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3.
Am J Nurs ; 122(1): 22-30, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1612687

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of the perceptions and experiences of nurses caring for patients and families under the COVID-19 pandemic's socially restrictive practices and policies. BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 global pandemic has affected the delivery of health care to patients and their families, with many aspects altered because of the need for social distancing, social isolation, and visitation restriction policies. These policies have created communication challenges for interdisciplinary health care teams, patients, and families. As frontline caregivers, nurses have felt strongly the impact of these challenges. METHODS: A qualitative descriptive study was conducted among 17 RNs who were caring for patients during the COVID-19 pandemic and were recruited via social media posts on Facebook, Twitter, and LinkedIn. Watson's theory of human caring served as the conceptual framework for the study. RESULTS: Several themes emerged regarding nurses' experiences of communication with patients and families. These include communication challenges and barriers, prioritization, integration of group communication, nurse self-reflection, and acceptance of gratitude. CONCLUSIONS: The study findings underscore the importance of nurses' communication with patients and families under the pandemic's restricted conditions. They demonstrate the value of nurses' ability to innovate in fostering all parties' participation in the plan of care, and highlight the comfort nurses provide to patients who are isolated from loved ones. Strategies that fostered communication were identified, as were areas for further research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/nursing , Empathy , Nurses/psychology , Professional-Family Relations , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Interviews as Topic/methods , Nurses/trends , Qualitative Research
4.
Med Educ Online ; 26(1): 1891610, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574778

ABSTRACT

Multiple mini-interview (MMI) is a 'multiple sample-based' approach comprising multiple focused encounters intended to access and assess a range of attributes in order to gain more objectively multiple impressions of an applicant's interpersonal skills, thoughtfulness and general demeanour. It is designed to focus on four domains that are not considered to be comprehensive, but are considered to be vital for a successful career in the health sciences: critical thinking, ethical decision making, communication and knowledge of the healthcare system. Traditionally, the MMI is conducted face-to-face, but with COVID-19 pandemic and the implementation of social distancing measures, no onsite or campus teaching, banning of mass gatherings and cancellation of face-to-face interviews, Pengiran Anak Puteri Rashidah Sa'adatul Bolkiah Institute of Health Sciences at Universiti Brunei Darussalam explored the feasibility of conducting MMI through virtual means. This report provides an account of our experience in conducting internet-MMI for the selection of new applicants into the August 2020 cohort of the Medicine programme. We also aimed to determine whether the scores derived from internet-MMI were reliable and equivalent to the scores derived from traditional MMI.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Interviews as Topic/methods , School Admission Criteria , Schools, Medical/organization & administration , Communication , Decision Making , Ethics, Medical , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Thinking
5.
J Manag Care Spec Pharm ; 27(10-a Suppl): S2-S13, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1471241

