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1.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(5)2022 Feb 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1706347

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study took place in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. The present research assesses the association between lockdown conditions (such as time spent at home, living environment, proximity to contamination and social contacts), mental health (including intolerance of uncertainty, anxiety and depression) and intimate partner violence within the community. This study evaluates the indirect effect of anxiety and depression on the relationship between intolerance of uncertainty and intimate partner violence (physical assault and psychological aggression). METHODS: 1532 adults (80.8% of women, Mage = 35.34) were recruited from the Belgian general population through an online self-report questionnaire completed during the lockdown (from April 17 to 1 May 2020). RESULTS: The results demonstrate that the prevalence of physical assault (including both perpetration and victimization) was significantly higher in men, whereas the prevalence of psychological aggression was significantly higher in women. Men reported significantly more violence during lockdown. Women, on the other hand, were more anxious and more intolerant of uncertainty. No difference between men and women was found for depression. Anxiety and depression significantly mediated the relationship between intolerance of uncertainty and physical assault and psychological aggression. Sex did not moderate the mediation. CONCLUSION: Clinical implications for public health policy are highlighted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Intimate Partner Violence , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Female , Humans , Intimate Partner Violence/psychology , Male , Mental Health , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
2.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263827, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1690707

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Uganda confirmed its first COVID-19 case in March 2020, leading to country-wide closures and a stay-at-home order. Infectious disease pandemics can overwhelm adaptive coping capacity (e.g., general self-efficacy and resilience) and increase the risk for mental distress. For individuals experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV) and cohabitating with a perpetrator, stay-at-home orders can also increase risk of violence, which can further exacerbate mental distress. The present study explores women's perceived self-efficacy and resilient coping, mental health outcomes (depression and COVID-19 related anxiety), hazardous alcohol use and IPV in the context of Uganda's national 2020 lockdown. METHODS: A phone-based survey was undertaken from June-August of 2020 in Wakiso District, Uganda. The study sample consisted of Africa Medical and Behavioral Sciences Organization (AMBSO) Population Health Surveillance (APHS) study participants who agreed to be contacted for future research. The analytic sample was restricted to women aged 13-80 years. Bivariate analysis and multivariable models explored associations between experiences of IPV and measures of adaptive coping, mental health and alcohol use. RESULTS: A total of 556 women aged 13-79 years (mean age of 33.4 years) participated. Over half (55%) were currently married. The majority (60%) reported a decrease in alcohol use during the lockdown. Nearly half of the sample were experiencing physical or verbal IPV and reported an increase in violence during the lockdown. In adjusted analysis, alcohol use was associated with four times greater odds of recent physical IPV (aOR 4.06, 95% CI = 1.65-10.02, p = 0.0024), while participants had lower odds of experiencing any form of IPV as general self-efficacy increased (aOR 0.95, 95% CI = 0.91-0.99, p = 0.0308). CONCLUSION: Lockdown measures in Uganda may have mitigated increased alcohol consumption. IPV was exacerbated during lockdown; more than 2 in 5 IPV victims experienced increased physical or verbal violence. Development of programming and policies aimed at mitigating women's risk of IPV during future lockdowns are needed.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Drinking/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Intimate Partner Violence/psychology , Mental Health , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Anxiety , Female , Humans , Mental Disorders , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Risk Factors , Rural Population/statistics & numerical data , Uganda/epidemiology , Young Adult
3.
Womens Health (Lond) ; 18: 17455065211068980, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662404

