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1.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1988, 2022 10 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098327

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Women have been especially impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. This exploratory study aimed to characterize women's adverse experiences related to their work, home lives, and wellbeing during the height of the COVID-19 pandemic and to describe demographic differences of those lived experiences. METHODS: Using the validated Epidemic-Pandemic Impacts Inventory, we collected data from reproductive-aged women in the state of Georgia about their exposure to adverse events during the pandemic. A latent class analysis (LCA) was performed to identify subgroups of women reporting similar adverse experiences and describe their sociodemographic characteristics. An optional open-ended question yielded qualitative data that were analyzed thematically and merged with subgroup findings. Data were collected from September 2020 to January 2021. RESULTS: 423 individuals aged 18-49 completed the survey with 314 (74.2%) providing qualitative responses. The LCA yielded 4 subgroups: (1) a "low exposure" subgroup (n = 123, 29.1%) with relatively low probability of adverse experiences across domains (e.g. financial insecurity, health challenges, barriers to access to healthcare, intimate partner violence (IPV)); (2) a "high exposure" subgroup (n = 46, 10.9%) with high probability of experiencing multiple adversities across domains including the loss of loved ones to COVID-19; (3) a "caregiving stress" subgroup (n = 104, 24.6%) with high probability of experiencing challenges with home and work life including increased partner conflict; and (4) a "mental health changes" subgroup (n = 150, 35.5%) characterized by relatively low probability of adverse experiences but high probability of negative changes in mental health and lifestyle. Individuals in subgroups 1 and 4, which had low probabilities of adverse experiences, were significantly more likely to be non-Hispanic white. Individuals in subgroup 2 were more likely to identify with a sexual or racial/ethnic minority population. Inductive coding of qualitative data yielded themes such as stress, mental health, financial impact, and adaptation/resilience, providing context for pandemic-related adversity. CONCLUSION: Though many individuals in our sample experienced hardship, minority populations were unequally impacted by pandemic-related adversity in work life, home life, and wellbeing. Recovery and future emergency preparedness efforts in Georgia must incorporate support mechanisms for mental health and IPV, focusing especially on the intersectional needs of racial, ethnic, and sexual minorities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Intimate Partner Violence , Female , Humans , Adult , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Ethnicity , Georgia/epidemiology , Minority Groups
2.
Pediatrics ; 149(6)2022 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2079829

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To describe the effects of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and associated practice shifts on consultation and referral patterns of an intimate partner violence program at a large, urban children's hospital. METHODS: Secondary data analyses examined COVID-19-related variations in patterns of consultations and referrals in the 11 months before the COVID-19 pandemic (April 1, 2019-February 29, 2020) and those after its emergence (April 1, 2020-February 28, 2021). χ2 analyses were used to examine differences in categorical outcomes of interest by time and practice setting, as well as differences within practice settings. Poisson regressions were used to compare the number of reasons for consultation and the number of referrals during the 2 periods. RESULTS: Analyses revealed significant decreases in face-to-face consults (28% to 2%; P < .001) during the period after COVID-19 emergence alongside significant increases in the total number of consults (240 to 295; P < .001), primarily for emotional abuse (195 to 264; P = .007). Psychoeducation referrals also increased significantly (199 to 273; P < .001), whereas referrals to community resources decreased significantly (111 to 95; P < .001). Setting-specific analyses revealed that primary care settings were the only practice settings to demonstrate significant differences in overall number of and specific reasons for consultation and associated referral types before and after COVID-19 emergence. CONCLUSIONS: Even during a shift away from face-to-face care, there was an increase in intimate partner violence referrals after the start of the COVID-19 pandemic. These findings suggest the importance of pediatric primary care as a location for survivors to access support.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Intimate Partner Violence , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Hospitals, Pediatric , Humans , Intimate Partner Violence/psychology , Pandemics , Referral and Consultation
3.
BMJ Open ; 12(5): e051887, 2022 05 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2078921