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite therapeutic advances for patients with schizophrenia, improving patient outcomes and reducing the cost of care continue to challenge formulary decision makers. OBJECTIVES: To (1) understand the perspectives of formulary decision makers on challenges to optimal schizophrenia population management and (2) identify best practices and recommendations for mitigating these challenges. METHODS: This mixed-methods study, conducted in a double-blind manner, comprised in-depth telephone interviews with formulary decision makers from February through May 2020, and a web-based follow-on survey that was sent to all participants in October 2020. US-based formulary decision makers were recruited if they were directly involved in schizophrenia drug formulary or coverage decision making for national or regional payers, health systems, or behavioral health centers. Formulary decision makers' perceptions of challenges, policies, and programs related to schizophrenia population health management were assessed generally and in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. RESULTS: 19 formulary decision makers participated in the interviews and 18 (95%) completed the survey. Participants reported a spectrum of patient- and payer-driven challenges in schizophrenia population health management, including medication nonadherence, high pharmacy and medical costs, and frequent hospitalizations and emergency department visits. Participants noted that COVID-19 had worsened all identified challenges, although patient unemployment (mean score of 2.00 on a scale of 1 [made much worse] to 5 [made much better]) and reduced access to psychiatric care (mean score, 2.12) were most negatively affected. The most common strategies implemented in order to improve schizophrenia population health management included case management (89%), telemedicine (83%), care coordination programs (72%), strategies to mitigate barriers to accessing medication (61%), and providing nonmedical services to address social determinants of health (56%). Participants noted that, ideally, all treatments for schizophrenia would be available on their formularies without utilization management policies in place in order to increase accessibility to medication, but cost to the health plans made that difficult. Whereas 61% of respondents believed that long-acting injectable antipsychotics (LAIs) were currently underused in their organizations, only 28% represented organizations with open access policies for LAIs. Participants believed that among patients with schizophrenia, LAIs were most beneficial for those with a history of poor or uncertain adherence to oral medications (mean score of 4.50 on a scale of 1 [not at all beneficial] to 5 [extremely beneficial]) and those with recurring emergency department visits and inpatient stays (mean score, 3.94). Study participants reported slightly increased use of LAIs (mean score of 3.17 on a scale of 1 [negatively impacted] to 5 [positively impacted]) among their patients with schizophrenia in response to the COVID-19 pandemic; 29% of participants reported easing access restrictions for LAIs. CONCLUSIONS: Participants described persisting challenges and various approaches intended to improve schizophrenia population health management. They also recommended strategies to optimize future health management for this population, including expanding programs to address social determinants of health and mitigating barriers to accessing treatment. DISCLOSURES: This study was funded by Janssen Scientific Affairs, LLC. Roach, Graf, Pednekar, and Chou are employees of PRECISIONheor, which received financial support from Janssen Scientific Affairs, LLC, to conduct this study. Chou owns equity in Precision Medicine Group, the parent company of PRECISIONheor. Lin and Benson are employees of Janssen Scientific Affairs, LLC. Doshi has served as a consultant, advisory board member, or both, for Acadia, Allergan, Boehringer Ingelheim, Janssen, Merck, Otsuka, and Sage Therapeutics and has received research funding from AbbVie, Biogen, Humana, Janssen, Novartis, Merck, Pfizer, PhRMA, Regeneron, Sanofi, and Valeant.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Clinical Decision-Making/methods , Health Personnel , Population Health Management , Population Health , Schizophrenia/therapy , Antipsychotic Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Double-Blind Method , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Interviews as Topic/methods , Male , Medication Adherence , Schizophrenia/diagnosis , Schizophrenia/epidemiology
6.
Am J Surg ; 222(6): 1085-1092, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1466001

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: In the midst of a pandemic, residency interviews transitioned to a virtual format for the first time. Little is known about the effect this will have on the match process. The study aim is to evaluate resident application processes and perceived outcomes. METHODS: An electronic survey was distributed to 142 colon and rectal surgery residency applicants (95% of total). RESULTS: A total of 77 applicants responded to the survey (54% response rate). Applicants reported high levels of satisfaction with virtual interviews but less comfort. Utilizing the mute button and using notes in a different way from face-to-face interviews were significantly associated with applicant confidence that they ranked the right program highest. A majority of applicants (73%) would recommend virtual interviews next year even if COVID-19 is not a factor. CONCLUSION: While applicants appear generally satisfied with virtual interviews, they also reported less comfort. Applicant confidence was predicted by utilizing the unique technological affordances offered by the virtual platform.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Internship and Residency/organization & administration , Interviews as Topic/methods , School Admission Criteria , Self Concept , User-Computer Interface , Humans , Surveys and Questionnaires
7.
Law Hum Behav ; 45(2): 97-111, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1452487

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Tele-forensic interviews have the potential to aid investigations when children live far from interviewers, there is a risk of disease transmission, or when expertise is not locally available. However, it is unknown whether tele-forensic interviewing is an effective alternative to face-to-face interviewing, particularly for children most prone to suggestibility and lapses of attention. HYPOTHESES: Previous studies suggested that school-age children would provide similar amounts of information across interview modes but provided no basis for predicting how misinformation impacts accuracy across modes or how 4- and 5-year-olds would react to tele-forensic interviewing. METHOD: Children (4-8 years, N = 261, Mage = 6.42 years, 48% female) interacted with male assistants who violated a no-touching rule, parents read children a book containing misinformation about that event, and female assistants conducted interviews (usually 2 weeks after the event) face-to-face or via a video conference application. RESULTS: The children were more talkative during a practice narrative phase when interviewed face-to-face rather than on screen (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 1.26, 95% CI [1.06, 1.51]), and 4-, 5-, and 6-year-olds said more in response to open-ended prompts when interviewed face-to-face (IRR = 1.50, 95% CI [1.08, 2.09]). Children younger than 7 years also disclosed the face touch and noncompleted handshake in response to earlier and less directive prompts when interviewed face-to-face, rs(53) = .28, p = .037, and rs(48) = .33, p = .021, respectively. Children 8 years and older, however, disclosed the face touch more readily when they spoke on screen, rs(28) = -.38, p = .036, and older 7-year-olds and 8-year-olds disclosed the noncompleted handshake more readily on screen, rs(30) = -.36, p = .042. Across interview modes, children reported comparable numbers of touch events, however, and were equally accurate on challenging source-monitoring and detail questions. CONCLUSIONS: Tele-forensic interviewing can be a reasonable alternative to face-to-face interviewing. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
Interviews as Topic/methods , Minors , Videoconferencing , Child , Child, Preschool , Criminal Law/methods , Female , Humans , Male
9.
Pediatrics ; 148(4)2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1443877