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Intimate partner violence is one of the most common psychological, physical, and sexual assaults toward women which suit the entire life of women, and nowadays, the magnitude accelerates due to coronavirus pandemic. Hence, this study was aimed to examine the prevalence of intimate partner violence and predictors during coronavirus among childbearing-age residents in Debre Berhan. METHODS: A community-based cross-sectional survey was employed from 1 May to 1 July 2020. Eight items of women abuse screening tool were used to estimate intimate partner violence. Trained data collectors directly interview randomly selected participants. The data were entered using Epi-info V. 7 and analyzed using SPSS V. 23. Descriptive statistics were used to determine the prevalence of intimate partner violence and the frequency distribution of other variables. During bivariate analysis, predictor variables with a p-value less than 0.25 were nominated to further analysis. An adjusted odds ratio with a 95% confidence interval was used and a p-value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULT: A total of 700 participants were included with a response rate of 95.1%. The prevalence of intimate partner violence in the past single year was 19% with 95% confidence interval = 16.1-21.9. Besides, the prevalence of emotional (19.9%, 95% confidence interval = 16.9-22.8), sexual (10.9%, 95% confidence interval = 8.6-13.2) and physical (9.4%, 95% confidence interval = 7.3-11.6) violence was reported. Women with depressive symptoms, overweight, suicidal ideation, and body image disturbance were significantly associated with intimate partner violence, but not educational status, employment, income, stressful life events, lifetime alcohol use, suicidal attempt, and abortion. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION: Nearly one out of five interviewed participants had intimate partner violence. Being overweight, having poor body image, and having depression increase intimate partner violence. Special preventive measures and treatment, and other legal services should be taken to alleviate the predictor variables and intimate partner violence.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Intimate Partner Violence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ethiopia/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Intimate Partner Violence/psychology , Pregnancy , Prevalence , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Sexual Partners/psychology
4.
Am J Nurs ; 122(1): 14, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1584034

ABSTRACT

Workplace violence, domestic abuse, and firearm-related deaths are on the rise.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Intimate Partner Violence/psychology , Intimate Partner Violence/trends , Workplace Violence/psychology , Workplace Violence/trends
5.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(2): e22790, 2021 02 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574794

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is one of the leading causes of pregnancy-related death. Prenatal health care providers can offer critical screening and support to pregnant people who experience IPV. During the COVID-19 shelter-in-place order, mobile apps may offer such people the opportunity to continue receiving screening and support services. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to examine cases of IPV that were reported on a prenatal care app before and during the implementation of COVID-19 shelter-in-place mandates. METHODS: The number of patients who underwent voluntary IPV screening and the incidence rate of IPV were determined by using a prenatal care app that was disseminated to patients from a single, large health care system. We compared the IPV screening frequencies and IPV incidence rates of patients who started using the app before the COVID-19 shelter-in-place order, to those of patients who started using the app during the shelter-in-place order. RESULTS: We found 552 patients who started using the app within 60 days prior to the enforcement of the shelter-in-place order, and 407 patients who used the app at the start of shelter-in-place enforcement until the order was lifted. The incidence rates of voluntary IPV screening for new app users during the two time periods were similar (before sheltering in place: 252/552, 46%; during sheltering in place: 163/407, 40%). The overall use of the IPV screening tool increased during the shelter-in-place order. A slight, nonsignificant increase in the incidence of physical, sexual, and psychological violence during the shelter-in-place order was found across all app users (P=.56). Notably, none of the patients who screened positively for IPV had mentions of IPV in their medical charts. CONCLUSIONS: App-based screening for IPV is feasible during times when in-person access to health care providers is limited. Our results suggest that the incidence of IPV slightly increased during the shelter-in-place order. App-based screening may also address the needs of those who are unwilling or unable to share their IPV experiences with their health care provider.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Emergency Shelter/methods , Intimate Partner Violence/psychology , Quality Improvement/standards , Remote Consultation/methods , Telemedicine/methods , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Pilot Projects , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2
6.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 755, 2021 Nov 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1506167

