-term impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, we would like to introduce our new model of healthcare service and the application of Internet-based multidisciplinary management to our global peers and medical industries to help their cancer survivors who are delayed in treatment due to the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cancer Survivors , Neoplasms , Telemedicine , Urogenital Neoplasms , Humans , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Telemedicine/methods , Urogenital Neoplasms/therapy , Urogenital Neoplasms/epidemiology , Delivery of Health Care , China/epidemiology , Internet
19.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 26(19): 7305-7312, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2081435

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Acne vulgaris is a common skin disease worldwide. Throughout the COVID-19 pandemic, many patients with acne complained of worsening symptoms. This investigation was designed to survey the impact of COVID-19 regulations on acne and guide patients with acne on symptom management during the pandemic. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From April 7th to April 21st, 2020, an anonymous, self-completed, web-based questionnaire was distributed to patients previously diagnosed with acne (via the Chinese internet medical software). Information collected included patients' mask-wearing routines and behavioral factors including dietary habits, sleep habits, facial hygiene, and make-up use habits. RESULTS: 508 qualified questionnaire responses were collected. During the COVID-19 outbreak in China, there was an overall worsening of patients' acne symptoms (152, 29.9%). Behaviors including intake of sweets (34.9% vs. 16.0%, p<0.01), dairy consumption (32.9% vs. 23.3%, p<0.05), greasy (19.1% vs. 11.2%, p<0.05) and spicy food intake (30.3% vs. 14.3%, p<0.01) and mask-wearing frequency (>28 hours per week) (25.0% vs. 15.3%, p<0.05) presented a statistically significant difference between the acne aggravated and non-aggravated groups. Longtime mask-wearing (>28 hours per week), rather than the mask type, was significantly associated with acne symptom deterioration during the COVID-19 outbreak (odds ratio [OR]: 2.164; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.232-3.801). CONCLUSIONS: Besides the well-known risk factors, such as sweets intake, dairy consumption, and greasy and spicy food intake, wearing masks appears to trigger or aggravate acne during the COVID-19 pandemic. Limiting overall mask-wearing time may help to manage acne.


Subject(s)
Acne Vulgaris , COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Acne Vulgaris/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Internet , Masks
20.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(10): e2236524, 2022 10 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2074852

ABSTRACT

Importance: Although telemedicine expanded rapidly during the COVID-19 pandemic and is widely available for primary care, required broadband internet speeds may limit access. Objective: To identify disparities in primary care access in the Veterans Health Administration based on the association between broadband availability and primary care visit modality. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study used administrative data on veterans enrolled in Veterans Health Administration primary care to identify visits at 937 primary care clinics providing telemedicine and in-person clinical visits before the COVID-19 pandemic (October 1, 2016, to February 28, 2020) and after the onset of the pandemic (March 1, 2020, to June 30, 2021). Exposures: Federal Communications Commission-reported broadband availability was classified as inadequate (download speed, ≤25 MB/s; upload speed, ≤3 MB/s), adequate (download speed, ≥25 <100 MB/s; upload speed, ≥5 and <100 MB/s), or optimal (download and upload speeds, ≥100 MB/s) based on data reported at the census block by internet providers and was spatially merged to the latitude and longitude of each veteran's home address using US Census Bureau shapefiles. Main Outcomes and Measures: All visits were coded as in-person or virtual (ie, telephone or video) and counted for each patient, quarterly by visit modality. Poisson models with Huber-White robust errors clustered at the census block estimated the association between a patient's broadband availability category and the quarterly primary care visit count by visit type, adjusted for covariates. Results: In primary care, 6 995 545 veterans (91.8% men; mean [SD] age, 63.9 [17.2] years; 71.9% White; and 63.0% residing in an urban area) were seen. Adjusted regression analyses estimated the change after the onset of the pandemic vs before the pandemic in patients' quarterly primary care visit count; patients living in census blocks with optimal vs inadequate broadband had increased video visit use (incidence rate ratio [IRR], 1.33; 95% CI, 1.21-1.46; P < .001) and decreased in-person visits (IRR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.84-0.84; P < .001). The increase in the rate of video visits before vs after the onset of the pandemic was greatest among patients in the lowest Area Deprivation Index category (indicating least social disadvantage) with availability of optimal vs inadequate broadband (IRR, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.42-2.09). Conclusions and Relevance: This cohort study found that patients with optimal vs inadequate broadband availability had more video-based primary care visits and fewer in-person primary care visits after the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, suggesting that broadband availability was associated with video-based telemedicine use. Future work should assess the association of telemedicine access with clinical outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Internet , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Primary Health Care , Veterans Health
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