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic significantly impacted undergraduate and graduate medical education and created challenges that prevented a traditional approach to residency and fellowship recruitment and interviews. Early in the pandemic, the pediatric education community came together to support applicants and training programs and to foster an equitable recruitment process. We describe many of our community's innovations, including the use of virtual cafés to educate programs and highlight best practices for virtual recruitment and the use of regional webinars to highlight residency programs and provide information to applicants. Surveys of applicants and programs suggest that the virtual interview process worked well overall, with applicants and programs saving both time and money and programs maintaining a high rate of filling their positions. On the basis of this experience, we highlight the strengths and weaknesses of 3 potential models for future interview seasons. We close with a series of questions that need further investigation to create an effective and equitable recruitment process for the future.


Subject(s)
Fellowships and Scholarships , Internet , Internship and Residency , Interviews as Topic/methods , Pediatrics/education , Personnel Selection/methods , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Humans , Job Application , Pandemics , Pediatrics/economics , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
11.
Med Educ Online ; 25(1): 1777066, 2020 Jan 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1396566

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Residency programs invest a significant amount of time and resources on the recruitment process, and maintaining efficiency and cost-effectiveness are very important. Virtual Reality (VR) has become an adaptive substitute for 'real life' experiences and its use during the interview season could help save time and resources. OBJECTIVE: With the intention to maximize the interview day and provide a cost-effective alternative to facility tours, a Med-Peds residency training program introduced a VR tour of their children's hospital during recruitment. DESIGN: The Med-Peds program replaced an in-person facility tour of the children's hospital with a VR tour. Applicants were asked to complete an anonymous, voluntary survey on their VR experience at the end of the interview season, and rank features of the interview day in order of importance. RESULTS: There were 33 respondents out of 54 interviewees. Approximately two thirds (63-66%) agreed that VR was non-inferior and superior to in-person facility tours, and that the use of VR had a favorable impact on their perception of the program. However, almost 50% of the applicants had some difficulty using VR technology. CONCLUSION: Use of VR facility tours as an alternative to in-person tours of affiliate training facilities during a residency interview day is a viable and innovative option that can save time and money and favorably impact the applicant's impression of the program. More research is necessary to assess whether VR tours can replace in-person tours at the main teaching site, however, while social distancing measures are in place, VR tours may become necessary for programs moving forward. ABBREVIATIONS: Med-Peds: Internal Medicine-Pediatrics; VR: Virtual Reality; AAMC: Association of American Medical Colleges; IRB: Institutional Review Board.


Subject(s)
Attitude of Health Personnel , Hospitals, Pediatric/organization & administration , Internship and Residency/methods , Interviews as Topic/methods , Virtual Reality , Consumer Behavior , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Hospitals, Pediatric/economics , Humans , Internship and Residency/economics , Surveys and Questionnaires
14.
Med Educ Online ; 26(1): 1946237, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1287910