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has exacerbated the financial insecurity of women and their families globally. Some studies have explored the impact of financial strain among pregnant women, in particular, during the pandemic. However, less is known about the factors associated with pregnant women's experiences of material hardship. METHODS: This cross-sectional study used a non-probability sample to examine the factors associated with pregnant women's experiences of material hardship during the COVID-19 pandemic. In January 2021, 183 pregnant women living in the United States participated in an online Qualtrics panel survey. In addition to socio-demographic characteristics, individuals were asked about their finances and predictors of financial well-being, mental health symptoms, and intimate partner violence (IPV) experiences. Chi-square analysis and one-way ANOVA were used to examine whether women's experiences with material hardship and associated factors differed by income level (i.e., less than $20,000; $20,000 to $60,000; more than $60,000). Ordinary least squares regression was used to calculate unadjusted and adjusted estimates. RESULTS: Study findings showed that the majority of women in the sample experienced at least one form of material hardship in the past year. Individuals with an annual household income less than $20,000 reported the highest average number of material hardships experienced (M = 3.7, SD = 2.8). Compared to women with household incomes less than $20,000, women with incomes of more than $60,000 reported significantly fewer material hardships, less financial strain, and higher levels of financial support, economic self-efficacy, and economic-self-sufficiency. Women with incomes of $60,000 or more also reported significantly lower levels of psychological abuse, and a smaller percentage met the cut-off for anxiety. Economic self-sufficiency, financial strain, posttraumatic stress disorder, and economic abuse were all significantly associated with material hardship. CONCLUSIONS: A contribution of this study is that it highlights the significant, positive association between economic abuse, a unique form of IPV, and material hardship among pregnant women during the pandemic. These findings suggest the need for policy and practice interventions that help to ameliorate the financial insecurity experienced by some pregnant women, as well as respond to associated bidirectional vulnerabilities (e.g., mental health symptoms, experiences of IPV).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/economics , Economic Status , Income/classification , Pregnant Women/psychology , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Income/statistics & numerical data , Intimate Partner Violence/psychology , Intimate Partner Violence/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States/epidemiology
7.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0259275, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496533

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In April 2020, the United Nations predicted that the COVID-19 pandemic will have a 'calamitous' impact on the lives of women. This was based on concerns about an upsurge in Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) arising from increased opportunities for relational conflict due to forced co-existence and therefore additional time spent with abusive partners. AIM: Research has shown an increase in IPV during times of crisis. The COVID-19 pandemic has generated unprecedented circumstances and stress, and opportunities to do research to understand whether the COVID-19 pandemic impacted on IPV experiences were limited. Thus, the present study aimed to understand women's experiences of being in and leaving an abusive relationship during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Individual, telephonic interviews were conducted with 16 women living in domestic violence shelters within three Provinces during South Africa's lockdown period. RESULTS: Findings reveal that the public health measures implemented by the South African Government to curb the spread of the virus, may have placed vulnerable groups at increased risk of violence. Specifically, lockdown likely magnified the risk for escalation of abuse in families already experiencing IPV prior to COVID-19. The study highlights an IPV and COVID-19 relationship, showing that the gender insensitive pandemic control measures, such as stay at home orders and travel restrictions, likely placed women at risk of increased abuse. Given the recurrency of COVID-19 epidemic waves, attention must be given to gender disparities or many South African women may experience worse outcomes. CONCLUSION: This study reminds us that being ordered to stay at home is not always the safest option for women and thus, in a country with one of the highest levels of GBV, it becomes imperative to ensure that IPV safeguards are integrated into COVID-19 measures. It also becomes evident that COVID-19 requires enhanced ways of responding by paying attention to gender disparities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Intimate Partner Violence/psychology , Intimate Partner Violence/trends , Adult , Battered Women/psychology , Domestic Violence/trends , Female , Humans , Interviews as Topic , Intimate Partner Violence/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spouse Abuse/psychology , Spouse Abuse/statistics & numerical data , Spouse Abuse/trends , Young Adult
8.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258865, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480456

