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2.
Crit Care Med ; 50(6): e526-e538, 2022 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1621691

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a potentially lifesaving procedure in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) due to COVID-19. Previous studies have shown a high prevalence of clinically silent cerebral microbleeds in patients with COVID-19. Based on this fact, together with the hemotrauma and the requirement of therapeutic anticoagulation on ECMO support, we hypothesized an increased risk of intracranial hemorrhages (ICHs). We analyzed ICH occurrence rate, circumstances and clinical outcome in patients that received ECMO support due to COVID-19-induced ARDS in comparison to viral non-COVID-19-induced ARDS intracerebral hemorrhage. DESIGN: Multicenter, retrospective analysis between January 2010 and May 2021. SETTING: Three tertiary care ECMO centers in Germany and Switzerland. PATIENTS: Two-hundred ten ARDS patients on ECMO support (COVID-19, n = 142 vs viral non-COVID, n = 68). INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Evaluation of ICH occurrence rate, parameters of coagulation and anticoagulation strategies, inflammation, and ICU survival. COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 ARDS patients showed comparable disease severity regarding Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score, while the oxygenation index before ECMO cannulation was higher in the COVID group (82 vs 65 mm Hg). Overall, ICH of any severity occurred in 29 of 142 COVID-19 patients (20%) versus four of 68 patients in the control ECMO group (6%). Fifteen of those 29 ICH events in the COVID-19 group were classified as major (52%) including nine fatal cases (9/29, 31%). In the control group, there was only one major ICH event (1/4, 25%). The adjusted subhazard ratio for the occurrence of an ICH in the COVID-19 group was 5.82 (97.5% CI, 1.9-17.8; p = 0.002). The overall ICU mortality in the presence of ICH of any severity was 88%. CONCLUSIONS: This retrospective multicenter analysis showed a six-fold increased adjusted risk for ICH and a 3.5-fold increased incidence of ICH in COVID-19 patients on ECMO. Prospective studies are needed to confirm this observation and to determine whether the bleeding risk can be reduced by adjusting anticoagulation strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/adverse effects , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , Humans , Intracranial Hemorrhages/drug therapy , Intracranial Hemorrhages/epidemiology , Intracranial Hemorrhages/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Retrospective Studies
3.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 40(12): e493-e496, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1416156

ABSTRACT

We present a case of a 14-year-old, previously healthy female, admitted with acute coronavirus disease 2019 infection and new-onset seizures secondary to virus-associated necrotizing disseminated acute leukoencephalopathy. Her symptoms resolved completely with intravenous immunoglobulin and steroids. Pathophysiology and prognosis of neurologic manifestations of coronavirus disease 2019 remain unclear.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Intracranial Hemorrhages/etiology , Leukoencephalopathies/etiology , Leukoencephalopathies/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Anticonvulsants/administration & dosage , Anticonvulsants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Intracranial Hemorrhages/pathology , Leukoencephalopathies/pathology , Levetiracetam/administration & dosage , Levetiracetam/therapeutic use , Lorazepam/administration & dosage , Lorazepam/therapeutic use , Seizures/drug therapy
4.
World Neurosurg ; 154: e473-e480, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1376112

