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3.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(2): e24266, 2021 02 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574391

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Transition to digital pathology usually takes months or years to be completed. We were familiarizing ourselves with digital pathology solutions at the time when the COVID-19 outbreak forced us to embark on an abrupt transition to digital pathology. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to quantitatively describe how the abrupt transition to digital pathology might affect the quality of diagnoses, model possible causes by probabilistic modeling, and qualitatively gauge the perception of this abrupt transition. METHODS: A total of 17 pathologists and residents participated in this study; these participants reviewed 25 additional test cases from the archives and completed a final psychologic survey. For each case, participants performed several different diagnostic tasks, and their results were recorded and compared with the original diagnoses performed using the gold standard method (ie, conventional microscopy). We performed Bayesian data analysis with probabilistic modeling. RESULTS: The overall analysis, comprising 1345 different items, resulted in a 9% (117/1345) error rate in using digital slides. The task of differentiating a neoplastic process from a nonneoplastic one accounted for an error rate of 10.7% (42/392), whereas the distinction of a malignant process from a benign one accounted for an error rate of 4.2% (11/258). Apart from residents, senior pathologists generated most discrepancies (7.9%, 13/164). Our model showed that these differences among career levels persisted even after adjusting for other factors. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings are in line with previous findings, emphasizing that the duration of transition (ie, lengthy or abrupt) might not influence the diagnostic performance. Moreover, our findings highlight that senior pathologists may be limited by a digital gap, which may negatively affect their performance with digital pathology. These results can guide the process of digital transition in the field of pathology.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Clinical Competence , Diagnostic Imaging/methods , Diagnostic Imaging/standards , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted/methods , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted/standards , Pathology, Clinical/methods , Pathology, Clinical/standards , Bayes Theorem , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Internship and Residency/methods , Internship and Residency/standards , Italy/epidemiology , Microscopy , Surveys and Questionnaires
4.
Anesth Analg ; 133(5): 1331-1341, 2021 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1566542

ABSTRACT

In 2020, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic interrupted the administration of the APPLIED Examination, the final part of the American Board of Anesthesiology (ABA) staged examination system for initial certification. In response, the ABA developed, piloted, and implemented an Internet-based "virtual" form of the examination to allow administration of both components of the APPLIED Exam (Standardized Oral Examination and Objective Structured Clinical Examination) when it was impractical and unsafe for candidates and examiners to travel and have in-person interactions. This article describes the development of the ABA virtual APPLIED Examination, including its rationale, examination format, technology infrastructure, candidate communication, and examiner training. Although the logistics are formidable, we report a methodology for successfully introducing a large-scale, high-stakes, 2-element, remote examination that replicates previously validated assessments.


Subject(s)
Anesthesiology/education , COVID-19/epidemiology , Certification/methods , Computer-Assisted Instruction/methods , Educational Measurement/methods , Specialty Boards , Anesthesiology/standards , COVID-19/prevention & control , Certification/standards , Clinical Competence/standards , Computer-Assisted Instruction/standards , Educational Measurement/standards , Humans , Internship and Residency/methods , Internship and Residency/standards , Specialty Boards/standards , United States/epidemiology
5.
Acad Med ; 96(12): 1706-1710, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528193