ABSTRACT

Socioeconomic crisis and humanitarian disasters can cause increased stress for women who experience inter-partner violence (IPV). This study analyzed the impact of the COVID-19 lockdown on this important issue, their related health and social services and working conditions from the perspectives of professionals in different sectors. Forty-three semi-structured interviews were carried out with 47 professionals (44 women and 3 men) from 40 different entities (September 2020-April 2021). This content analysis suggests that the pandemic and its associated prevention measures have had a negative impact on women exposed to IPV and their children, which affected their social wellbeing. Professionals described burnout, difficult and slow administrative processes, and problems with coordination and access to information. These negative impacts were mitigated, in part, by the work of professionals, but this suggests that a series of key strategies are needed to improve the response capacity of the service sector to IPV in situations of crisis. These improvements are related to the availability of human and material resources; an efficient coordination network between the professionals from different sectors; existence of informal support networks in the community; protocols/procedures and prior training for better implementation; and greater flexibility and accessibility of basic services that benefit women who experience IPV.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Psychological , COVID-19 , Intimate Partner Violence/psychology , Pandemics , Quarantine/psychology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Spain/epidemiology
9.
Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw ; 24(7): 444-449, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1310879

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic poses unique threats to romantic relationships as couples were issued to stay at home by a mandatory order, limiting social interactions with others. Although technology allows for social interactions, the privacy of interactions through technology may be compromised. Electronic intrusion (EI) occurs when individuals covertly gain access of their partner's mobile device to go through content (e.g., text messages, private messages on social media sites), and previous study indicates serious consequences of EI, including increased rates of intimate partner violence, depressive symptoms, and heavy episodic drinking. This study examines jealousy, relationship uncertainty (RU), and EI in a sample of American adults. We hypothesized that jealousy would be related to greater acts of EI, and that this association will be mediated by RU. Data were collected from 754 Qualtrics Panels participants (50 percent male) with an average age of 41.7 years. Most participants (85.7 percent) were married. Results supported hypotheses, demonstrating that jealousy was associated with more EI, and this was due to uncertainty about the relationship's future. This study illuminates a need to study cyberdating abuse (CDA) in older and married populations. Future research should consider the effects of other relationship-specific emotions and cognitions on EI and further develop strategies aimed at reducing risks for CDA in romantic relationships.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Intimate Partner Violence/psychology , Jealousy , Marriage/psychology , Sexual Partners/psychology , Uncertainty , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Family Characteristics , Humans , Interpersonal Relations , Male , Social Interaction , Social Media
10.
Nurs Womens Health ; 25(5): 395-399, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1309353

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has made it necessary to find innovative strategies that facilitate safe, private assessment and intervention for intimate partner violence (IPV). IPV is a major source of morbidity and mortality, with women experiencing a lifetime prevalence rate of 22%. Screening pregnant individuals for IPV during the COVID-19 pandemic became critical because a 20% rise in IPV during the pandemic has been estimated. A multidisciplinary stakeholder panel created a process using technology to address this concern. An infographic poster with IPV screening questions and a Quick Response (QR) code was displayed in bathrooms in the perinatal service area. The infographic allowed respondents to signal a safety concern, launching an individualized plan of care to address their needs privately. The pandemic has highlighted how much work needs to be done to ensure that people who experience IPV continue to obtain access to support and health care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Intimate Partner Violence/psychology , Spouse Abuse/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Intimate Partner Violence/prevention & control , Medical Informatics , Pandemics , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Isolation , Telemedicine
11.
Health Care Women Int ; 41(11-12): 1294-1312, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263591

ABSTRACT

Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a significant national and global public health concern, with COVID-19 pandemic increasing IPV and associated health issues. Immigrant women may be disproportionately vulnerable to IPV-related health risks during the pandemic. Using qualitative in-depth interviews, we explored the perspectives of service providers (n = 17) and immigrant survivors of IPV(n = 45) on the impact of COVID-19 on immigrant women, existing services for survivors and strategies needed needed to enhance women's health and safety. Participants reported issues such as increased IPV and suggested strategies (e.g. strengthening virtual platforms). The findings could be informative for providers in national and international settings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Emigrants and Immigrants/psychology , Intimate Partner Violence/psychology , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Qualitative Research , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2 , Spouse Abuse/psychology , Survivors/psychology , Women's Health , Young Adult
12.
BMJ Open ; 11(3): e045427, 2021 03 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1166504

