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1.
BMC Womens Health ; 23(1): 294, 2023 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20240322

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic drastically affected societies globally, prompting rising unemployment, insufficient household incomes, and stress and undermining women's and children's health within families. This study examined family violence and identified influencing factors during the COVID-19 pandemic in Thailand. METHODS: A mixed-method design was used, entailing a questionnaire followed by focus group interviews. A cross-sectional survey was administered to investigate family violence among 1285 female respondents aged 15 years and above who were recruited through stratified sampling. The Cronbach alpha and and inter-raters Kappa coefficient values for the questionnaire were 0.67 and 1.00, respectively. In addition, a descriptive qualitative instrument was employed to analyze the data sets from four focus group interviews held with 32 staff members from agencies that deal with family violence. The researchers jointly developed the focus group questions, which focused on the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on family violence. They independently analyzed data using content analysis. RESULTS: The majority of the study participants were aged above 45 years (>50%), married (61.1%), lived in single-family settings (52.5%), had lost their jobs (64.4%), and had economic constraints that were moderate (37.8%) to severe (40.6%). The prevalence of family violence, which was primarily physical, was 42.2%. Family income, stress, and substance abuse were the main factors associated with family violence. These findings were correlated with those from the qualitative interviews. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic had indirect impacts through family violence. Women were subjected to family violence behaviors, which were associated with household income, economic status, stress, and substance abuse. These behaviors included psychological and physical violence, as well as sexual abuse. Future interventions should focus on financial support and stress reduction.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Domestic Violence , Intimate Partner Violence , Substance-Related Disorders , Child , Humans , Female , COVID-19/epidemiology , Women's Health , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Thailand/epidemiology , Pandemics , Child Health , Risk Factors
2.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 965, 2023 05 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20239711

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Intimate partner violence (IPV) may have been exacerbated during the COVID-19 pandemic. This analysis aimed to determine how employment disruption during COVID-19, including working from home, was associated with IPV experience among cis-gendered women. METHODS: The International Sexual Health and Reproductive health (I-SHARE) study is a cross-sectional online survey implemented in 30 countries during the pandemic. Samples used convenience, online panel, and population-representative methods. IPV was a pre-specified primary outcome, measured using questions from a validated World Health Organisation instrument. Conditional logistic regression modelling was used to quantify the associations between IPV and changes to employment during COVID-19, adjusted for confounding. RESULTS: 13,416 cis-gender women, aged 18-97, were analysed. One third were from low and middle income countries, and two thirds from high income countries. The majority were heterosexual (82.7%), educated beyond secondary-level (72.4%) and childless (62.7%). During COVID-19 33.9% women worked from home, 14.6% lost employment, and 33.1% continued to work on-site. 15.5% experienced some form of IPV. Women working from home experienced greater odds of IPV than those working on-site (adjusted OR 1.40, 95% CI 1.12-1.74, p = 0.003). This finding was robust independent of sampling strategy and country income. The association was primarily driven by an increase in psychological violence, which was more prevalent than sexual or physical violence. The association was stronger in countries with high gender inequality. CONCLUSIONS: Working from home may increase IPV risk globally. Workplaces offering working from home should collaborate with support services and research interventions to strengthen resiliency against IPV.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Intimate Partner Violence , Humans , Female , Male , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Employment , Sexual Partners/psychology , Risk Factors , Prevalence
3.
Am J Emerg Med ; 69: 160-166, 2023 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235521

ABSTRACT

Individuals experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV) and/or human trafficking (HT) are at increased risk of severe health consequences as a result of legislation criminalizing and/or restricting abortion, which is expected to increase as a result of the Supreme Court decision Dobbs v. Jackson. These risks are further stratified by race, socioeconomics, and other marginalizing demographic attributes. IPV and HT introduce barriers to maintaining physical and mental health, due to control of access to transportation and funds by the abuser, fear of retribution for seeking healthcare, and other barriers. Individuals experiencing IPV or HT often lack reproductive autonomy, as a result of facing reproductive coercion at the hands of their abusers. Following the Dobbs decision, these vulnerable patient populations will face further limitations on their reproductive autonomy and increased obstacles to obtaining an abortion if they medically need or desire one. This will likely result in more patients presenting to the emergency department due to complications from unsafe or unsupervised self-managed abortions, as well as patients being reluctant to report having obtained an unlawful abortion due to fear of legal consequences. This is particularly relevant to individuals experiencing IPV and HT, as they may be more likely to use these methods for obtaining an abortion due to numerous barriers. Emergency medicine clinicians are vital in providing care to these patients, as they frequently present to emergency departments. A multi-pronged approach to better support these patients is essential, involving an increased index of suspicion for IPV, HT or the complications of unsupervised abortion, improved organizational structures, specialized training for staff, improved screening methods, reflection on implicit bias, and recommendations for mindful documentation and legal considerations.