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The Women Aware with Their Children study was created because prospective data are required to accurately guide prevention programmes for intimate partner violence (IPV) and to improve the mental health and resettlement trajectories of women from refugee backgrounds in Australia. PARTICIPANTS: 1335 women (685 consecutively enrolled from refugee backgrounds and 650 randomly selected Australian-born) recruited during pregnancy from three public antenatal clinics in Sydney and Melbourne, Australia. The mean age was 29.7 years among women from refugee backgrounds and 29.0 years among women born in the host nation. Main measures include IPV, mood, panic, post-traumatic stress disorder, disability and living difficulties. FINDINGS TO DATE: Prevalence of IPV at all three time points is significantly higher for refugee-background women. The trend data showed that reported IPV rates among Australian-born women increased from 25.8% at time 1 to 30.1% at time 3, while for refugee-background women this rate declined from 44.4% at time 1 to 42.6% at time 3. Prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) at all three time points is higher for refugee-background women. MDD among Australian-born women significantly declined from 14.5% at time 1 to 9.9% at time 3, while for refugee-background women it fluctuated from 25.1% at time 1 to 17.3% at time 2 and to 19.1% at time 3. FUTURE PLANS: We are currently examining trajectories of IPV and mental disorder across four time points. Time 4 occurred during the COVID-19 pandemic, enabling a unique opportunity to examine the impacts of the pandemic over time. Time 5 started in August 2021 and time 6 will begin approximately 12 months later. The children at time 5 are in the early school years, providing the capacity to examine behaviour, development and well-being of the index child.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depressive Disorder, Major , Intimate Partner Violence , Refugees , Adult , Australia/epidemiology , Child , Cohort Studies , Depressive Disorder, Major/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Intimate Partner Violence/psychology , Male , Mental Health , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Prospective Studies , Refugees/psychology
4.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(19)2022 Oct 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066071

ABSTRACT

Following the logic of studies showing that collective efficacy within neighborhoods deters intimate partner violence (IPV), the promotion of social distancing during the COVID-19 pandemic may have weakened that effect. To examine that possibility, we analyzed panel data from 318 adults in Japan regarding IPV victimization and perceived collective efficacy at four time points. A latent growth model (LGM) analysis for each measure revealed that informal social control, a subscale of collective efficacy, has declined since the pandemic began, whereas no significant changes have occurred in social cohesion and trust, another subscale of collective efficacy, and IPV victimization. Furthermore, two parallel LGM analyses revealed that although collective efficacy before the pandemic suppressed subsequent IPV victimization, changes in collective efficacy during the pandemic have been positively associated with changes in IPV. Those results suggest that collective efficacy's protective effect on IPV is moderated by whether interactions between intimate partners and their neighbors are socially normative.


Subject(s)
Bullying , COVID-19 , Crime Victims , Intimate Partner Violence , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Intimate Partner Violence/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control
5.
Womens Health (Lond) ; 18: 17455057221129399, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2064663

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The COVID-19 pandemic has exacerbated intimate partner violence and abuse. Incidents of intimate partner violence and abuse have increased as a result of household tensions due to enforced coexistence (multiple national lockdowns and working from home practices), economic stress related to loss of income, the disruption of social and protective networks and the decreased access to support services. This study aimed to understand how female survivors of parental intimate partner violence and abuse have experienced the adapted multi-agency response to intimate partner violence and abuse during the pandemic and consider learning from remote and hybrid working to influence future support. METHOD: This study adopted a qualitative research design, utilizing semi-structured interviews and a focus group. Data collection took place between March and September 2021. In total, 17 female survivors of intimate partner violence and abuse took part in the project; we conducted the semi-structured interviews via telephone (n = 9) and conducted an online focus group (n = 8). RESULTS: Findings identified that services for those experiencing intimate partner violence and abuse need to be innovative, flexible and adaptable and 'reach out' to survivors rather than waiting for survivors to 'reach in' and ask for support. Findings show that the digital space highlights 'missed opportunities' for engagement with both professionals and peers and the potential for digital poverty is a key implication, which risks entrenching existing inequalities. CONCLUSION: In-depth consideration needs to be given to the design, delivery and evaluation of online interventions and provision of support to improve access and acceptability of services, maximize their effectiveness and to support the safety of survivors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Intimate Partner Violence , Communicable Disease Control , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Parents
6.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1852, 2022 10 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2053887