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine the lifetime prevalence of male-perpetrated intimate partner violence (IPV), and to assess the association with food insecurity, sociodemographic factors and health risk behaviours in Uganda in the year preceding COVID-19-associated lockdowns. DESIGN: Population-based, cross-sectional household survey. SETTING: Urban, semiurban and rural communities of the Wakiso and Hoima districts in Uganda. PARTICIPANTS: A total of N=2014 males aged 13-80 years participated in the survey. The current study included males who reported having ever been in a sexual union and responded to the IPV questions (N=1314). MEASURES: Data were collected face-to-face from May 2018 to July 2019 using an interviewer-mediated questionnaire. Lifetime IPV perpetration was measured as 'no physical and/or sexual IPV', 'physical' versus 'sexual violence only', and 'physical and sexual violence'. Past-year food insecurity was measured through the Food Insecurity Experience Scale and categorised into 'none', 'low' and 'high'. Multinomial logistic regression was used to determine the crude and adjusted relative risk ratios (aRRRs) of IPV perpetration in relation to self-reported food insecurity, adjusting for sociodemographic and health risk behaviours. RESULTS: The prevalence of self-reported lifetime IPV perpetration was 14.6% for physical and 6.5% for sexual violence, while 5.3% reported to have perpetrated both physical and sexual IPV. Most (75.7%) males reported no food insecurity, followed by low (20.7%) and high (3.6%) food insecurity. In adjusted models, food insecurity was associated with increased risk of having perpetrated both physical and sexual violence (aRRR=2.57, 95% CI 1.52 to 4.32). IPV perpetration was also independently associated with having had more than one lifetime sexual partner and drinking alcohol, but not with education level or religion. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that food insecurity is associated with male IPV perpetration, and more efforts are needed to prevent and mitigate the expected worsening of this situation as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Food Insecurity , Intimate Partner Violence/statistics & numerical data , Sexual Partners/psychology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Intimate Partner Violence/psychology , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , Rural Population , Self Report , Suburban Population , Surveys and Questionnaires , Uganda/epidemiology , Urban Population , Young Adult
13.
J Interpers Violence ; 36(9-10): 4899-4915, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1127656

ABSTRACT

During the first months of the COVID-19 pandemic, governments instituted a series of measures to control the spread of the virus. The measures were widely believed to increase women's risk of violent victimization, most of which is by an intimate partner. We examined help-seeking during this period in a large U.S. city and used an interrupted time series analysis to assess the effects of three government interventions on domestic violence and sexual assault hotline calls and on "911" calls regarding domestic violence, assault, and rape. Declaration of an emergency appeared to reduce victim calls to the rape crisis hotline and the few "911" calls about rape. School closure was associated with a reduction in "911" calls about assault and rape and victim calls to the domestic violence hotline. Implementation of stay-at-home orders was associated with a gradual increase in domestic violence hotline calls. Although "911" calls regarding assault fell by nearly half, calls to police for domestic violence were unchanged. In sum, there was a decrease in help-seeking for sexual assault and assault in general but not for domestic violence during the initial phases of the COVID-19 outbreak. The analysis underscores the importance of distinguishing between the violence itself, calls to police, and calls to helplines when claims are made about changes over time in violence against women. The opportunities and constraints for each can differ widely under usual circumstances, circumstances that were altered by public health interventions related to the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Domestic Violence/statistics & numerical data , Health Services Accessibility , Help-Seeking Behavior , Intimate Partner Violence/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics/prevention & control , Quarantine/psychology , Rape/statistics & numerical data , Spouse Abuse/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Domestic Violence/psychology , Domestic Violence/trends , Female , Humans , Intimate Partner Violence/psychology , Intimate Partner Violence/trends , Rape/psychology , SARS-CoV-2 , Spouse Abuse/psychology , Spouse Abuse/trends
14.
Soc Work Health Care ; 60(1): 106-116, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1069153