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is an ongoing public health emergency. While most cases end in asymptomatic or minor illness, there is growing evidence that some COVID-19 infections result in nonconventional dire consequences. We sought to describe the characteristics of patients with intracranial hemorrhage who were infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Also, with the existing literature, we raise the idea of a possible association between SARS-CoV-2 infection and intracranial hemorrhage and propose possible pathophysiological mechanisms connecting the two. METHODS: We retrospectively collected and analyzed intracranial hemorrhage cases who were also positive for SARS-CoV-2 from 4 tertiary-care cerebrovascular centers. RESULTS: We identified a total of 19 patients consisting of 11 males (58%) and 8 females (42%). Mean age was 52.2, with 95% younger than 75 years of age. With respect to COVID-19 illness, 50% had mild-to-moderate disease, 21% had severe disease, and 20% had critical disease requiring intubation. Of the 19 cases, 12 patients had intraparenchymal hemorrhage (63%), 6 had subarachnoid hemorrhage (32%), and 1 patient had a subdural hematoma (5%). A total of 43% had an intracerebral hemorrhage score of 0-2 and 57% a score of 3-6. Modified Rankin Scale cores at discharge were 0-2 in 23% and 3-6 in 77%. The mortality rate was 59%. CONCLUSIONS: Our series sheds light on a distinct pattern of intracerebral hemorrhage in COVID-19-positive cases compared with typical non-COVID-19 cases, namely the severity of hemorrhage, high mortality rate, and the young age of patients. Further research is warranted to delineate a potential association between SARS-CoV-2 infection and intracranial hemorrhage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Intracranial Hemorrhages/epidemiology , Intracranial Hemorrhages/etiology , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/physiopathology , Female , Hematoma, Subdural/epidemiology , Hematoma, Subdural/etiology , Humans , Intracranial Hemorrhages/mortality , Intubation, Intratracheal , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/etiology , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
5.
N Engl J Med ; 385(18): 1680-1689, 2021 10 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1352005

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vaccine-induced immune thrombocytopenia and thrombosis (VITT) is a new syndrome associated with the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 adenoviral vector vaccine against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. Data are lacking on the clinical features of and the prognostic criteria for this disorder. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study involving patients with suspected VITT who presented to hospitals in the United Kingdom between March 22 and June 6, 2021. Data were collected with the use of an anonymized electronic form, and cases were identified as definite or probable VITT according to prespecified criteria. Baseline characteristics and clinicopathological features of the patients, risk factors, treatment, and markers of poor prognosis were determined. RESULTS: Among 294 patients who were evaluated, we identified 170 definite and 50 probable cases of VITT. All the patients had received the first dose of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine and presented 5 to 48 days (median, 14) after vaccination. The age range was 18 to 79 years (median, 48), with no sex preponderance and no identifiable medical risk factors. Overall mortality was 22%. The odds of death increased by a factor of 2.7 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4 to 5.2) among patients with cerebral venous sinus thrombosis, by a factor of 1.7 (95% CI, 1.3 to 2.3) for every 50% decrease in the baseline platelet count, by a factor of 1.2 (95% CI, 1.0 to 1.3) for every increase of 10,000 fibrinogen-equivalent units in the baseline d-dimer level, and by a factor of 1.7 (95% CI, 1.1 to 2.5) for every 50% decrease in the baseline fibrinogen level. Multivariate analysis identified the baseline platelet count and the presence of intracranial hemorrhage as being independently associated with death; the observed mortality was 73% among patients with platelet counts below 30,000 per cubic millimeter and intracranial hemorrhage. CONCLUSIONS: The high mortality associated with VITT was highest among patients with a low platelet count and intracranial hemorrhage. Treatment remains uncertain, but identification of prognostic markers may help guide effective management. (Funded by the Oxford University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust.).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/etiology , Thrombosis/etiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Anticoagulants , Autoantibodies/blood , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Intracranial Hemorrhages/etiology , Intracranial Hemorrhages/mortality , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Platelet Count , Platelet Factor 4/immunology , Prospective Studies , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/mortality , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/therapy , Risk Factors , Thrombosis/drug therapy , Thrombosis/mortality , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Young Adult
6.
Pan Afr Med J ; 38: 263, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1266944

ABSTRACT

Neurovascular involvement is a frequent occurring reported in COVID-19 patients. However, spontaneous hematomas of the corpus callosum are exceptionally seen. The authors of this article aim to report an unusual case of corpus callosum hematoma in a COVID-19 patient and discuss potential etiologies and mechanisms responsible for intracranial hemorrhage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Corpus Callosum/pathology , Hematoma/diagnosis , Intracranial Hemorrhages/diagnosis , Corpus Callosum/virology , Hematoma/etiology , Hematoma/virology , Humans , Intracranial Hemorrhages/etiology , Intracranial Hemorrhages/virology , Male , Middle Aged
7.
N Engl J Med ; 384(22): 2092-2101, 2021 06 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1174739

