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2.
Med Educ Online ; 26(1): 1886649, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575951

ABSTRACT

Online classes have been provided for health-care pre-licensure learners during the novel coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of online group work in interprofessional education. A total of 209 students were assigned to 50 groups (18 medical student groups, 13 nursing student groups, and 19 mixed medical/nursing student groups). Learners performed group work during the orientation for the course, which was hosted using an online video conferencing system. The learners first performed the activity individually (10 min) and then engaged in a group discussion to reach consensus on their answers (30 min). We calculated the scores before and after the group discussion and shared the results with the students. Scores were improved after the group discussion (mean ± SEM, 23.7 ± 0.9) compared with before (37.3 ± 1.3) (P < .0001). Lower scores after the group discussion, which indicated the effect of the group discussion on making better decisions, were observed most in the mixed medical/nursing student groups, followed by the nursing student and medical student groups. We noted only 3 groups in which the group discussion showed a negative effect on decision-making: all 3 of these groups were mixed (3 of 19 groups; 16%). These data demonstrated the power of group discussion for solving tasks when the participants' professional fields were mixed. However, the small size of the interdisciplinary groups might have resulted in less effective discussion, which might be due in part to psychological barriers arising from professional differences. Online group work is effective for facilitating discussion and building consensus about decisions in interprofessional education for medical and nursing students. Potential psychological barriers may exist in about 16% of mixed group students at the start, which should be kept in mind by instructors. Abbreviations: COVID-19: coronavirus disease 2019; IPE: Interprofessional Education; NASA: National Aeronautics and Space Administration; SD: standard deviation; WHO: World Health Organization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Interdisciplinary Studies , Interprofessional Relations , Students, Medical/psychology , Students, Nursing/psychology , Adult , Education, Distance , Female , Group Processes , Humans , Learning , Male , SARS-CoV-2
3.
J Prim Health Care ; 13(4): 359-369, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1550421

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND CONTEXT Globally, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has highlighted the need for better interprofessional collaboration and teamwork. When disciplines have worked together to undertake testing, deliver care and administer vaccines, progress against COVID-19 has been made. Yet, teamwork has often not happened, wasting precious resources and stretching health-care workforces. Continuing to train health professionals during the pandemic is challenging, particularly delivering interprofessional education that often uses face-to-face delivery methods to optimise interactional learning. Yet, continuing to offer interprofessional education throughout the pandemic is critical to ensure a collaboration-ready health workforce. One example is continuing the established INVOLVE (Interprofessional Visits to Learn Interprofessional Values through Patient Experience) interprofessional education initiative. ASSESSMENT OF PROBLEM Educators have not always prioritised interprofessional education during the pandemic, despite its immediate and long-term benefits. The INVOLVE interprofessional education initiative, usually delivered face-to-face, was at risk of cancellation. RESULTS A quality improvement analysis of the strategies used to continue INVOLVE demonstrated that it is possible to deliver interprofessional education within the constraints of a pandemic by using innovative online and hybrid educational strategies. Educators and students demonstrated flexibility in responding to the sudden changes in teaching and learning modalities. STRATEGIES When pandemic alert levels change, interprofessional educators and administrators can now choose from a repertoire of teaching approaches. LESSONS Four key lessons have improved the performance and resilience of INVOLVE: hold the vision to continue interprofessional education; be nimble; use technology appropriately; and there will be silver linings and unexpected benefits to the changes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Personnel/education , Humans , Interprofessional Education , Interprofessional Relations , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Int J Med Educ ; 12: 195-204, 2021 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526944

