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1.
Clin Exp Dermatol ; 47(3): 600-602, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1706275

ABSTRACT

We performed a cost estimation of dermatology residency applications prior to COVID-19 pandemic restrictions (2016-2020) and during the COVID-19 pandemic (2021) and surveyed dermatology programme directors to assess the impact of virtual interviews. We found that COVID-19 virtual interviews significantly reduced the cost of applications. We understand that the changes forced by the pandemic were challenging and not ideal; however, the online aspect of interviews provided a way for applicants to save a significant amount of money.


Subject(s)
Dermatology , Internship and Residency/economics , Interviews as Topic , Job Application , COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics , United States
2.
Clin Orthop Relat Res ; 480(3): 443-451, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574419

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Orthopaedic surgery is one of the most competitive specialties for residency applicants. For the 2021 residency match, the coronavirus-19 pandemic introduced complexity for programs and applicants because away rotations were limited and in-person interviews were cancelled. This may have changed the landscape in terms of expenses for candidates in important ways, but this topic has been insufficiently studied. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: Given that in 2021, students did not attend away rotations and all interviews were held virtually, we asked (1) What were the financial savings associated with this change? (2) Was medical school geographic region associated with differences in expenses when applying to residency? METHODS: A retrospective, cross-sectional analysis of the 2020 and 2021 Texas Seeking Transparency in Application to Residency Dashboard database was performed. The data were derived from an online survey of a nationwide pool of applicants from 87% (123 of 141) of US allopathic medical schools upon conclusion of the match. The response percentage was 29% (521 of 1794). We believe this nationwide dataset represents the largest and most current data for this applicant group. Responses from applicants applying to orthopaedic surgery residency in the year before the COVID-19 pandemic application changes (2020) and during COVID-19 (2021) were queried and compared. After the orthopaedic surgery match, the database was evaluated for individual (application costs, away rotation expenses, and interview expenses) and total expenses for medical school seniors applying to orthopaedic surgery residency. Applicant characteristics were compared between application cycles. The 2020 to 2021 Texas Seeking Transparency in Application to Residency Dashboard database had 521 responses (n = 263 in 2020 and n = 258 in 2021) from applicants applying to orthopaedic surgery residency. Demographic and applicant characteristics were comparable between application cycles. Median expenses are reported with percentile distributions and geographic comparisons. A Mann-Whitney U test or Kruskal-Wallis H test was used to determine whether there were statistically significant differences in expenses between years and between medical school regions at a p value threshold of < 0.05. RESULTS: For all applicants, the median total expenses (USD 7250 versus USD 2250), application costs (USD 2250 versus USD 1750), away rotation expenses (USD 2750 versus USD 250), and interview expenses (USD 2250 versus USD 75) declined in 2021 compared with 2020 (all p < 0.001). The median total savings in expenses for all applicants in 2021 compared with 2020 was USD 5000. In 2021, median total expenses were lower in all geographic regions with the greatest savings from applicants in the West (USD 6000); in addition, the difference in median total expenses between the geographic region with the highest total expenses and the lowest total expenses was lower in the pandemic year than it was in the year prior (USD 1000 versus USD 1500; p < 0.001). In 2021, there were differences in total expenses between the Northeast (USD 1750), West (USD 1750), and Central (USD 2750) regions (p < 0.001). From 2020 to 2021, only application fees from Northeast applicants differed (USD 2250 versus USD 1250; p < 0.001). In 2020, interview expenses were not different between all regions (USD 2250 Northeast and West versus USD 2750 Central and South; p = 0.19); similarly in 2021, interview expenses were similar between all regions (USD 75 versus USD 75; p = 0.82). Finally, in 2020, Northeast (USD 3250) and Western (USD 3250) applicants spent more for away rotations than Southern (USD 2750) and Central (USD 2250) applicants (p = 0.01). In 2021, applicants from schools in the South (USD 250) and Central (USD 250) regions spent more than their counterparts (USD 0; p = 0.028). CONCLUSION: In the COVID-19 application cycle, the median expenditures of orthopaedic residency candidates were USD 5000 lower than they were in the previous year; the difference can be attributed to the use of virtual interviews and the lack of away rotations. There are geographic implications, with applicants from Western United States medical schools potentially saving the most. Despite the financial savings during the 2021 match, further study related to the long-term success of the current application process (both for applicants and programs) is needed. The recommendation in May 2020 by the AOA Council of Orthopaedic Residency Directors (CORD) to limit the number of applications submitted by candidates with USMLE Step 1 scores greater than 235 did not result in any considerable decline in applications submitted or expenses. A better understanding of how differences in these expenses may influence our specialty's ability to attract socioeconomically diverse candidates would be important, and we need to explore perceived and actual financial obstacles to obtaining this diversity in the application process. Finally, avenues should be explored by program directors and chairpersons to reduce the expenses of the traditional application process while maintaining recruitment of top candidates. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level IV, economic analysis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/economics , Costs and Cost Analysis/statistics & numerical data , Internship and Residency/economics , Orthopedic Procedures/education , Students, Medical/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States , Young Adult
3.
Clin Exp Dermatol ; 47(3): 600-602, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501386

ABSTRACT

We performed a cost estimation of dermatology residency applications prior to COVID-19 pandemic restrictions (2016-2020) and during the COVID-19 pandemic (2021) and surveyed dermatology programme directors to assess the impact of virtual interviews. We found that COVID-19 virtual interviews significantly reduced the cost of applications. We understand that the changes forced by the pandemic were challenging and not ideal; however, the online aspect of interviews provided a way for applicants to save a significant amount of money.