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Several cases of unusual thrombotic events and thrombocytopenia have developed after vaccination with the recombinant adenoviral vector encoding the spike protein antigen of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) (ChAdOx1 nCov-19, AstraZeneca). More data were needed on the pathogenesis of this unusual clotting disorder. METHODS: We assessed the clinical and laboratory features of 11 patients in Germany and Austria in whom thrombosis or thrombocytopenia had developed after vaccination with ChAdOx1 nCov-19. We used a standard enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect platelet factor 4 (PF4)-heparin antibodies and a modified (PF4-enhanced) platelet-activation test to detect platelet-activating antibodies under various reaction conditions. Included in this testing were samples from patients who had blood samples referred for investigation of vaccine-associated thrombotic events, with 28 testing positive on a screening PF4-heparin immunoassay. RESULTS: Of the 11 original patients, 9 were women, with a median age of 36 years (range, 22 to 49). Beginning 5 to 16 days after vaccination, the patients presented with one or more thrombotic events, with the exception of 1 patient, who presented with fatal intracranial hemorrhage. Of the patients with one or more thrombotic events, 9 had cerebral venous thrombosis, 3 had splanchnic-vein thrombosis, 3 had pulmonary embolism, and 4 had other thromboses; of these patients, 6 died. Five patients had disseminated intravascular coagulation. None of the patients had received heparin before symptom onset. All 28 patients who tested positive for antibodies against PF4-heparin tested positive on the platelet-activation assay in the presence of PF4 independent of heparin. Platelet activation was inhibited by high levels of heparin, Fc receptor-blocking monoclonal antibody, and immune globulin (10 mg per milliliter). Additional studies with PF4 or PF4-heparin affinity purified antibodies in 2 patients confirmed PF4-dependent platelet activation. CONCLUSIONS: Vaccination with ChAdOx1 nCov-19 can result in the rare development of immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia mediated by platelet-activating antibodies against PF4, which clinically mimics autoimmune heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. (Funded by the German Research Foundation.).


Subject(s)
Autoantibodies/blood , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Platelet Factor 4/immunology , Thrombocytopenia/etiology , Thrombosis/etiology , Adult , Autoimmune Diseases/etiology , Blood Chemical Analysis , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/etiology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Fatal Outcome , Female , Humans , Intracranial Hemorrhages/etiology , Male , Middle Aged , Platelet Activation , Thrombocytopenia/immunology , Thrombosis/immunology , Young Adult
8.
Neuroradiol J ; 34(5): 435-439, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1153951

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Diffuse intracranial susceptibility abnormalities have recently been described among patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), although prior studies have consisted of case reports and/or series. This brief literature review seeks to compile and catalogue the available data to elucidate characteristic features of such findings. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Scientific articles and studies on intracranial microhemorrhages in the setting of COVID-19 were searched on PubMed, Google Scholar, and the Cochrane Library. Included studies described intracranial microbleed(s) on magnetic resonance imaging in patients with COVID-19. If multiple patients were described, only patients with intracranial microhemorrhage on magnetic resonance imaging were included for analysis. Patient demographics, severity of illness (e.g. intensive care unit admission and/or intubation), time from diagnosis of COVID-19 to magnetic resonance imaging, and location(s) of any observed microhemorrhages were noted. RESULTS: A total of 39 patients with suspected intracranial microhemorrhages have been described in prior studies. The average age of patients was 64.7 years; 21.9% were women. The average time between COVID-19 diagnosis and magnetic resonance imaging was 31.7 days. All patients in the cohort were admitted to critical care and were either intubated or treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation during their clinical course. Microhemorrhages were most commonly located in the subcortical/juxtacortical white matter and corpus callosum. CONCLUSIONS: Intracranial microbleeds are a well-documented finding in patients with severe COVID-19, and are most commonly callosal and subcortical/juxtacortical in location.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Intracranial Hemorrhages/etiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Disease Susceptibility , Humans , Intracranial Hemorrhages/epidemiology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Neuroimaging
9.
Shock ; 56(2): 206-214, 2021 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1080750