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has been linked with increased rates of intimate partner violence (IPV) and associated experiences of compounded trauma. The emergence of this global pandemic and the public health measures introduced to limit its transmission necessitated the need for virtually delivered interventions to support continuity of care and access to interventions for individuals affected by IPV throughout the crisis. With the rapid shift to virtual delivery, understanding the barriers to accessing virtually delivering trauma-focused IPV interventions to these individuals was missed. This study aimed to qualitatively describe the challenges experienced by service providers with delivering virtually delivered IPV services that are safe, equitable, and accessible for their diverse clients during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: The study involved semi-structured interviews with 24 service providers within the anti-violence sector in Alberta, Canada working with and serving individuals affected by IPV. The interviews focused on the perspectives and experiences of the providers as an indirect source of information about virtual delivery of IPV interventions for a diverse range of individuals affected by IPV. Interview transcripts were analyzed using inductive thematic analysis. RESULTS: Findings in our study show the concepts of equity and safety are more complex for individuals affected by IPV, especially those who are socially disadvantaged. Service providers acknowledged pre-existing systemic and institutional barriers faced by underserved individuals impact their access to IPV interventions more generally. The COVID-19 pandemic further compounded these pre-existing challenges and hindered virtual access to IPV interventions. Service providers also highlighted the pandemic exacerbated structural vulnerabilities already experienced by underserved populations, which intensified the barriers they face in seeking help, and reduced their ability to receive safe and equitable interventions virtually. CONCLUSION: The findings from this qualitative research identified key determining factors for delivering safe, equitable, and accessible virtually delivered intervention for a diverse range of populations. To ensure virtual interventions are safe and equitable it is necessary for service providers to acknowledge and attend to underlying systemic and institutional barriers including discrimination and social exclusion. There is also a need for a collaborative commitment from multiple levels of the social, health, and political systems.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Intimate Partner Violence , Alberta , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Qualitative Research , Telemedicine
7.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1857, 2022 10 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2053883

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Global evidence indicates increases in gender-based violence (GBV) during the COVID-19 pandemic following mitigation measures, such as stay at home orders. Indirect effects of the pandemic, including income loss, strained social support, and closed or inaccessible violence response services, may further exacerbate GBV and undermine help-seeking. In Kenya and Burkina Faso, as in many settings, GBV was prevalent prior to the COVID-19 pandemic. Studies specific to COVID-impact on GBV in Kenya indicate mixed results and there remains a lack of evidence from Burkina Faso. Our study takes a comprehensive lens by addressing both intimate partner violence (IPV) and non-partner household abuse through the COVID-19 pandemic in two priority settings. METHODS: Annual, national cross-sections of women ages 15-49 completed survey data collection in November-December 2020 and December 2020-March 2021; the GBV module was limited to one woman per household [Kenya n = 6715; Burkina n = 4065]. Descriptive statistics, Venn diagrams, and logistic and multinomial regression characterized prevalence of IPV and other household abuse, frequency relative to the COVID-19 pandemic, help-seeking behaviors, and predictors of IPV and household abuse across the socioecological framework. RESULTS: In both settings, past-year IPV prevalence exceeded non-partner household abuse (Kenya: 23.5%IPV, 11.0%household; Burkina Faso: 25.7%IPV, 16.2%household). Over half of those affected in each setting did not seek help; those that did turned first to family. Among those with past-year experiences, increased frequency since COVID-19 was noted for IPV (16.0%Burkina Faso; 33.6%Kenya) and household violence (14.3%Burkina Faso; 26.2%Kenya). Both context-specific (i.e., financial autonomy in Burkina Faso) and universal (i.e., COVID-related income loss) risk factors emerged. CONCLUSION: Past-year IPV and household violence against women in Kenya and Burkina Faso were prevalent, and in some cases, intensified during the COVID-19 pandemic. Across settings, help-seeking from formal services was notably low, likely reflecting shame, blame, and stigmatization identified as barriers in pre-COVID literature. Both primary prevention and survivor-centered support services, including those related to economic empowerment, should be integrated within COVID-recovery efforts, and extended into the post-pandemic period to fully meet women's safety needs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Intimate Partner Violence , Adolescent , Adult , Burkina Faso/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Kenya/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Sexual Partners , Young Adult
9.
J Gen Intern Med ; 37(Suppl 3): 724-733, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2014422