Subject(s)
Abortion, Induced , Abortion, Spontaneous , Intimate Partner Violence , Pregnancy , Female , Humans , Emotions , Emergency Service, Hospital
4.
JBJS Rev ; 11(4)2023 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2316303

ABSTRACT

¼: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is under-reported and pervasive in the orthopaedic surgical setting. ¼: Screening programs that could increase reporting and assist in treatment and prevention are commonly underutilized. ¼: There is little formalized education during orthopaedic surgery training for IPV. ¼: The incidence of IPV continues to increase in the setting of recent stressors, such as COVID-19, and the orthopaedic surgeon should play a role in the screening and identification of patients presenting with IPV injuries and provide resources and referral.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Intimate Partner Violence , Orthopedic Procedures , Orthopedic Surgeons , Orthopedics , Humans , Intimate Partner Violence/prevention & control
6.
JBJS Rev ; 11(4)2023 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2298308

ABSTRACT

¼: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is under-reported and pervasive in the orthopaedic surgical setting. ¼: Screening programs that could increase reporting and assist in treatment and prevention are commonly underutilized. ¼: There is little formalized education during orthopaedic surgery training for IPV. ¼: The incidence of IPV continues to increase in the setting of recent stressors, such as COVID-19, and the orthopaedic surgeon should play a role in the screening and identification of patients presenting with IPV injuries and provide resources and referral.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Intimate Partner Violence , Orthopedic Procedures , Orthopedic Surgeons , Orthopedics , Humans , Intimate Partner Violence/prevention & control
7.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(7)2023 04 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2304050

ABSTRACT

After suffering interpersonal violence (IPV), women survivors can access various interdisciplinary services and programmes to guide their recovery. Nevertheless, many vulnerable women postpone seeking help, sometimes indefinitely. Motherhood especially complicates help-seeking because mothers often want to protect both the perpetrator and their children. Understanding women's resilience, resources, and capacities in surviving IPV, however, could guide the development of helpful services that women actually access. Thus, in our study, we sought to explore the agency, resources, and reinforcing survival experiences of survivors of IPV. Our data, gathered in Finland during the COVID-19 pandemic, consisted of 12 narratives of mothers told in Clinical Ethnographic Narrative Interviews that were subsequently subjected to thematic analysis. Five themes describing personal resources, motherhood, and nature were identified under the overarching metaphor of "going forward like a grandmother in the snow". Recognising the agency, resources, capacities, and coping mechanisms of women who have suffered IPV can help in developing professional outreach programmes, promoting women's early access to useful resources, and, in turn, helping them to stop the possible intergenerational transmission of violence.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Intimate Partner Violence , Child , Female , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Mothers , Pandemics
8.
PLoS One ; 18(4): e0284194, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2296524

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Emergency Department (ED) screening for intimate partner violence (IPV) is typically nursing-initiated, often with visitors present. Since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, we have seen both an increase in societal stress, a known exacerbator of IPV, and the implementation of visitor restriction policies. This combination presents the need for enhanced IPV screening and the opportunity to perform screening in a controlled, patient-only environment. Our goal was to evaluate the frequency of nurse-initiated screening for IPV prior to and during the early months of the COVID-19 pandemic as well as the frequency of positive screens for IPV. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study evaluating all adults (age >18 years) presenting to a tertiary care center ED. Patients were identified as presenting prior to the COVID-19 pandemic (June 1, 2019 to August 31, 2019) and after the COVID-19 visitor restriction policies (June 1, 2020 to August 31, 2020). Descriptive statistics were performed using chi-square and t-tests compared the demographic variables. Chi-square was used for a bivariate analysis of our primary outcomes (IPV screening performed and screening positive for IPV). Further analysis was done using a binary logistic regression model adjusting for the demographic characteristics. RESULTS: Both the odds of nursing-initiated IPV screening and the odds of verbally screening positive for IPV significantly increased (OR 1.509, 95% CI 1.432-1.600) and (OR 1.375, 95% CI 1.126-1.681) respectively following the implementation of COVID-19 visitor restriction policies. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that nurse-initiated IPV screening should continue to be performed with the patient privately, even after COVID-19 related ED visitor restrictions are removed. These findings also support the hypothesis that the stress related to COVID-19 is contributing to a rise in IPV.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Intimate Partner Violence , Adult , Humans , Adolescent , Retrospective Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pandemics
9.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 725, 2023 04 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2306175