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: COVID-19-related coagulopathy is a known complication of SARS-CoV-2 infection and can lead to intracranial hemorrhage (ICH), one of the most feared complications of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). We sought to evaluate the incidence and etiology of ICH in patients with COVID-19 requiring ECMO. Patients at two academic medical centers with COVID-19 who required venovenous-ECMO support for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) were evaluated retrospectively. During the study period, 33 patients required ECMO support; 16 (48.5%) were discharged alive, 13 died (39.4%), and 4 (12.1%) had ongoing care. Eleven patients had ICH (33.3%). All ICH events occurred in patients who received intravenous anticoagulation. The ICH group had higher C-reactive protein (P = 0.04), procalcitonin levels (P = 0.02), and IL-6 levels (P = 0.05), lower blood pH before and after ECMO (P < 0.01), and higher activated partial thromboplastin times throughout the hospital stay (P < 0.0001). ICH-free survival was lower in COVID-19 patients than in patients on ECMO for ARDS caused by other viruses (49% vs. 79%, P = 0.02). In conclusion, patients with COVID-19 can be successfully bridged to recovery using ECMO but may suffer higher rates of ICH compared to those with other viral respiratory infections.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins/blood , COVID-19/therapy , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , Intracranial Hemorrhages/epidemiology , Mitochondrial Proteins/blood , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Incidence , Intracranial Hemorrhages/blood , Intracranial Hemorrhages/etiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , United States/epidemiology
10.
Neurol Sci ; 42(1): 25-33, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-898039

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence suggests that a subset of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients may present with or develop cerebrovascular disease during the course of hospitalization. Whereas ischemic stroke in COVID-19 patients has been well described, data on intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) in these patients is still limited. We, therefore, conducted a rapid systematic review of current scientific literature to identify and consolidate evidence of ICH in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: A systematic search of literature was conducted between November 1, 2019, and August 14, 2020, on PubMed and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) to identify eligible studies. RESULTS: A total of 23 studies describing ICH in 148 COVID-19 patients were included. The pooled incidence of ICH in COVID-19 patients was 0.7% (95% CI 0.5-0.9), with low levels of inter-study heterogeneity observed (I2 = 33.6%, Cochran's Q = 12.05, p = 0.149). Most of the patients were elderly male patients (65.8%) with comorbidities, the most common being systemic hypertension (54%). Hemorrhage involving multiple cranial compartments was reported in 9.5% of cases. Single compartments were involved in the rest, with intraparenchymal hemorrhage (IPH) being the most common variety (62.6%) and intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) the least common (1.4%). Half of these patients were on some form of anticoagulation. Overall, the mortality rate in the COVID-19 patients with ICH was about 48.6%. CONCLUSION: Although relatively uncommon among COVID-19 patients, ICH is associated with a high mortality rate. Early identification of patients at risk of developing ICH, particularly with comorbid conditions and on anticoagulant therapy, may be important to improve outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Intracranial Hemorrhages/etiology , Intracranial Hemorrhages/mortality , Humans
11.
Cardiol Rev ; 29(1): 39-42, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-900593

ABSTRACT

Patients older than 65 years hospitalized with COVID-19 have higher rates of intensive care unit admission and death when compared with younger patients. Cardiovascular conditions associated with COVID-19 include myocardial injury, acute myocarditis, cardiac arrhythmias, cardiomyopathies, cardiogenic shock, thromboembolic disease, and cardiac arrest. Few studies have described the clinical course of those at the upper extreme of age. We characterize the clinical course and outcomes of 73 patients with 80 years of age or older hospitalized at an academic center between March 15 and May 13, 2020. These patients had multiple comorbidities and often presented with atypical clinical findings such as altered sensorium, generalized weakness and falls. Cardiovascular manifestations observed at the time of presentation included new arrhythmia in 7/73 (10%), stroke/intracranial hemorrhage in 5/73 (7%), and elevated troponin in 27/58 (47%). During hospitalization, 38% of all patients required intensive care, 13% developed a need for renal replacement therapy, and 32% required vasopressor support. All-cause mortality was 47% and was highest in patients who were ever in intensive care (71%), required mechanical ventilation (83%), or vasopressors (91%), or developed a need for renal replacement therapy (100%). Patients older than 80 years old with COVID-19 have multiple unique risk factors which can be associated with increased cardiovascular involvement and death.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , COVID-19/therapy , Hospital Mortality , Renal Replacement Therapy/statistics & numerical data , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Vasoconstrictor Agents/therapeutic use , Academic Medical Centers , Accidental Falls , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Aged, 80 and over , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/etiology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/physiopathology , Aspartate Aminotransferases/metabolism , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/metabolism , Cardiovascular Diseases/physiopathology , Cause of Death , Consciousness Disorders/physiopathology , Dyspnea/physiopathology , Female , Ferritins/metabolism , Fever/physiopathology , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Hospitalization , Humans , Hypoxia/physiopathology , Hypoxia/therapy , Independent Living , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Intracranial Hemorrhages/etiology , Intracranial Hemorrhages/physiopathology , Leukocyte Count , Liver Diseases/etiology , Liver Diseases/metabolism , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Muscle Weakness/physiopathology , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain/metabolism , Nursing Homes , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Procalcitonin/metabolism , Stroke/etiology , Stroke/physiopathology , Troponin I/metabolism
12.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(12): 105397, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-886527