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Little is known about women veterans' intimate partner violence (IPV) experiences during the COVID-19 pandemic or the impacts of pandemic-related stress on their mental and physical health. OBJECTIVES: To identify IPV experiences among women veterans prior to and during the pandemic, pandemic-related stressors, and examine their respective contributions to mental and physical health. DESIGN: National sample of women veterans drawn from a larger web-based longitudinal study. Relationships between recent IPV and pandemic-related stressors were tested with linear regressions, controlling for pre-pandemic IPV and mental and physical health symptoms, demographic, and military-related covariates. PARTICIPANTS: One hundred forty-two women veterans (Mage=58.8 years). MAIN MEASURES: We assessed IPV (CTS-2), PTSD (PCL-5), depression (CESD), anxiety (DASS-A), physical health (PHQ-15), and physical health-related quality of life (SF-12) prior to the pandemic (June 2016-December 2016/January 2017) and during the pandemic study period (March 2020-December 2020/January 2021). We assessed pandemic-related stressors (EPII) during the pandemic study period. KEY RESULTS: Over a third (38.7%) of participants experienced IPV during the pandemic study period (psychological: 35.9%, physical: 9.9%, sexual: 4.2%). Overall rates, frequency, and severity of IPV experience did not significantly differ between the pre-pandemic and pandemic study periods. Few participants tested positive for COVID-19 (4.2%); however, most participants reported experiencing pandemic-related stressors across life domains (e.g., social activities: 88%, physical health: 80.3%, emotional health: 68.3%). IPV during the pandemic and pandemic-related stressors were both associated with greater PTSD and depressive symptoms. Pandemic-related stressors were associated with worse anxiety and physical health symptoms. Neither IPV during the pandemic nor pandemic-related stressors were associated with physical health-related quality of life. CONCLUSIONS: IPV experiences during the pandemic were common among women veterans, as were pandemic-related stressors. Although IPV did not increase in the context of COVID-19, IPV experiences during the pandemic and pandemic-related stressors were linked with poorer mental and physical health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Intimate Partner Violence , Veterans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Intimate Partner Violence/psychology , Longitudinal Studies , Pandemics , Quality of Life , Veterans/psychology
10.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1666, 2022 09 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2009380

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Intimate partner aggression (IPA) is a prevalent public health concern that is associated with multiple negative consequences. Rates of IPA in the U.S. have increased since the onset of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, likely due to stress associated with the pandemic. Socioeconomic deprivation is associated with COVID-19 outcomes as well as IPA. However, whether socioeconomic deprivation interacts with COVID-19 stress in predicting IPA remains unclear. METHODS: Using a sample of 510 individuals recruited via Qualtrics Research Services in April 2020, the present study tested whether socioeconomic deprivation moderates the association between COVID-19 stress and IPA perpetration and victimization. Participants completed a questionnaire battery that included measures of COVID-19 stressors and physical and psychological IPA perpetration and victimization. In addition, participants reported their residential zip codes, which were subsequently matched with scores on the Social Deprivation Index, a composite measure of seven demographic variables from the 5-year American Community Survey. RESULTS: Sequential generalized linear models in Mplus Version 8.7 showed that the effects of COVID-19 stress on physical IPA perpetration and psychological IPA victimization can be best understood through its interactive effects with socioeconomic deprivation. Higher COVID-19 stress was associated with higher levels of physical IPA perpetration and psychological IPA victimization when socioeconomic deprivation was low but not when socioeconomic deprivation was high. Importantly, however, overall rates of IPA were higher among individuals with higher socioeconomic deprivation than among individuals with lower socioeconomic deprivation, regardless of the amount of COVID-19 stress they experienced. CONCLUSIONS: The present analyses implicate COVID-19 stress as a critical correlate of IPA and show that the association between this stress and physical IPA perpetration and psychological IPA victimization may be particularly salient among individuals who live in areas of lower socioeconomic deprivation. Furthermore, our results clearly pinpoint the detrimental effects of socioeconomic deprivation more broadly, showing that individuals who live in more deprived areas tend to have high levels of IPA regardless of their level of COVID-19 stress. These findings call for public health policies at the community and societal level that target not only COVID-related stress but also the impacts of socioeconomic inequality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Crime Victims , Intimate Partner Violence , Aggression/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Sexual Partners/psychology , Socioeconomic Factors
11.
BMJ Open ; 12(8): e060672, 2022 08 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2009220