ABSTRACT

The issue of dating and sexual violence (DSV) on college campuses has received increased attention nationwide as a criminal justice and public health issue. College and university employed social workers play a critical role in preventing and responding to campus DSV through direct clinical services to students as well as prevention through educational programming and training. COVID-19 has negative implications for DSV student victims, as well as service delivery and accessibility. This paper examines the innovative methods used by university employed social work clinicians and educators to meet evolving mental health care needs and continue violence prevention services during COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Intimate Partner Violence/psychology , Mental Health Services/organization & administration , Sex Offenses/psychology , Social Work/organization & administration , Universities/organization & administration , Counseling/organization & administration , Health Education/organization & administration , Humans , Intimate Partner Violence/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Offenses/prevention & control , Telemedicine/organization & administration
15.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 153(1): 45-50, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1037472

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess the incidence and predictors of intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy amidst the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted at the prenatal care clinic of St. Paul's Hospital Millennium Medical College (SPHMMC), Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, among pregnant women from 31 August to 2 November 2020. Participants were interviewed using Open Data Kit. Logistic regression was used to assess predictors. RESULTS: Among the 464 pregnant women, 33 (7.1%) reported IPV during pregnancy, and among these 24 (72.7%) reported emotional violence, 16 (48.5%) reported sexual violence, and 10 (30.3%) reported physical violence. Among the study participants, only 8 (1.7%) were screened for IPV. IPV was reported 3.27 times more often by women who reported that their partner chewed Khat compared with those women whose partner did not (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 3.27; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.45-7.38), and 1.52 times more often women who reported that their partner drank alcohol compared with those women whose partner did not (aOR 1.52; 95% CI 1.01-2.28). CONCLUSION: Very few women were screened for IPV. Partners drinking alcohol and chewing Khat are significantly positively associated with IPV during pregnancy. IPV screening should be included in the national management protocol of obstetric cases of Ethiopia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Intimate Partner Violence , Prenatal Care , Spouses , Substance-Related Disorders , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ethiopia/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Incidence , Intimate Partner Violence/prevention & control , Intimate Partner Violence/psychology , Intimate Partner Violence/statistics & numerical data , Male , Needs Assessment , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women , Prenatal Care/methods , Prenatal Care/standards , Prenatal Care/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Spouses/psychology , Spouses/statistics & numerical data , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Substance-Related Disorders/psychology
17.
Arch Womens Ment Health ; 23(6): 741-748, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-954971

ABSTRACT

The current worldwide outbreak of COVID-19 has changed the modus operandi of all segments of society. While some pandemic-related stressors affect nearly everyone, many especially affect women. PURPOSE: To review what is known about the pandemic's effect on women's mental health, what makes them more predisposed to vulnerabilities and adverse impacts, and strategies for preventing and treating these mental health consequences in the female population during specific stages across the lifespan. METHODS: The authors performed a narrative review in combination with their observations from clinical experience in the field of women's mental health and reproductive psychiatry. Articles on women's mental health and COVID-19 up to May 30, 2020, were searched using the electronic PubMed and PsychInfo databases, as well as publications by major health entities (e.g., World Health Organization, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the United Nations) and press releases from prime communication outlets (e.g., National Public Radio). RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Women who are pregnant, postpartum, miscarrying, or experiencing intimate partner violence are at especially high risk for developing mental health problems during the pandemic. Proactive outreach to these groups of women and enhancement of social supports could lead to prevention, early detection, and prompt treatment. Social support is a key protective factor. Similarly, parenting may be substantially more stressful during a pandemic. Gender disparities may be accentuated, particularly for employed women or single parents, as women are disproportionately responsible for the bulk of domestic tasks, including childcare and eldercare.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Intimate Partner Violence/statistics & numerical data , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics/prevention & control , Quarantine/psychology , Social Isolation/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Intimate Partner Violence/psychology , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Support , Women's Health
19.
Arch Womens Ment Health ; 23(6): 749-756, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-871479