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To explore what the student participants learned and how they felt about the use of three educational settings, namely, face-to-face workshop setting, asynchronous and synchronous online learning environments and interactions with outpatients in a real-world clinical setting in a hybrid interprofessional education course. Methods: This qualitative study used semi-structured in-depth interviews with healthcare undergraduate student participants in a course comprising workshops in three educational settings. A total of 15 healthcare undergraduate students, which included four medical, three pharmacy, five nursing and three nutrition students, completed this IPE course. All students agreed to participate in the study. We conducted four focus groups selected using convenient sampling. Focus group transcripts were analysed using the 'Steps for Coding and Theorization' qualitative data analysis method. We investigated the students' perception through the experience of three educational settings in the hybrid interprofessional education course. Results: The students recognised that this course had three types of educational spaces, namely, real, semi-real and unreal. Then, the positive changes in the awareness of students are trained in recognition of the patient perspective, the recognition of the roles discharged by the other professions and the recognition of the functions of their own profession after experiencing the educational spaces designated for this course. Conclusions: The repeated experience of participants to real, semi-real and unreal educational spaces promoted changes over time in the students' awareness of interprofessional competencies with respect to patient-centred care and ameliorated their readiness to undertake interprofessional tasks.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus , Students, Health Occupations , Humans , Interprofessional Education , Interprofessional Relations , Perception
8.
Front Public Health ; 9: 747751, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1485129

ABSTRACT

In the clinical setting, collaboration between multidisciplinary teams is core to providing effective patient care. The delivery of traditional interprofessional education is associated with a number of logistical challenges, which were heightened by the Covid-19 pandemic. This workshop was developed to bring together Biomedical Science and Medical students using an online platform. The workshop consisted of (1) defining interprofessional education, (2) introducing the role of the Pathology laboratory, (3) Professional registration with regulatory bodies and (4) an insight into Covid-19 laboratory diagnosis. The session was supported by mixed group breakout rooms and interactive polling. Thirty four percent of students completed a post-workshop online survey which included open and closed questions. Thematic analysis revealed a better understanding the role of the pathology laboratory in diagnosing disease, an increased awareness of the similarities and differences in the roles of a Biomedical Scientist and a Medic and the importance of a multi-disciplinary team in achieving effective patient care. Quantitative analysis of survey data revealed that the majority of students reported positive experiences of interprofessional education online. Approximately 90% of students agreed that the workshop enabled them to increase their understanding of their own roles within healthcare, in addition to increasing their understanding of the roles of other healthcare professionals. 74.3% of participants reported that working with students from a different programme provided an alternative perspective. Seventy nine percent of students agreed that the online format enabled interactivity and discussion of the tasks. Of the 204 students, 85% engaged with the four polls during the workshop. This online workshop enabled discussion between degree programmes, enabled interactivity and allowed the learning outcomes to be met. Universities should embrace online platforms to provide a novel, engaging and effective interprofessional educational experience.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , Interprofessional Relations , Patient Care , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Ann Intern Med ; 174(8): 1151-1158, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1481184

ABSTRACT

The development of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) COVID-19 Treatment Guidelines began in March 2020 in response to a request from the White House Coronavirus Task Force. Within 4 days of the request, the NIH COVID-19 Treatment Guidelines Panel was established and the first meeting took place (virtually-as did subsequent meetings). The Panel comprises 57 individuals representing 6 governmental agencies, 11 professional societies, and 33 medical centers, plus 2 community members, who have worked together to create and frequently update the guidelines on the basis of evidence from the most recent clinical studies available. The initial version of the guidelines was completed within 2 weeks and posted online on 21 April 2020. Initially, sparse evidence was available to guide COVID-19 treatment recommendations. However, treatment data rapidly accrued based on results from clinical studies that used various study designs and evaluated different therapeutic agents and approaches. Data have continued to evolve at a rapid pace, leading to 24 revisions and updates of the guidelines in the first year. This process has provided important lessons for responding to an unprecedented public health emergency: Providers and stakeholders are eager to access credible, current treatment guidelines; governmental agencies, professional societies, and health care leaders can work together effectively and expeditiously; panelists from various disciplines, including biostatistics, are important for quickly developing well-informed recommendations; well-powered randomized clinical trials continue to provide the most compelling evidence to guide treatment recommendations; treatment recommendations need to be developed in a confidential setting free from external pressures; development of a user-friendly, web-based format for communicating with health care providers requires substantial administrative support; and frequent updates are necessary as clinical evidence rapidly emerges.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Pandemics , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Advisory Committees , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Drug Approval , Evidence-Based Medicine , Female , Humans , Interprofessional Relations , National Institutes of Health (U.S.) , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2 , Stakeholder Participation , United States
10.
J Health Organ Manag ; ahead-of-print(ahead-of-print)2021 Apr 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455442