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Globally, 2-14% of women experience intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy. Timely response to IPV is critical to mitigate related adverse health outcomes. Barriers to accessing limited IPV support services are pervasive in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), such as Ethiopia; key barriers include mistrust, stigmatization, and self-blame, and discourage women from disclosing their experiences. Infection control measures for COVID-19 have the potential to further disrupt access to IPV services. METHODS: In-depth qualitative interviews were undertaken from October-November 2020 with 24 women who experienced IPV during recent pregnancy to understand the needs and unmet needs of IPV survivors in Ethiopia amid the COVID-19 pandemic. Trained qualitative interviewers used a structured note-taking tool to allow probing of experiences, while permitting rapid analysis for timely results. Inductive thematic analysis identified emergent themes, which were organized into matrices for synthesis. RESULTS: Qualitative themes center around knowledge of IPV services; experiences of women in seeking services; challenges in accessing services; the impact of COVID-19 on resource access; and persistent unmet needs of IPV survivors. Notably, few women discussed the violence they experienced as unique to pregnancy, with most referring to IPV over an extended period, both prior to and during COVID-19 restrictions. The majority of IPV survivors in our study heavily relied on their informal network of family and friends for protection and assistance in resolving the violence. Though formal IPV services remained open throughout the pandemic, restrictions resulted in the perception that services were not available, and this perception discouraged survivors from seeking help. Survivors further identified lack of integrated and tailored services as enduring unmet needs. CONCLUSIONS: Results reveal a persistent low awareness and utilization of formal IPV support and urge future policy efforts to address unmet needs through expansion of services by reducing socio-cultural barriers. COVID-19 impacted access to both formal and informal support systems, highlighting needs for adaptable, remote service delivery and upstream violence prevention. Public health interventions must strengthen linkages between formal and informal resources to fill the unmet needs of IPV survivors in receiving medical, psychosocial, and legal support in their home communities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Intimate Partner Violence , Pregnancy , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Ethiopia/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Intimate Partner Violence/psychology , Survivors/psychology
13.
J Interpers Violence ; 38(13-14): 8377-8399, 2023 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2271401

ABSTRACT

Intimate partner violence (IPV) poses a public health burden, yet few studies have assessed co-existence of physical, emotional, and sexual IPV among adolescents. We assessed recent IPV victimization and associated factors and described IPV patterns and perpetrators among young people from urban slums in Kampala, Uganda. We conducted a prospective cohort study among 14 to 19-year-old individuals enrolled from March 2019 to March 2020 and followed quarterly for 12 months. We collected data on socio-demographics, sexual behavior, and substance use through interviews. Recent IPV victimization was documented at all visits if a participant reported experiencing physical, emotional, and/or sexual IPV in the past 3 months. Baseline factors associated with recent IPV victimization were determined using multivariable logistic regression. We enrolled 490 adolescents (60.6% female) with median age 18 years (Interquartile range (IQR) 17-18 years), 91.0% had less than secondary level education. Females mainly engaged in sex work (17.5%) and selling fruits/snacks (9.1%) while males commonly earned from sale of metal scrap or plastic waste (28.5%), 41% reported ≥10 life-time sexual partners, 16.1% were high-risk alcohol drinkers and 34.9% used illicit drugs in the past 3 months. Overall, 27.8% reported recent IPV victimization (20.0% females) with emotional IPV being common (17.8%). At baseline, recent IPV victimization was associated with high-risk alcohol consumption (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.57; 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.44, 4.58]), reported paid sex in the past 3 months (aOR 1.82; [1.02, 3.22]) and being separated (aOR 2.47; [1.29, 4.73]). Recent IPV victimization declined from baseline to month 9 and increased at month 12 visits which coincided with the COVID-19 pandemic. IPV victimization is high among young people living in urban slums with emotional IPV being prevalent. IPV interventions are needed and should also address excessive alcohol consumption.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Intimate Partner Violence , Male , Humans , Female , Adolescent , Young Adult , Adult , Prevalence , Uganda/epidemiology , Pandemics , Poverty Areas , Prospective Studies , Sexual Partners/psychology , Risk Factors
14.
Clin Child Psychol Psychiatry ; 28(3): 1109-1122, 2023 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2269731