ABSTRACT

PROBLEM: In March 2020, medical students at the University of Washington School of Medicine were removed from clinical settings in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. As subinternships are required for graduation and an important way to prepare for internship, a virtual subinternship was created to include practical elements of in-person learning and to address limited teaching faculty from COVID-19 inpatient surges. APPROACH: A virtual, interactive subinternship was developed with case-based teaching sessions, communication and critical literature evaluation skill building, professional development, and creation of independent learning plans. Near-peer teachers (NPTs) were selected from graduating senior medical students who matched into internal medicine. In addition to teaching topics from the Clerkship Directors of Internal Medicine curriculum, NPTs engaged in course development, recruited teaching faculty, gathered feedback, and facilitated small groups. Participating students completed pre- and postcourse surveys. OUTCOMES: The 10 students (100%) enrolled in the course who completed both surveys indicated significant improvement in mean scores across 4 domains: evaluating medical literature (3.1/5 to 4.5/5; +1.4, P < .001); developing individual learning plans (3.6/5 to 4.7/5; +1.1, P = .001); perceived ability to efficiently evaluate patients with common internal medicine concerns (3.7/5 to 4.6/5; +0.9, P = .004); and formulating initial diagnostic and therapeutic plans (3.6/5 to 4.6/5; +1.0, P < .001). Themes extracted from open-ended responses included initial skepticism of an online format, the course exceeding expectations, and feeling prepared for internship. NEXT STEPS: Although a virtual subinternship lacks direct patient care, students reported improvement in all 4 domains studied. Future courses would benefit from greater use of simulation and role-playing scenarios for practical skills. The experience with NPTs was encouraging, aiding in the success of the subinternship. The role of NPTs should be cultivated to fill gaps in content delivery and enhance the development of students as educators.


Subject(s)
Internal Medicine/education , Internship and Residency/methods , Peer Group , Problem-Based Learning/methods , Students, Medical/psychology , COVID-19 , Curriculum , Humans , Program Evaluation , SARS-CoV-2
6.
J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 50(1): 65, 2021 Nov 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1523331

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has deeply impacted healthcare and education systems, including resident education. The impact of the pandemic on the different types of pedagogical activities, and the displacement of pedagogical activities to online modalities have not yet been quantified. We sought to evaluate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on formal pedagogic components of otorhinolaryngology-head and neck surgery (ORL-HNS) residency, the switch to distance learning and program director's perceptions of the future of teaching and learning. METHODS: A nationwide online survey was conducted on Canadian ORL-HNS program directors. The use of standard didactic activities in-person and online, before and during the pandemic was rated with Likert scales. Perceptions of the pandemic were described with open-ended questions. RESULTS: A total of 11 of the 13 program directors contacted responded. The analysis were conducted using nonparametric statistics. There was a significant drop in overall didactic activities during the pandemic, regardless of the teaching format (3.5 ± 0.2 to 3.1 ± 0.3, p < 0.05). The most affected activities were simulation and in-house lectures. Online activities increased dramatically (0.5 ± 0.2 to 5.0 ± 0.5, p < 0.001), including attendance to lectures made by other programs (0.5 ± 0.3 to 4.0 ± 0.8, p < 0.05). Respondents stated their intention to maintain the hybrid online and in-person teaching model. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that hybrid online and in-person teaching is likely to persist in the post-pandemic setting. A balanced residency curriculum requires diversity in academic activities. The pandemic can have positive consequences if higher education institutions work to better support distance teaching and learning.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Curriculum , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Education, Distance/methods , Education, Medical, Graduate/methods , Internship and Residency/methods , Otolaryngology/education , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/transmission , Canada , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Quebec/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
7.
Can J Surg ; 64(6): E613-E614, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1511844

ABSTRACT

Most institutions have mitigated the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on residency education by transitioning to web-based educational platforms and using innovative solutions, such as surgical video libraries, telehealth clinics, online question banks via social media platforms, and procedural simulations. Here, we assess the perceived impact of COVID-19 on Canadian surgical residency education and discuss the unique challenges in adapting to a virtual format and how novel training methods implemented during the pandemic may be useful in the future of surgical education.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Education, Distance , General Surgery/education , Internship and Residency , Pandemics , Canada , Education, Distance/methods , Education, Distance/trends , Forecasting , Humans , Internship and Residency/methods , Internship and Residency/trends , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
8.
J Cardiovasc Med (Hagerstown) ; 22(9): 711-715, 2021 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496885