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this review was to explore the literature for evidence of the impact of interprofessional practice models on health service inequity, particularly within community care settings for diverse ageing populations. DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: An integrative systematic literature review was conducted following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) framework combined with the EndNote reference management system. Following the collection and comprehensive screening process completion, a thematic analysis of the included articles occurred utilising within NVivo 12 software. FINDINGS: The review found that there was a paucity of evidence related to the relationship between interprofessional practice models (IPM) and health service equity for ageing populations. There is a need to improve collaborative practices between social care, public health care and health service providers to more clearly define team member roles. Key aspirations included the need for future innovations in health service delivery to place health service equity as a goal for interprofessional practice. There is a need to find ways to measure and articulate the impact for vulnerable populations and communities. RESEARCH LIMITATIONS/IMPLICATIONS: The review offers insight into the need for health care delivery models to place health service equity at the centre of the model design. In practice settings, this includes setting interprofessional team goals around achieving equitable care outcomes for, and with, vulnerable populations. Implications for practice relate to improving how interprofessional teams work with communities to achieve health care equity. ORIGINALITY/VALUE: There is a consensus across the literature that there continues to be health service inequity, yet IPE and interprofessional collaborative practice (IPC) have been growing in momentum for some time. Despite many statements that there is a link between interprofessional practice and improved health service equity and health outcomes, evidence for this is yet to be fully realised. This review highlights the urgent need to review the link between education and practice, and innovative health models of care that enable heath care professionals and social care providers to work together towards achieving health equity for ageing populations. It is clear that more evidence is required to establish evidence for best practice in interprofessional care that has the mitigation of health care inequity as a central objective.


Subject(s)
Cooperative Behavior , Interprofessional Relations , Delivery of Health Care , Health Services
11.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 20(1): 101, 2020 Feb 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455959

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Having psychologically safe teams can improve learning, creativity and performance within organisations. Within a healthcare context, psychological safety supports patient safety by enabling engagement in quality improvement and encouraging staff to speak up about errors. Despite the low levels of psychological safety in healthcare teams and the important role it plays in supporting patient safety, there is a dearth of research on interventions that can be used to improve psychological safety or its related constructs. This review synthesises the content, theoretical underpinnings and outcomes of interventions which have targeted psychological safety, speaking up, and voice behaviour within a healthcare setting. It aims to identify successful interventions and inform the development of more effective interventions. METHODS: A key word search strategy was developed and used to search electronic databases (PsycINFO, ABI/Inform, Academic search complete and PubMed) and grey literature databases (OpenGrey, OCLC WorldCat, Espace). Covidence, an online specialised systematic review website, was used to screen records. Data extraction, quality appraisal and narrative synthesis were conducted on identified papers. RESULTS: Fourteen interventions were reviewed. These interventions fell into five categories. Educational interventions used simulation, video presentations, case studies and workshops while interventions which did not include an educational component used holistic facilitation, forum play and action research meetings. Mixed results were found for the efficacy or effectiveness of these interventions. While some interventions showed improvement in outcomes related to psychological safety, speaking up and voice, this was not consistently demonstrated across interventions. Included interventions' ability to demonstrate improvements in these outcomes were limited by a lack of objective outcome measures and the ability of educational interventions alone to change deeply rooted speaking up behaviours. CONCLUSION: To improve our understanding of the efficacy or effectiveness of interventions targeting psychological safety, speaking up and voice behaviour, longitudinal and multifaceted interventions are needed. In order to understand whether these interventions are successful, more objective measures should be developed. It is recommended that future research involves end users in the design phase of interventions, target both group and organisational levels, ensure visible leader support and work across and within interdisciplinary teams. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42018100659.