ABSTRACT

Children exposed to parental intimate partner violence (IPV) are at high risk in terms of their mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, online interventions are imperative in a crisis situation. Empirical studies indicate a significant relationship between self-esteem and children exposed to parental IPV. This research aimed to develop, and pilot test an online intervention program to enhance the self-esteem of Adolescents exposed to parental IPV. Conklin's developmental model was used to develop the online program and the Coopersmith Self Esteem Inventory scale, interview, and focus group discussion was used to understand the key issues. The developed Cognitive Self Compassion (CSC) Online Intervention Program that integrates the theories and techniques of social cognitive theory and self-compassion was implemented over 6 weeks at a rate of 60 min per session to the 10 participants. Results of the single-group pilot experiment showed a significant difference in the pre & post-test scores of the participants. The self-esteem of the adolescents exposed to parental IPV was significantly enhanced after undergoing the CSC Online Intervention Program.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Internet-Based Intervention , Intimate Partner Violence , Child , Humans , Adolescent , Self-Compassion , Pilot Projects , Empathy , Pandemics , Intimate Partner Violence/psychology , Self Concept , Cognition
15.
Sex Reprod Health Matters ; 31(1): 2181282, 2023 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2277113

ABSTRACT

This paper examines factors associated with intimate partner violence (IPV) among newly married women in Nepal, and how IPV was affected by food insecurity and COVID-19. Given evidence that food insecurity is associated with IPV and COVID-19, we explored whether increased food insecurity during COVID-19 is associated with changes in IPV. We used data from a cohort study of 200 newly married women aged 18-25 years, interviewed five times over two years at 6-month intervals (02/2018-07/2020), including after COVID-19-associated lockdowns. Bivariate analysis and mixed-effects logistic regression models were used to examine the association between selected risk factors and recent IPV. IPV increased from 24.5% at baseline to 49.2% before COVID-19 and to 80.4% after COVID-19. After adjusting for covariates, we find that both COVID-19 (OR = 2.93, 95% CI 1.07-8.02) and food insecurity (OR = 7.12, 95% CI 4.04-12.56) are associated with increased odds of IPV, and IPV increased more for food-insecure women post COVID-19 (compared to non-food insecure), but this was not statistically significant (confidence interval 0.76-8.69, p-value = 0.131). Young, newly married women experience high rates of IPV that increase with time in marriage, and COVID-19 has exacerbated this, especially for food-insecure women in the present sample. Along with enforcement of laws against IPV, our results suggest that special attention needs to be paid to women during a crisis time like the current COVID-19 pandemic, especially those who experience other household stressors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Intimate Partner Violence , Humans , Female , Adolescent , Young Adult , Adult , Longitudinal Studies , Marriage , Cohort Studies , Nepal , Pandemics , Communicable Disease Control , Food Insecurity
16.
JAMA Netw Open ; 6(3): e232977, 2023 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2280312