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection has been associated with ischemic stroke as well as systemic complications such as acute respiratory failure; cytotoxic edema is a well-known sequelae of acute ischemic stroke and can be worsened by the presence of hypercarbia induced by respiratory failure. We present the case of a very rapid neurologic and radiographic decline of a patient with an acute ischemic stroke who developed rapid fulminant cerebral edema leading to herniation in the setting of hypercarbic respiratory failure attributed to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Given the elevated incidence of cerebrovascular complications in patients with COVID-19, it is imperative for clinicians to be aware of the risk of rapidly progressive cerebral edema in patients who develop COVID-19 associated acute respiratory distress syndrome.


Subject(s)
Brain Edema/etiology , Breast Neoplasms/complications , COVID-19/complications , Encephalocele/etiology , Intracranial Hemorrhages/etiology , Stroke/etiology , Aged , Brain Edema/diagnostic imaging , Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis , Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy , COVID-19/diagnosis , Disease Progression , Encephalocele/diagnostic imaging , Female , Humans , Intracranial Hemorrhages/diagnostic imaging , Risk Factors , Stroke/diagnostic imaging
13.
AJNR Am J Neuroradiol ; 41(11): 2009-2011, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-732928

ABSTRACT

In this clinical case series, we report our experience to date with neurologic complications of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation therapy for COVID-19 Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome. We have found an unexpectedly increased rate of complications as demonstrated by neuroimaging compared with meta-analysis data in extracorporeal membrane oxygenation therapy for all Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome etiologies over the past few decades and compared with the most recent baseline data describing the incidence of neurologic complication in all patients with COVID-19. For our 12-patient cohort, there was a rate of intracranial hemorrhage of 41.7%. Representative cases and images of devastating intracranial hemorrhage are presented. We hypothesize that the interplay between hematologic changes inherent to extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and inflammatory and coagulopathic changes that have begun to be elucidated as part of the COVID-19 disease process are responsible. Continued analysis of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation therapy in this disease paradigm is warranted.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/adverse effects , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , Aged , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Intracranial Hemorrhages/epidemiology , Intracranial Hemorrhages/etiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tertiary Care Centers
14.
AJNR Am J Neuroradiol ; 41(10): 1800-1803, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-690396

ABSTRACT

Since December 2019, a novel Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus 2 from China has rapidly spread worldwide. Although respiratory involvement is the mainstay of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), systemic involvement has recently drawn more attention. In particular, a number of recent articles have shed light on the nervous system as one of the possible targets. At our institution, we observed 15 patients with acute brain vascular manifestations; most interesting, we had a higher prevalence of the posterior circulation acute impairment. In our series, 7 patients had acute posterior cerebral injury: 1, hemorrhagic posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome; 5, posterior circulation ischemic stroke; and 1, parieto-occipital hemorrhagic stroke. On the basis of our evidence and previous basic science reports, we believe a common etiopathogenetic thread may connect ischemic/hemorrhagic events of the posterior circulation and posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome in the setting of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome/etiology , Stroke/etiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Intracranial Hemorrhages/etiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Young Adult
15.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 34(11): 3006-3012, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-676811