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a widespread phenomenon that affects the physical and mental well-being of victims. Several barriers prevented sufferers from receiving face-to-face interventions. These obstacles increased with the advent of the COVID-19 pandemic, and online psychological intervention can represent a valid solution to increase the well-being of IPV victims. This manuscript describes the study protocol for a single blind randomised controlled trial that examines the efficacy of a web-based psychoeducational intervention for IPV victims that integrates dialectical behavioural therapy and the empowerment approach. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Eighty-six women who were victims of IPV during the COVID-19 outbreak will be recruited by the Interdepartmental Center for Family Research (CIRF) staff from the several antiviolence centres located in Italy. Participants will be randomly allocated to the Women's EmotionS, Trauma and EmpowErMent experimental group or the treatment as usual control condition. Both interventions will be administered individually to each woman. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study protocol was approved by the Ethics Committee of the University of Padua (protocol no 4300). Written informed consent will be obtained from all research participants before study entry. Study results will be published as peer-reviewed articles. Any relevant protocol changes will be reported in the published articles. The results will be reported anonymously. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN12880309.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Domestic Violence , Intimate Partner Violence , Emotions , Female , Humans , Intimate Partner Violence/prevention & control , Pandemics , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Single-Blind Method
13.
Am J Obstet Gynecol MFM ; 4(2): 100542, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2007380

ABSTRACT

Intimate partner violence is defined as any behavior within an intimate relationship that causes physical, psychological, or sexual harm to those in the relationship. Globally, women are disproportionately victims of intimate partner violence. The risk increases during pregnancy, with estimated rates of as high as 20% among pregnant persons. Intimate partner violence is associated with adverse perinatal outcomes, including perinatal and maternal death. Given that pregnancy is a period of frequent interaction with the healthcare system, it is an opportune time to screen and intervene for intimate partner violence. Universal screening at the first prenatal visit and subsequently every trimester is recommended, with either written or verbal validated tools. Pregnant persons experiencing intimate partner violence need nonjudgmental, compassionate, confidential, and trauma-informed care. The goal of this review is to outline pregnancy-specific care considerations.


Subject(s)
Intimate Partner Violence , Female , Humans , Intimate Partner Violence/prevention & control , Intimate Partner Violence/psychology , Mass Screening , Parturition , Pregnancy , Prenatal Care , Sexual Partners/psychology
14.
J Urban Health ; 99(5): 887-893, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2007235

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic prompted the early release of thousands of incarcerated individuals, including those with histories of intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration. Survivor advocates stress the importance of adequate supports for decarcerated individuals during re-entry, and notification and supports for their partners or ex-partners if there is a history of IPV. This survey assessed IPV survivors' expectations of and experiences with decarceration in the state of Michigan. Findings highlight that out of 42 survivors with recently decarcerated (ex-)partners, 64.3% reported helpful behavior on the part of their released partner. By contrast, out of 72 survivors with still-incarcerated (ex-)partners, the same percentage - 64.3% - expected harmful behavior from their partner if released. Decarceration efforts may distinguish between individuals who are likely to harm versus help (ex-)partners upon release. Nonetheless, survivors reported several unmet needs, indicating the need for better re-integration services for decarcerated individuals and their families.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Intimate Partner Violence , Humans , Pandemics , Sexual Partners , Survivors
15.
J Womens Health (Larchmt) ; 31(8): 1069-1070, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2001182
16.
West J Emerg Med ; 23(4): 589-596, 2022 Jul 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1975263