ABSTRACT

Importance: During the COVID-19 pandemic, the prevalence and severity of intimate partner violence (IPV) increased. Associations between IPV and mental health symptoms and modifiable health factors early in the pandemic have yet to be explored. Objective: To prospectively investigate the association of IPV with greater risk of mental health symptoms and adverse health factors during the COVID-19 pandemic in 3 cohorts of female participants. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study used observational data from 3 prospective, population-based, longitudinal cohorts in the US: the Nurses' Health Study II, Growing Up Today Study, and Nurses' Health Study 3. Data analyzed included baseline and follow-up survey responses about IPV experiences early in the pandemic (March-September 2020); mental health domains of depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS); and modifiable health factors (May 2020-October 2021). Female participants (both health care professionals and non-health care workers) aged 21 to 60 years from the 3 cohorts were included in the full analytic sample. Exposures: Experience of IPV measured by the Relationship Assessment Tool and fear of partner. Main Outcomes and Measures: Mental health symptoms, including depression, anxiety, and PTSS, and modifiable health factors, including sleep duration, sleep quality, physical activity, alcohol use, and use of alcohol or other substances to cope with stress. Results: The full analytic sample included 13 597 female participants with a mean (SD) age of 44 (10.6) years. Accounting for sociodemographic factors and prepandemic mental health symptoms and correcting for multiple testing, experiencing IPV was associated with higher endorsement of depression (odds ratio [OR], 1.44; 95% CI, 1.38-1.50), anxiety (OR, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.26-1.36), and PTSS (OR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.15-1.29) in random-effects meta-analyses across the 3 cohorts. The IPV experience was also associated with poorer sleep quality (OR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.16-1.26), shorter sleep duration (OR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.08-1.19), increased use of alcohol (OR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.06-1.14), and use of alcohol or other substances to cope with stress (OR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.08-1.18) across all cohorts as well as decreased physical activity (OR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.09-1.26) in the Nurses' Health Study II only. Conclusions and Relevance: Results of the study showed that IPV experiences at the start of the pandemic were associated with worse mental health symptoms and modifiable health factors for female participants younger than 60 years. Screening and interventions for IPV and related health factors are needed to prevent severe, long-term health consequences.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Intimate Partner Violence , Female , Humans , Mental Health , Pandemics , Cohort Studies , Prospective Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , Intimate Partner Violence/psychology
17.
JAMA Netw Open ; 6(2): e230172, 2023 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2250570

ABSTRACT

Importance: The social, behavioral, and economic consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic may be associated with unstable and/or unsafe living situations and intimate partner violence (IPV) among pregnant individuals. Objective: To investigate trends in unstable and/or unsafe living situations and IPV among pregnant individuals prior to and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Design, Setting, and Participants: A cross-sectional population-based interrupted time-series analysis was conducted among Kaiser Permanente Northern California members who were pregnant and screened for unstable and/or unsafe living situation and IPV as part of standard prenatal care between January 1, 2019, and December 31, 2020. Exposures: COVID-19 pandemic (prepandemic period: January 1, 2019, to March 31, 2020; during pandemic period: April 1 to December 31, 2020). Main Outcomes and Measures: The 2 outcomes were unstable and/or unsafe living situations and IPV. Data were extracted from electronic health records. Interrupted time-series models were fit and adjusted for age and race and ethnicity. Results: The study sample included 77 310 pregnancies (74 663 individuals); 27.4% of the individuals were Asian or Pacific Islander, 6.5% were Black, 29.0% were Hispanic, 32.3% were non-Hispanic White, and 4.8% were other/unknown/multiracial, with a mean (SD) age of 30.9 (5.3) years. Across the 24-month study period there was an increasing trend in the standardized rate of unsafe and/or unstable living situations (2.2%; rate ratio [RR], 1.022; 95% CI, 1.016-1.029 per month) and IPV (4.9%; RR, 1.049; 95% CI, 1.021-1.078 per month). The ITS model indicated a 38% increase (RR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.13-1.69) in the first month of the pandemic for unsafe and/or unstable living situation, with a return to the overall trend afterward for the study period. For IPV, the interrupted time-series model suggested an increase of 101% (RR, 2.01; 95% CI, 1.20-3.37) in the first 2 months of the pandemic. Conclusions and Relevance: This cross-sectional study noted an overall increase in unstable and/or unsafe living situations and IPV over the 24-month period, with a temporary increase associated with the COVID-19 pandemic. It may be useful for emergency response plans to include IPV safeguards for future pandemics. These findings suggest the need for prenatal screening for unsafe and/or unstable living situations and IPV coupled with referral to appropriate support services and preventive interventions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Intimate Partner Violence , Pregnancy , Female , Humans , Adult , Pandemics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prenatal Care
18.
J Interpers Violence ; 38(15-16): 9290-9314, 2023 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2268747