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Anticoagulation may be a challenge in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) extracorporeal membrane oxygenation due to endothelial injury and dysregulation of coagulation, which may increase the risk of thrombotic and bleeding complications. This report was created to describe the authors' single institutional experience, with emphasis on the high rate of intracranial hemorrhage for the first 10 patients with COVID-19 placed on venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV ECMO). DESIGN: Case series, retrospective analysis. SETTING: Single institution. PARTICIPANTS: Ten patients. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Patient characteristics, mortality, stroke rate, and length of stay data were collected in all patients. In addition, laboratory values of D-dimer and C-reactive protein and standard measurements of prothrombin and activated partial thromboplastin time were collected on all patients. Ten patients, each confirmed with COVID-19 via reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, were supported on VV ECMO for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) for a mean duration of 9.4 ± 7 days. Four of 10 patients had hemorrhagic strokes, 3 of which resulted in death. At 30 days after initiation of VV ECMO, a total of 7 survivors included 6 patients discharged from the hospital and 1 patient who remained in the intensive care unit. CONCLUSIONS: In this small study of 10 patients, intracranial hemorrhage was a common complication, resulting in a high rate of death. The authors urge caution in the anticoagulation management of VV ECMO for patients with severe ARDS and COVID-19 patients. Close monitoring of all hematologic parameters is recommended during ECMO support while awaiting larger, multicenter studies to examine the best practice.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/adverse effects , Intracranial Hemorrhages/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Intracranial Hemorrhages/diagnosis , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
17.
World Neurosurg ; 141: 157-161, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-648118

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: When Belgium's coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak began in March 2020, our neurosurgical department followed the protocol of most surgical departments in the world and postponed elective surgery. However, patients with tumor-like brain lesions requiring urgent surgery still received treatment as usual, in order to ensure ongoing neurooncologic care. From a series of 31 patients admitted for brain surgery, 3 were confirmed as infected by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. CASE DESCRIPTION: We present the clinical outcomes of these 3 COVID-19 patients, who underwent an intracerebral biopsy in our department during April 2020. All suffered from a diffuse intraparenchymal hemorrhage postoperatively. Unfortunately, we were not able to identify a clear etiology of these postoperative complications. It could be hypothesized that an active COVID-19 infection status may be related to a higher bleeding risk. The remaining 28 neurooncologic non-COVID-19 patients underwent uneventful surgery during the same period. CONCLUSIONS: This case series reports the previously unreported and unexpected outcomes of COVID-19 patients suffering from acute hemorrhage after intracerebral biopsy procedures. Although no direct relation can yet be established, we recommend the neurosurgical community be cautious in such cases.


Subject(s)
Biopsy/adverse effects , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Intracranial Hemorrhages/etiology , Intracranial Hemorrhages/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Aged , Brain Neoplasms/surgery , COVID-19 , Epilepsy/surgery , Humans , Intracranial Hemorrhages/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Positron-Emission Tomography , Postoperative Complications/therapy , Treatment Outcome
18.
Neurol India ; 68(3): 560-572, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-640338

ABSTRACT

COVID-19, in most patients, presents with mild flu-like illness. Elderly patients with comorbidities, like hypertension, diabetes, or lung and cardiac disease, are more likely to have severe disease and deaths. Neurological complications are frequently reported in severely or critically ill patients with comorbidities. In COVID-19, both central and peripheral nervous systems can be affected. The SARS-CoV-2 virus causes the disease COVID-19 and has the potential to invade the brain. The SARS-CoV-2 virus enters the brain either via a hematogenous route or olfactory system. Angiotensin-converting enzyme two receptors, present on endothelial cells of cerebral vessels, are a possible viral entry point. The most severe neurological manifestations, altered sensorium (agitation, delirium, and coma), are because of hypoxic and metabolic abnormalities. Characteristic cytokine storm incites severe metabolic changes and multiple organ failure. Profound coagulopathies may manifest with ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke. Rarely, SARS-CoV-2 virus encephalitis or pictures like acute disseminated encephalomyelitis or acute necrotizing encephalopathy have been reported. Nonspecific headache is a commonly experienced neurological symptom. A new type of headache "personal protection equipment-related headache" has been described. Complete or partial anosmia and ageusia are common peripheral nervous system manifestations. Recently, many cases of Guillain-Barré syndrome in COVID-19 patients have been observed, and a postinfectious immune-mediated inflammatory process was held responsible for this. Guillain-Barré syndrome does respond to intravenous immunoglobulin. Myalgia/fatigue is also common, and elevated creatine kinase levels indicate muscle injury. Most of the reports about neurological complications are currently from China. COVID-19 pandemic is spreading to other parts of the world; the spectrum of neurological complications is likely to widen further.