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Key measures in preventing spread of the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are social distancing and stay-at-home mandates. These measures along with other stressors have the potential to increase incidences of intimate partner violence (IPV), sexual assault, and child maltreatment. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of county police dispatches, emergency department (ED) visits, Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) consults, Domestic Violence Healthcare Project (DVHP) team consults, and Child Protection Team consults at a large, tertiary, Level I trauma center. We queried International Classification of Diseases Revision 10 codes most specific to IPV, sexual assault, and child maltreatment from March-October 2020 compared to 2019. Similarly, the number of consults performed by SANE, DVHP, and our Child Protection Team were collected. We compared all ED visits and consultations to total ED visits for the reviewed time period. Finally, the total number of calls and referrals to a child advocacy center and resource call line for victims were recorded during this timeframe. RESULTS: Police dispatches for IPV-related assaults increased by 266 reports from 2019 to 2020 (P = 0.015). Emergency department visits related to IPV increased from 0.11% of visits in 2019 to 0.15% in 2020 (P = 0.032), and DVHP consults increased from 0.31% in 2019 to 0.48% in 2020 of ED visits in the first three months (P < 0.001). Child maltreatment visits increased from 0.47% of visits in 2019 to 0.81% of visits in 2020 (P = 0.028), and a higher percentage of patients required Child Protection team consults from 1% in 2019 to 1.6% in 2020 (P = 0.004). Sexual assault-related visits and SANE consults both showed a small increase that was not statistically significant. Fewer calls and referrals were made to our child advocacy center and resource call line, decreasing by 99 referrals and 252 calls, respectively. CONCLUSION: Despite decreased ED volumes throughout the pandemic, we observed an increase in police dispatches, ED visits, and utilization of hospital consult services related to IPV and child maltreatment following the initiation of stay-at-home orders. However, use of community resources, such as the local child advocacy center, declined.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child Abuse , Domestic Violence , Intimate Partner Violence , Sex Offenses , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Domestic Violence/prevention & control , Emergency Service, Hospital , Humans
17.
Can J Public Health ; 113(6): 867-877, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1964831

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Intimate partner violence and sexual violence organizations such as women's shelters play a crucial role in advancing gender equality in Canada. COVID-19 has challenged how such organizations operate. This study explored how intimate partner violence and sexual violence organizations in Canada have been affected by COVID-19 and the consequences on service delivery. METHODS: We interviewed 17 frontline and management staff from intimate partner violence and sexual violence organizations and programs across Canada, and analyzed the data using thematic analysis and applying a feminist political economy lens. RESULTS: We identified the following themes: (1) Adapting; (2) Struggling financially; (3) Resourcefulness; (4) Troubles connecting; (5) Narrowing scope of work; and (6) Burden of care. CONCLUSION: A feminist political economy framework considers the gendered impact of the pandemic and related measures on the workforce. Both the pandemic and measures to control it have affected intimate partner violence and sexual violence organizations in Canada, the staff working in these organizations, and the quality of relationships between staff and clients. Intimate partner and sexual violence organizations in Canada have been chronically underfunded and their predominantly female staff underpaid, affecting their ability to meet the needs of women. The onset of COVID-19 not only worsened these issues but converged with a shift in focus to more pandemic-related tasks, further limiting the scope and reach of organizations. Whether the adaptations, innovations, and perseverance demonstrated by such organizations and staff can tip the balance in favour of more equitable policy and outcomes remains to be seen.


RéSUMé: OBJECTIFS: Les organismes de lutte contre la violence conjugale et la violence sexuelle, comme les hébergements pour femmes, jouent un rôle crucial dans la promotion de l'égalité des genres au Canada. La COVID-19 a remis en question le mode de fonctionnement de ces organisations. Cette étude a examiné la manière dont les organismes de lutte contre la violence conjugale et sexuelle au Canada ont été affectés par la COVID-19 et les conséquences sur la prestation de services. MéTHODES: Nous avons mené des entrevues avec 17 intervenantes de première ligne et membres de la direction d'organismes et de programmes de lutte contre la violence conjugale et sexuelle à travers le Canada. Les données ont été analysées à l'aide d'une analyse thématique et en appliquant une optique d'économie politique féministe. RéSULTATS: Nous avons identifié les thèmes suivants : 1) adaptation; 2) difficultés financières; 3) ingéniosité; 4) difficultés à établir des liens; 5) réduction du champ d'action; et 6) charge de travail. CONCLUSION: Un cadre d'économie politique féministe permet d'examiner l'impact genré de la pandémie et des mesures connexes sur le personnel. La pandémie a eu des répercussions sur les organismes de lutte contre la violence conjugale et la violence sexuelle au Canada, sur le personnel qui y travaille et sur la qualité des relations entre le personnel et les clients. Les organisations de lutte contre la violence ont souffert d'un sous-financement chronique et leur personnel, majoritairement féminin, a été sous-payé, ce qui a nui à leur capacité de répondre aux besoins des femmes. L'apparition du COVID-19 a non seulement aggravé ces problèmes, mais a aussi entraîné un changement d'orientation vers des tâches plus liées à la pandémie, ce qui a limité encore davantage le champ d'action des organismes. Il reste à voir si les adaptations, les innovations et la persévérance dont font preuve ces organisations et leur personnel peuvent faire pencher la balance en faveur d'une politique et de résultats plus équitables.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Intimate Partner Violence , Sex Offenses , Female , Humans , Male , COVID-19/epidemiology , Sexual Behavior , Canada/epidemiology , Sexual Partners
18.
BMJ Open ; 12(5): e055333, 2022 05 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1950142