ABSTRACT

CoronaVIrus Disease-19 (COVID-19) had a huge impact on human health and economy. However, to this date, the effects of the pandemic on the training of young cardiologists are only partially known. To assess the consequences of the pandemic on the education of the cardiologists in training, we performed a 23-item national survey that has been delivered to 1443 Italian cardiologists in training, registered in the database of the Italian Society of Cardiology (SIC). Six hundred and thirty-three cardiologists in training participated in the survey. Ninety-five percent of the respondents affirmed that the training programme has been somewhat stopped or greatly jeopardized by the pandemic. For 61% of the fellows in training (FITs), the pandemic had a negative effect on their education. Moreover, 59% of the respondents believe that they would not be able to fill the gap gained during that period over the rest of their training. A negative impact on the psycho-physical well being has been reported by 86% of the FITs. The COVID-19 pandemic had an unparalleled impact on the education, formation and mental state of the cardiologists in training. Regulatory agencies, universities and politicians should make a great effort in the organization and reorganization of the teaching programs of the cardiologists of tomorrow.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiologists , Cardiology/education , Communicable Disease Control , Education , Internship and Residency , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cardiologists/education , Cardiologists/psychology , Cardiologists/standards , Clinical Competence/standards , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Education/organization & administration , Education/standards , Fellowships and Scholarships/methods , Fellowships and Scholarships/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Internship and Residency/methods , Internship and Residency/organization & administration , Internship and Residency/standards , Italy/epidemiology , Needs Assessment , SARS-CoV-2 , Societies, Medical/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires
9.
J Pediatr ; 241: 203-211.e1, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1473386

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To determine if training residents in a structured communication method elicits specific behaviors in a laboratory model of interaction with vaccine-hesitant parents. STUDY DESIGN: Standardized patients portraying vaccine-hesitant parents were used to assess the effectiveness of training in the Announce, Inquire, Mirror, Secure (AIMS) Method for Healthy Conversations. Blinded pediatric residents were pseudorandomized to receive AIMS or control training and underwent pre- and post-training encounters with blinded standardized patients. Encounters were assessed by blinded raters using a novel tool. Participant confidence and standardized patient evaluations of the participants' general communication skills were assessed. RESULTS: Ratings were available for 27 AIMS and 26 control participants. Statistically significant increases in post-training scores (maximum = 30) were detected in AIMS, but not in control, participants (median, 21.3 [IQR, 19.8-24.8] vs 18.8 [IQR, 16.9-20.9]; P < .001). Elements (maximum score = 6) with significant increases were Inquire (0.67 [IQR, 0-1.76] vs -0.33 [IQR, -0.67 to 0.33]; P < .001); Mirror (1.33 [IQR, 0 to 2] vs -0.33 [IQR, -0.92 to 0]; P < .001) and Secure (0.33 [IQR, 0 to 1.67] vs -0.17 [IQR, -0.67 to 0.33]; P = .017). Self-confidence increased equally in both groups. Standardized patients did not detect a difference in communication skills after training and between groups. Internal consistency and inter-rater reliability of the assessment tool were modest. CONCLUSIONS: Standardized patients proved useful in studying the effectiveness of structured communication training, but may have been limited in their ability to perceive a difference between groups owing to the predetermined encounter outcome of vaccine refusal. AIMS training should be studied in real-world scenarios to determine if it impacts vaccine acceptance.


Subject(s)
Clinical Competence , Communication , Internship and Residency/methods , Patient Education as Topic/methods , Pediatrics/education , Physician-Patient Relations , Adult , Double-Blind Method , Female , Humans , Infant , Kentucky , Male , Parents , Patient Simulation
11.
Am J Phys Med Rehabil ; 100(9): 831-836, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1447682

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: The novel coronavirus 2019 pandemic has led to new dilemmas in medical education because of an initial shortage of personal protective equipment, uncertainty regarding disease transmission and treatments, travel restrictions, and social distancing guidelines. These new problems further compound the already existing problem of limited medical student exposure to the field of physical medicine and rehabilitation, particularly for students in medical schools lacking a department of physical medicine and rehabilitation, approximately 50% of medical schools. A virtual medical student physical medicine and rehabilitation rotation was created to mitigate coronavirus 2019-related limitations and impact on medical education. Using audiovisual technology, students had the opportunity to participate in clinical inpatient and outpatient care, live-streamed procedures, and virtual didactics, develop and showcase their clinical knowledge and reasoning skills, and become familiar with the culture of the physical medicine and rehabilitation residency program. Adaptive educational approaches, including integration of the flipped classroom model, success, pitfalls, and areas for improvement will be described and discussed. Providing nontraditional methods for physical medicine and rehabilitation education and exposure to medical students is crucial to maintain and promote growth of the field in this unprecedented and increasingly virtual era.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Education, Distance/methods , Education, Medical/methods , Internship and Residency/methods , Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine/education , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Acad Med ; 96(12): 1711-1716, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1408213