ABSTRACT

Concerns have been raised over the experiences of violence such as domestic violence (DV) and intimate partner violence (IPV) during the COVID-19 pandemic. Social media such as Reddit represent an alternative outlet for reporting experiences of violence where healthcare access has been limited. This study analyzed seven violence-related subreddits to investigate the trends of different violence patterns from January 2018 to February 2022 to enhance the health-service providers' existing service or provide some new perspective for existing violence research. Specifically, we collected violence-related texts from Reddit using keyword searching and identified six major types with supervised machine learning classifiers: DV, IPV, physical violence, sexual violence, emotional violence, and nonspecific violence or others. The increase rate (IR) of each violence type was calculated and temporally compared in five phases of the pandemic. The phases include one pre-pandemic phase (Phase 0, the date before February 26, 2020) and four pandemic phases (Phases 1-4) with separation dates of June 17, 2020, September 7, 2020, and June 4, 2021. We found that the number of IPV-related posts increased most in the earliest phase; however, that for COVID-citing IPV was highest in the mid-pandemic phase. IRs for DV, IPV, and emotional violence also showed increases across all pandemic phases, with IRs of 26.9%, 58.8%, and 28.8%, respectively, from the pre-pandemic to the first pandemic phase. In the other three pandemic phases, all the IRs for these three types of violence were positive, though lower than the IRs in the first pandemic phase. The findings highlight the importance of identifying and providing help to those who suffer from such violent experiences and support the role of social media site monitoring as a means of informative surveillance for help-providing authorities and violence research groups.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Domestic Violence , Intimate Partner Violence , Sex Offenses , Humans , Pandemics , Intimate Partner Violence/psychology
19.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(5)2023 03 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2268162

ABSTRACT

Belgian authorities, like most authorities in European countries, resorted to unprecedented measures in response to the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic between March 2020 and May 2022. This exceptional context highlighted the issue of intimate partner violence (IPV) in an unprecedented way. At a time when many other issues are being put on hold, IPV is being brought to the fore. This article investigated the processes that have led to increasing political attention to domestic violence in Belgium. To this end, a media analysis and a series of semi-structured interviews were conducted. The materials, collected and analyzed by mobilizing the framework of Kingdon's streams theory, allowed us to present the agenda-setting process in its complexity and the COVID-19 as a policy window. The main policy entrepreneurs were NGOs and French-speaking feminist women politicians. Together, they rapidly mobilized sufficient resources to implement public intervention that had already been proposed in the preceding years, but which had been waiting for funding. By doing so, they responded during the peak of the pandemic to requests and needs that had already been expressed in a "non-crisis" context.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Domestic Violence , Intimate Partner Violence , Humans , Female , Pandemics , Health Policy
20.
J Interpers Violence ; 38(9-10): 6961-6984, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2267210

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic created an environment of disruption and adversity for many adolescents. We sought to establish the prevalence of non-dating sexual violence, sexual dating violence, and physical dating violence victimization among adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic and to investigate whether experiences of disruption and adversity placed adolescents at greater risk for these forms of interpersonal violence. We conducted a secondary analysis of data from the Adolescent Behavior and Experiences Survey, collected January to June 2021 from a nationally representative sample of U.S. high school students (N = 7,705). Exposures included abuse by a parent; economic, housing, and food and nutrition insecurity; interpersonal connectedness; and personal well-being. Among female students, 8.0% experienced non-dating sexual violence; 12.5% experienced sexual dating violence; and 7.7% experienced physical dating violence. Among male students, 2.2% experienced non-dating sexual violence; 2.4% experienced sexual dating violence; and 4.9% experienced physical dating violence. Among female students, both emotional and physical abuse by a parent was related to non-dating sexual violence, emotional abuse was related to sexual dating violence, and physical abuse was related to physical dating violence. Among males, emotional abuse by a parent was related to physical dating violence and physical abuse by a parent was related to sexual dating violence. Hunger was associated with sexual and physical dating violence among female students and homeless was associated with physical dating violence among male students. Although there were differences by sex, abuse by a parent, hunger, and homelessness created precarity that may have increased the likelihood that adolescents would be exposed to risky peer or dating relationships. Adolescents need support that stops and prevents experiences of non-dating sexual and dating violence connected to interventions that address adversities experienced during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Adolescent Behavior , COVID-19 , Crime Victims , Intimate Partner Violence , Sex Offenses , Adolescent , Male , United States/epidemiology , Humans , Female , Physical Abuse , Prevalence , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Crime Victims/psychology , Students
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