Subject(s)
Health Personnel/psychology , Interprofessional Relations , Patient Care Team/organization & administration , Safety , Humans , Patient Safety
12.
J Nurs Adm ; 51(10): 481-483, 2021 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1443155

ABSTRACT

The past 18 months has been filled with transitions for healthcare organizations, for nurses, and for the patients and families they care for. As we transition from the real and virtual confines inflicted by the pandemic, the light shines on gratitude for relationships cultivated and the hope they bring.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Hope , Job Satisfaction , Nurse's Role/psychology , Workplace/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Emotions , Humans , Interprofessional Relations , United States
13.
Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am ; 30(4): 809-826, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1415269

ABSTRACT

Psychiatry and psychology have a long history of competition that too often interferes with the collaboration that can characterize complementary contributions to our common missions. We hope this article will inspire our disciplines to expand on this collaboration, for the sake of our children and families, our communities, our colleagues, and honestly, ourselves. We are better together than apart. This text is a blueprint for the assumptions, attitudes, skills, and advocacy that can make this partnership healthy and successful.


Subject(s)
Child Psychiatry/methods , Delivery of Health Care, Integrated/organization & administration , Primary Health Care , Psychology, Child/methods , Adolescent , Child , Humans , Interprofessional Relations , Intersectoral Collaboration , Mental Health , Models, Organizational , Primary Health Care/ethics , Primary Health Care/organization & administration
14.
BMC Med Educ ; 21(1): 482, 2021 Sep 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1405951

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study aimed at determining the effectiveness of an innovative approach using interprofessional simulation scenarios (IPSS) in improving knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) of hospital-acquired infection control (HAIC) among health professionals. METHODS: The interventional study was conducted in a teaching hospital in Malaysia. Purposive sampling was used to recruit participants from surgical, intensive care, and other units. Thirty-six health professionals in the experimental and forty in the control group completed the study. All subjects participated in an interactive lecture and demonstrated four IPSS on HAIC i.e. (i) taking blood specimen (ii) bedsore dressing (iii) collecting sputum for acid-fast bacilli and (iv) intermittent bladder catheterization. Each team consisted of a doctor and a nurse. A self-administered questionnaire on KAP on HAIC was completed by respondents during the pre-, immediately and, post-intervention. An independent t-test was conducted to measure the significance between the experimental and control group. RESULTS: The mean scores for KAP among the experimental group increased following the intervention. Significant differences in scores were seen between the two groups post-intervention (p < 0.05). Overall, using the four procedures as surrogates, the interprofessional learning approach in HAIC intervention showed improvement among the participants in the experimental group following structured instructions. The IPSS approach in HAIC clearly shows its relevance in improving learning outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Well-designed interprofessional simulated scenarios can be effective in skills training in improving KAP in HAIC among health professionals.


Subject(s)
Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Interprofessional Relations , Health Personnel , Hospitals , Humans , Infection Control , Patient Care Team
15.
Clin Nurse Spec ; 35(4): 157-159, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1393521
16.
Public Health Rep ; 136(6): 658-662, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1378103

ABSTRACT

Public health in the United States has long been challenged by budget cuts and a declining workforce. The COVID-19 pandemic exposed the vulnerabilities left by years of neglecting this crucial frontline defense against emerging infectious diseases. In the early days of the pandemic, the University of Texas Medical Branch and the Galveston County Health District (GCHD) partnered to bolster Galveston County's public health response. We mobilized interprofessional teams of students and provided training to implement projects identified by GCHD as necessary for responding to the pandemic. We provided a safe outlet for students to contribute to their community by creating remote volunteer opportunities when students faced displacement from clinical rotations and in-person didactics converted to virtual formats. As students gradually returned to clinical rotations and didactic demands increased, it became necessary to expand volunteer efforts beyond what had initially been mostly hand-selected student teams. We have passed the initial emergency response phase of COVID-19 in Galveston County and are transitioning into more long-term opportunities as COVID-19 moves from pandemic to endemic. In this case study, we describe our successes and lessons learned.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Public Health Administration , Students, Medical , Volunteers , Health Workforce/organization & administration , Humans , Interprofessional Relations , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Telephone , United States/epidemiology
17.
Acad Med ; 96(9): 1263-1267, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1373679