ABSTRACT

PROBLEM: The COVID-19 pandemic significantly disrupted point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) education. Medical schools and residency programs placed restrictions on bedside teaching and clinical scanning as part of risk mitigation. In response, POCUS faculty from 15 institutions nationwide collaborated on an alternative model of ultrasound education, A Distance-learning Approach to POCUS Training (ADAPT). APPROACH: ADAPT was repeated monthly from April 1 through June 30, 2020. It accommodated 70 learners, who included 1- to 4-week rotators and asynchronous learners. The curriculum included assigned prework and learning objectives covering 20 core POCUS topics. A rotating group of 30 faculty and fellows delivered daily virtual teaching sessions that included gamification to increase learner engagement and hands-on instruction through teleguidance. After participation, faculty and learners completed anonymous surveys. OUTCOMES: Educators reported a significant decrease in preparatory time (6.2 vs 3.1 hours per week, P < .001) dedicated to ultrasound education after implementing ADAPT. The majority of 29 learners who completed surveys felt "somewhat confident" or "very confident" in their ability to acquire (n = 25, 86.2%) and interpret (n = 27, 93.1%) ultrasound images after the intervention; the majority of 22 educators completing surveys rated the program "somewhat effective" or "very effective" at contributing to learner's ability to acquire (n = 13, 59.1%) and interpret (n = 20, 90.9%) images. Most learners (n = 28, 96.6%) and all educators (n = 22, 100%) were "satisfied" or "very satisfied" with ADAPT as a whole, and the large majority of educators were "very likely" (n = 18, 81.8%) to recommend continued use of this program. NEXT STEPS: A virtual curriculum that pools the efforts of multiple institutions nationwide was implemented rapidly and effectively while satisfying educational expectations of both learners and faculty. This collaborative framework can be replicated and may be generalizable to other educational objectives.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Education, Distance/methods , Internship and Residency/methods , Point-of-Care Testing , Ultrasonography/methods , Curriculum , Humans , Program Evaluation , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
13.
Med Educ Online ; 25(1): 1777066, 2020 Jan 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1396566

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Residency programs invest a significant amount of time and resources on the recruitment process, and maintaining efficiency and cost-effectiveness are very important. Virtual Reality (VR) has become an adaptive substitute for 'real life' experiences and its use during the interview season could help save time and resources. OBJECTIVE: With the intention to maximize the interview day and provide a cost-effective alternative to facility tours, a Med-Peds residency training program introduced a VR tour of their children's hospital during recruitment. DESIGN: The Med-Peds program replaced an in-person facility tour of the children's hospital with a VR tour. Applicants were asked to complete an anonymous, voluntary survey on their VR experience at the end of the interview season, and rank features of the interview day in order of importance. RESULTS: There were 33 respondents out of 54 interviewees. Approximately two thirds (63-66%) agreed that VR was non-inferior and superior to in-person facility tours, and that the use of VR had a favorable impact on their perception of the program. However, almost 50% of the applicants had some difficulty using VR technology. CONCLUSION: Use of VR facility tours as an alternative to in-person tours of affiliate training facilities during a residency interview day is a viable and innovative option that can save time and money and favorably impact the applicant's impression of the program. More research is necessary to assess whether VR tours can replace in-person tours at the main teaching site, however, while social distancing measures are in place, VR tours may become necessary for programs moving forward. ABBREVIATIONS: Med-Peds: Internal Medicine-Pediatrics; VR: Virtual Reality; AAMC: Association of American Medical Colleges; IRB: Institutional Review Board.