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Intimate partner violence (IPV) against women remains a major global public health problem with harmful consequences for individuals and society. People's lifestyles have been greatly affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. This study investigated the prevalence of and relationship between IPV and anxiety and depression in pregnant Chinese women during the pandemic. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: This investigation was conducted in Shenzhen City, Guangdong Province, China from 15 September to 15 December 2020. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 3434 pregnant women were screened with the Abuse Assessment Screen Questionnaire to evaluate IPV and General Anxiety Disorder and Patient Health Questionnaire to evaluate symptoms of anxiety and depression, respectively. Pregnant women with perinatal health records at Shenzhen District Maternity and Child Healthcare Hospitals who consented to participate were enrolled. Women with psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia, mania or substance dependence and pregnant women who refused to participate were excluded. Data were analysed with the χ2 test and by logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: The prevalence of IPV among pregnant women was 2.2%. Mental violence was the most common type of violence (2.2%), followed by physical (0.6%) and sexual (0.7%) violence. The prevalence of anxiety and depression symptoms was 9.8% and 6.9%, respectively. After adjusting for covariates, there was a statistically significant association between IPV and prenatal anxiety (OR=4.207, 95% CI: 2.469 to 7.166) and depression (OR=3.864, 95% CI: 2.095 to 7.125). CONCLUSIONS: IPV increased the risk of prenatal anxiety and depression in pregnant women in China during the COVID-19 pandemic. Efforts should be made by the government and civil society to promote long-lasting antenatal interventions to ensure the safety and protect the mental health of pregnant women.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Intimate Partner Violence , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women/psychology , Prevalence , Risk Factors
19.
Violence Against Women ; 28(10): 2377-2397, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1933004

ABSTRACT

During the pandemic, neighbors can be potential allies to prevent intimate partner violence against women (IPVAW). Based on the reasoned action approach, we identified the predictors and the most relevant beliefs behind neighbors' intention to report to authorities that a woman is being victimized by IPVAW. A total of 352 Spanish participants completed a questionnaire. The regression analysis showed that perceived control and subjective norm were the best predictors of the intention (33% explained variance). Social media campaigns should target perceived inhibitors such as citizens' guilt for reporting ambiguous cases and close referents (friends and family) as prescribers of the helping behavior.


Subject(s)
Intention , Intimate Partner Violence , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Sexual Behavior , Sexual Partners
20.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(14)2022 07 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1928544

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic, lockdowns and isolation have limited the availability of face-to-face support services for victims of intimate partner violence (IPV). Despite the growing need for online help in supporting IPV victims, far less is known about the underlying mechanisms between IPV and online help-seeking. We studied the mediating role of emotion dysregulation (ED) and the moderating role of perceived anonymity (PA) on the internet to explain IPV victims' willingness of online help-seeking (WOHS). Through a PROCESS analysis of the questionnaire data (n = 510, 318 female, 192 male, Mage = 22.41 years), the results demonstrate that: (1) ED has been linked with the experience of IPV, and IPV significantly induces ED. (2) When IPV victims realize the symptoms of ED, they have a strong willingness to seek external intervention to support themselves. ED mediates the relationship between IPV and online help-seeking. (3) For youth growing up in the era of social networking sites (SNS), personal privacy protection is an important factor when seeking online help. The anonymity of the internet has a positive effect on victims who experience IPV and ED, and it increases WOHS. This study introduces a new perspective on the psychological mechanism behind IPV victims' help-seeking behaviors, and it suggests that the improvement of anonymity in online support can be an effective strategy for assisting IPV victims.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Intimate Partner Violence , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Emotions , Female , Humans , Intimate Partner Violence/psychology , Male , Pandemics , Young Adult
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