ABSTRACT

The announcement of the closure of Philadelphia's Hahnemann University Hospital in June 2019 sent shock waves through the academic community. The closure had a devastating impact on the residents and fellows who trained there, the patients who had long received their care there, and faculty and staff who had provided care there for decades. Since its beginnings, the hospital, established as part of Hahnemann Medical College in 1885, was a major site for medical student education. The authors share the planning before and actions during the crisis that protected the educational experiences of third- and fourth-year medical students at Drexel University College of Medicine assigned to Hahnemann University Hospital. The lessons they learned can be helpful to leadership in academic health systems in the United States facing a diminishing number of clinical training sites for medical and other health professions students, a situation that is likely to worsen as the COVID-19 pandemic continues to weaken the health care ecosystem.


Subject(s)
Education, Medical, Undergraduate/organization & administration , Health Facility Closure/methods , Hospitals, University/organization & administration , Education, Medical, Undergraduate/methods , Faculty, Medical/organization & administration , Faculty, Medical/psychology , Humans , Interprofessional Relations , Philadelphia , Students, Medical/psychology
18.
Nurse Educ Today ; 105: 105018, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1345432

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In an age disrupted by COVID-19 pandemic, three-dimensional virtual world (3DVW) offers an opportunity for healthcare students from different higher education institutions to participate in interprofessional education. Despite its growing evidence, there is a need to unravel the complex learning process in order to ensure high quality of interprofessional education delivery. AIM: This study aimed to explore the experiences of healthcare students and facilitators on the use of 3DVW for interprofessional team-based virtual simulation. METHODS: Interprofessional teams, each comprising six different healthcare students (Medicine, Nursing, Pharmacy, Physiotherapy, Occupational Therapy, and Medical Social Work) and two clinicians who acted as facilitators, logged into the 3DVW from their own remote locations to participate in team-based care delivery that included an interprofessional bedside round and a family conference. A qualitative descriptive study was conducted on a purposive sample of 30 healthcare students and 12 facilitators using focus group discussions and individual interviews. RESULTS: Four themes emerged from their experiences: the "wow experience", authentic experience on collaborative care, ease of learning, and preeminent role of the facilitator. The simulation provided the "wow" experiences through contextual, collaborative and experiential learning approaches. Despite technical challenges, the participants were wooed by the comforts of learning from home and the psychological safety in virtual environment. The facilitators played a critical role in optimizing learning engagement to win learners over. CONCLUSION: Our study explicates how attention to the "wow, woo and win" trilateral factors can transform the interprofessional learning experiences offered by 3DVW simulation. Future developments in the use of this learning technology should include developing the clinicians' facilitation skills and the provision of technical support to make this 3DVW a success calls in winning students' learning engagement.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Students, Nursing , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Interprofessional Relations , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Nurse Educ ; 46(4): E50-E54, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1331618

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Health care professionals need to recognize trauma exposure and provide trauma-informed care. There is a concomitant need to develop resilience when working in this context. PROBLEM: We recognized the need to educate future health care professionals to provide trauma-informed care, develop resilience skills, and collaborate with other disciplines to provide this care. APPROACH: We used a systematic instructional design process and an interprofessional approach to design and deliver the course. We utilized a range of resources and approached the course from micro, meso, and macro perspectives. OUTCOMES: Through purposeful design, we developed a course that was well-aligned with our objectives. Assessments provided documentation that students achieved the learning outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: The course educated future health care professionals on trauma-informed care. Students gained valuable experience that will help them contribute to interprofessional teams in the future. Students also practiced resilience techniques essential for health care professionals.


Subject(s)
Health Personnel , Interprofessional Relations , Patient Care , Teaching , Wounds and Injuries , Attitude of Health Personnel , Health Personnel/education , Humans , Patient Care/methods , Patient Care/psychology , Patient Care Team , Wounds and Injuries/psychology
20.
N Engl J Med ; 384(6): e18, 2021 02 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1327234
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