Subject(s)
Attitude of Health Personnel , Hospitals, Pediatric/organization & administration , Internship and Residency/methods , Interviews as Topic/methods , Virtual Reality , Consumer Behavior , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Hospitals, Pediatric/economics , Humans , Internship and Residency/economics , Surveys and Questionnaires
18.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 148(3): 462e-474e, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1371774

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has had a profound effect on surgical training programs, reflecting decreases in elective surgical cases and emergency restructuring of clinical teams. The effect of these measures on U.S. plastic surgery resident education and wellness has not been characterized. METHODS: An institutional review board-exempted anonymous survey was developed through expert panel discussion and pilot testing. All current U.S. plastic surgery trainees were invited to complete a cross-sectional 28-question survey in April of 2020. Respondents were queried regarding demographic information, educational experiences, and wellness during the COVID-19 pandemic. RESULTS: A total of 668 residents responded to the survey, corresponding to a 56.1 percent response rate. Sex, training program type, postgraduate year, and region were well represented within the sample. Nearly all trainees (97.1 percent) reported restructuring of their clinical teams. One-sixth of respondents were personally redeployed to assist with the care of COVID-19 patients. A considerable proportion of residents felt that the COVID-19 pandemic had a negative impact on their education (58.1 percent) and wellness (84.8 percent). Residents found virtual curriculum effective and meaningful, and viewed an average of 4.2 lectures weekly. Although most residents did not anticipate a change in career path, some reported negative consequences on job prospects or fellowship. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic had a considerable impact on U.S. plastic surgery education and wellness. Although reductions in case volume may be temporary, this may represent a loss of critical, supervised clinical experience. Some effects may be positive, such as the development of impactful virtual lectures that allow for cross-institutional curriculum.


Subject(s)
Attitude of Health Personnel , COVID-19 , Health Status , Internship and Residency , Students, Medical/psychology , Surgery, Plastic/education , Adult , Career Choice , Cross-Sectional Studies , Curriculum , Education, Distance/methods , Education, Distance/organization & administration , Education, Distance/trends , Female , Humans , Internship and Residency/methods , Internship and Residency/organization & administration , Internship and Residency/trends , Male , Mental Health , Physical Distancing , Social Support , Stress, Psychological , Surgery, Plastic/organization & administration , Surgery, Plastic/trends , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States
19.
Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed ; 107(2): 156-160, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1367410

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the experience with, and the feasibility of, point-of-view video recordings using eye-tracking glasses for training and reviewing neonatal interventions during the COVID-19 pandemic. DESIGN: Observational prospective single-centre study. SETTING: Neonatal intensive care unit at the Leiden University Medical Center. PARTICIPANTS: All local neonatal healthcare providers. INTERVENTION: There were two groups of participants: proceduralists, who wore eye-tracking glasses during procedures, and observers who later watched the procedures as part of a video-based reflection. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was the feasibility of, and the proceduralists and observers' experience with, the point-of-view eye-tracking videos as an additional tool for bedside teaching and video-based reflection. RESULTS: We conducted 12 point-of-view recordings on 10 different patients (median gestational age of 30.9±3.5 weeks and weight of 1764 g) undergoing neonatal intubation (n=5), minimally invasive surfactant therapy (n=5) and umbilical line insertion (n=2). We conducted nine video-based observations with a total of 88 observers. The use of point-of-view recordings was perceived as feasible. Observers further reported the point-of-view recordings to be an educational benefit for them and a potentially instructional tool during COVID-19. CONCLUSION: We proved the practicability of eye-tracking glasses for point-of-view recordings of neonatal procedures and videos for observation, educational sessions and logistics considerations, especially with the COVID-19 pandemic distancing measures reducing bedside teaching opportunities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Eye-Tracking Technology , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Internship and Residency/methods , Video Recording , Gestational Age , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Premature , Intubation/methods , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Pulmonary Surfactants/administration & dosage , SARS-CoV-2
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