Subject(s)
Dermatology , Internship and Residency/economics , Interviews as Topic , Job Application , COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics , United States
4.
Med Educ Online ; 25(1): 1777066, 2020 Jan 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1396566

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Residency programs invest a significant amount of time and resources on the recruitment process, and maintaining efficiency and cost-effectiveness are very important. Virtual Reality (VR) has become an adaptive substitute for 'real life' experiences and its use during the interview season could help save time and resources. OBJECTIVE: With the intention to maximize the interview day and provide a cost-effective alternative to facility tours, a Med-Peds residency training program introduced a VR tour of their children's hospital during recruitment. DESIGN: The Med-Peds program replaced an in-person facility tour of the children's hospital with a VR tour. Applicants were asked to complete an anonymous, voluntary survey on their VR experience at the end of the interview season, and rank features of the interview day in order of importance. RESULTS: There were 33 respondents out of 54 interviewees. Approximately two thirds (63-66%) agreed that VR was non-inferior and superior to in-person facility tours, and that the use of VR had a favorable impact on their perception of the program. However, almost 50% of the applicants had some difficulty using VR technology. CONCLUSION: Use of VR facility tours as an alternative to in-person tours of affiliate training facilities during a residency interview day is a viable and innovative option that can save time and money and favorably impact the applicant's impression of the program. More research is necessary to assess whether VR tours can replace in-person tours at the main teaching site, however, while social distancing measures are in place, VR tours may become necessary for programs moving forward. ABBREVIATIONS: Med-Peds: Internal Medicine-Pediatrics; VR: Virtual Reality; AAMC: Association of American Medical Colleges; IRB: Institutional Review Board.


Subject(s)
Attitude of Health Personnel , Hospitals, Pediatric/organization & administration , Internship and Residency/methods , Interviews as Topic/methods , Virtual Reality , Consumer Behavior , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Hospitals, Pediatric/economics , Humans , Internship and Residency/economics , Surveys and Questionnaires
6.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 147(5): 872e-874e, 2021 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1198273

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: The 2020 global pandemic related to the coronavirus has led to unprecedented interruptions in typical patient care and resident education. Teleconferencing software was deployed by many institutions to comply with quarantine and social-distancing regulations. To supplement the loss of clinical experience for trainees, the authors implemented a novel virtual-educational programming using virtual visiting professors and virtual grand rounds. The authors describe the two different formats and advantages such as access to multiple speakers on diverse, innovative topics and decreased financial burdens to the host program. However, the authors do acknowledge some disadvantages from lack of face-to-face social interaction/networking and the need to consider time-zone differences. Both new programs were embraced by trainees at the authors' own institution and residents/medical students across the United States and Canada and around the world. The authors believe teleconferencing should be permanently incorporated into future educational opportunities for plastic surgeons, as it provides easy access to high-quality information.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Internship and Residency/organization & administration , Teaching Rounds/organization & administration , Videoconferencing/organization & administration , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Canada , Faculty , Humans , Internship and Residency/economics , Internship and Residency/standards , Pandemics/prevention & control , Students, Medical , Surgeons , Teaching Rounds/economics , Teaching Rounds/standards , United States , Videoconferencing/standards
7.
World Neurosurg ; 150: e783-e789, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1164603

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Although studies have evaluated the economic burden to medical students desiring a neurosurgery residency broadly, a detailed breakdown of costs has not been reported. Given that the Association of American Medical Colleges and Society of Neurological Surgeons have recommended neurosurgery residency programs for the 2021 residency application cycle cancel away rotations and in-person interviews, our objective was to evaluate cost savings to medical students applying during this time and the implications. METHODS: Using the 2019-2020 Texas STAR Dashboard database, we queried responses from neurosurgery residency applicants. We recorded application costs, away rotation costs, interview costs, and total costs for medical school seniors applying to neurosurgery residency. Demographic information for applicants was also recorded. Mean and median costs were reported with percentile distributions and geographic comparisons. A Kruskal-Wallis H test was used to determine differences in mean costs by medical school region. RESULTS: Our cohort included 121 U.S. allopathic applicants to neurosurgery residency. Mean application costs were $1711, away rotation costs were $3840, interview costs were $6400, and total costs were $11,882. No significant difference was observed for mean total costs for applicants from schools in the central ($10,525/applicant), northeast ($11,311/applicant), south ($12,660/applicant) and west ($12,404/applicant) regions (P = 0.181). There was no significant difference in the mean application fees, away rotation costs, or interview costs among regions. CONCLUSIONS: In the COVID-19 era, neurosurgery residency applicants could save >$10,000 through the use of virtual interviews and lack of away rotations. There are potential geographic trends; however, further evaluation should be performed.


Subject(s)
Internship and Residency/economics , Neurosurgery/economics , Students, Medical , COVID-19 , Costs and Cost Analysis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Databases, Factual , Geography , Humans , Pandemics , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States , Young Adult
8.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 40(3): 536-539, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1110098

ABSTRACT

The demise of Hahnemann University Hospital demonstrates the need for health care and graduate medical education policy reform.


Subject(s)
Bankruptcy/economics , Education, Medical, Graduate/economics , Hospitals, University/economics , Internship and Residency/economics , Humans , Medically Underserved Area , Ownership , Philadelphia , United States
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