ABSTRACT

Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, most graduate medical education (GME) training programs conducted virtual interviews for prospective trainees during the 2020-2021 application cycle. Many internal medicine (IM) subspecialty fellowship programs hosted virtual interviews for the first time with little published data to guide best practices.To evaluate how IM subspecialty fellowship applicants perceived the virtual interview day experience.We designed a 38-item questionnaire that was sent via email to applicants in eight IM subspecialty programs at a single tertiary academic medical center (University of California, San Francisco) from September-November, 2020.Seventy-five applicants completed the survey (75/244, 30.7%), including applicants from all eight fellowship programs. Most survey respondents agreed that the length of the virtual interview day (mean = 6.4 hours) was long enough to gather the information they needed (n = 65, 86.7%) and short enough to prevent fatigue (n = 55, 73.3%). Almost all survey respondents agreed that they could adequately assess the clinical experience (n = 71, 97.3%), research opportunities (n = 72, 98.6%), and program culture (n = 68, 93.2%). Of the respondents who attended a virtual educational conference, most agreed it helped to provide a sense of the program's educational culture (n = 20, 66.7%). Areas for improvement were identified, with some survey respondents reporting that the virtual interview day was too long (n = 11) or that they would have preferred to meet more fellows (n = 10).Survey respondents indicated that the virtual interview was an adequate format to learn about fellowship programs. These findings can inform future virtual interviews for GME training programs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Fellowships and Scholarships , Internal Medicine/education , Interviews as Topic/methods , Students, Medical/psychology , Female , Humans , Internship and Residency/organization & administration , Male , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , San Francisco , School Admission Criteria
17.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 69(10): 2741-2744, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1262362

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Because of the COVID-19 pandemic, the ongoing D-CARE pragmatic trial of two models of dementia care management needed to transition to all data collection by telephone. METHODS: For the first 1069 D-CARE participants, we determined the feasibility of administering a short 3-item version of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) to persons with dementia by telephone and examined the correlation with the full 12-item version. RESULTS: The 3-item version could be administered by telephone in approximately 6 min and was highly correlated with the full MoCA (r = 0.78, p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: This brief version of the MoCA was feasible to collect by telephone and could be used as an alternative to the full MoCA, particularly if the purpose of cognitive assessment is characterization of study participants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dementia , Mental Status and Dementia Tests , Patient Care Management , Telemedicine/methods , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis , Dementia/diagnosis , Dementia/psychology , Dementia/therapy , Female , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Interviews as Topic/methods , Male , Patient Care Management/methods , Patient Care Management/trends , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Fertil Steril ; 116(3): 872-881, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1233425

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the experience and perceptions of reproductive endocrinology and infertility fellowship applicants and program directors (PDs) regarding the current and future use of web-based interviews (WBIs). DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Nationwide cohort. PATIENT(S): Reproductive endocrinology and infertility fellowship applicants and PDs participating in the 2020 application cycle. INTERVENTION(S): Anonymous survey sent to applicants and PDs. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Descriptive study evaluating the experience and satisfaction of applicants and PDs with WBIs. RESULT(S): Forty-six percent of applicants and eligible PDs responded to our survey. Most applicants and PDs responded that WBIs were adequate for conveying a sense of a program's strengths, faculty, diversity, clinical training, and research opportunities, but less than half responded that WBIs were adequate in providing a sense of the program's clinical site and facilities. After WBIs, both applicants (73%) and PDs (86%) were able to rank with confidence. The cost of WBIs was significantly lower for both applicants (median: $100) and programs (median: $100) than the costs previously reported for in-person interviews. The applicants interviewed at more programs than they would have if the interviews were on-site, and Zoom was the highest rated platform used. Most applicants and PDs responded that WBIs were an adequate substitute, and that they should continue after the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. Furthermore, most of the PDs were planning to continue to use WBIs in some capacity. CONCLUSION(S): Both applicants and PDs had favorable experiences with and perceptions of WBIs, and most endorse the continued use of this interview modality. The findings of this study can help guide and optimize future WBI practices.


Subject(s)
Endocrinology/organization & administration , Fellowships and Scholarships/organization & administration , Interviews as Topic/methods , Physicians/psychology , Reproductive Medicine/organization & administration , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Endocrinology/education , Endocrinology/methods , Fellowships and Scholarships/methods , Female , Humans , Infertility/therapy , Internet , Internship and Residency/methods , Internship and Residency/organization & administration , Interpersonal Relations , Interviews as Topic/statistics & numerical data , Job Application , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Perception , Personal Satisfaction , Physicians/statistics & numerical data , Reproductive Medicine/education , Reproductive Medicine/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Students, Medical/psychology , Students, Medical/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires
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