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic created a situation of general distress. Although the focus has been initially more on the physical health during the pandemic, mental health concerns linked to the lockdown have quickly risen. This study aims to assess the effect of the COVID-19-related lockdown on Tunisian women's mental health and gender-based violence. An online survey was conducted, using the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scales (DASS-21) and the Facebook Bergen Addiction Scale (FBAS). We chose a female-exclusive social group on Facebook and used the snowball sampling method. A total of 751 participants originating from all the Tunisian regions completed the questionnaire. More than half of the participants (57.3%) reported extremely severe distress symptoms, as per the DASS-21. Those who had a history of mental illness and who were allegedly abused during lockdown were found to have more severe symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress. Around 40% of women reported problematic social media use. Violence against women also reportedly increased significantly during the lockdown (from 4.4 to 14.8%; p < 0.001). Psychological abuse was the most frequent type of violence (96%). Women who had experienced abuse before the lockdown were at an increased risk of violence during lockdown (p < 0.001; OR = 19.34 [8.71-43.00]). To our knowledge, this is the first study that evaluates the acute impact of COVID-19 on mental health and violence against women in Tunisia, Africa, and the Arab world. It may be a sound basis for developing a more effective psychological intervention aimed at women in these regions.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Depression/psychology , Domestic Violence/statistics & numerical data , Gender-Based Violence/statistics & numerical data , Intimate Partner Violence/statistics & numerical data , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics/prevention & control , Quarantine/psychology , Adult , Aged , Anxiety/ethnology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depression/ethnology , Domestic Violence/ethnology , Domestic Violence/psychology , Female , Gender-Based Violence/ethnology , Gender-Based Violence/psychology , Health Surveys , Humans , Intimate Partner Violence/ethnology , Intimate Partner Violence/psychology , Mental Disorders/psychology , Middle Aged , Psychological Distress , SARS-CoV-2 , Spouse Abuse/ethnology , Spouse Abuse/psychology , Spouse Abuse/statistics & numerical data , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Tunisia/epidemiology
20.
J Womens Health (Larchmt) ; 29(10): 1239-1242, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-811361

ABSTRACT

Intimate partner violence (IPV)-defined as physical, psychological, sexual, and/or economic violence typically experienced by women at home and perpetrated by their partners or expartners-is a pervasive form of violence that destroys women's feelings of love, trust, and self-esteem, with important negative consequences on physical and psychological health. Many reports from several countries have underlined a remarkable increase in the cases of IPV during the COVID-19 emergency. In this opinion article, we discussed the hypothesis that such an increase may be related to the restrictive measures enacted to contain the pandemic, including women's forced cohabitation with the abusive partner, as well as the exacerbation of partners' pre-existing psychological disorders during the lockdown. In addition, we retrospectively analyzed some data derived from our practice in a public Italian referral center for sexual and domestic violence (Service for Sexual and Domestic Violence [SVSeD]). These data interestingly revealed an opposite trend, that is, a decrease in the number of women who sought assistance since the beginning of the COVID-19 outbreak. Such a reduction should be interpreted as a negative consequence of the pandemic-related restrictive measures. Although necessary, these measures reduced women's possibilities of seeking help from antiviolence centers and/or emergency services. Owing to the COVID-19 outbreak, there is an urgent need for developing and implementing alternative treatment options for IPV victims (such as online and phone counseling and telemedicine), as well as training programs for health care professionals, especially those employed in emergency departments, to facilitate early detection of IPV.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Intimate Partner Violence/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Quarantine/psychology , Sexual Partners/psychology , Spouse Abuse/statistics & numerical data , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Female , Humans , Intimate Partner Violence/psychology , Intimate Partner Violence/trends , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Psychological Distance , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Self Concept , Sex Offenses/psychology , Sex Offenses/trends , Spouse Abuse/psychology , Spouse Abuse/trends
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