Subject(s)
Ageusia/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Encephalitis/physiopathology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/physiopathology , Headache/physiopathology , Olfaction Disorders/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Stroke/physiopathology , Ageusia/etiology , Betacoronavirus , Blood Coagulation Disorders/blood , Blood Coagulation Disorders/etiology , Blood-Brain Barrier , Brain Ischemia/blood , Brain Ischemia/etiology , Brain Ischemia/immunology , Brain Ischemia/physiopathology , COVID-19 , Coma/etiology , Coma/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Delirium/etiology , Delirium/physiopathology , Encephalitis/etiology , Encephalitis/immunology , Encephalomyelitis, Acute Disseminated/etiology , Encephalomyelitis, Acute Disseminated/immunology , Encephalomyelitis, Acute Disseminated/physiopathology , Fatigue/etiology , Fatigue/physiopathology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/etiology , Headache/etiology , Humans , Intracranial Hemorrhages/blood , Intracranial Hemorrhages/etiology , Intracranial Hemorrhages/physiopathology , Leukoencephalitis, Acute Hemorrhagic/etiology , Leukoencephalitis, Acute Hemorrhagic/immunology , Leukoencephalitis, Acute Hemorrhagic/physiopathology , Myalgia/etiology , Myalgia/physiopathology , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Pandemics , Personal Protective Equipment/adverse effects , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/blood , Stroke/etiology , Stroke/immunology
19.
AJNR Am J Neuroradiol ; 41(8): 1377-1379, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-608375

ABSTRACT

There is growing evidence that Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has a neurotropic and neuroinvasive potential. In particular, neurologic complications associated with the infection by SARS-CoV-2 include strokes that may result from a dysregulated inflammatory response to the infection. We report an atypical deep cerebral vein thrombosis complicated with hemorrhagic venous infarction in a patient positive for SARS-CoV-2 with no risk factors for thrombosis.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Intracranial Hemorrhages/etiology , Intracranial Thrombosis/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Venous Thrombosis/etiology , Aged , COVID-19 , Humans , Intracranial Hemorrhages/diagnostic imaging , Intracranial Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Multimodal Imaging , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Venous Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging
20.
Ann Neurol ; 88(1): 1-11, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-584154

ABSTRACT

In less than 6 months, the severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spread worldwide infecting nearly 6 million people and killing over 350,000. Initially thought to be restricted to the respiratory system, we now understand that coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) also involves multiple other organs, including the central and peripheral nervous system. The number of recognized neurologic manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 infection is rapidly accumulating. These may result from a variety of mechanisms, including virus-induced hyperinflammatory and hypercoagulable states, direct virus infection of the central nervous system (CNS), and postinfectious immune mediated processes. Example of COVID-19 CNS disease include encephalopathy, encephalitis, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, meningitis, ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, venous sinus thrombosis, and endothelialitis. In the peripheral nervous system, COVID-19 is associated with dysfunction of smell and taste, muscle injury, the Guillain-Barre syndrome, and its variants. Due to its worldwide distribution and multifactorial pathogenic mechanisms, COVID-19 poses a global threat to the entire nervous system. Although our understanding of SARS-CoV-2 neuropathogenesis is still incomplete and our knowledge is evolving rapidly, we hope that this review will provide a useful framework and help neurologists in understanding the many neurologic facets of COVID-19. ANN NEUROL 2020;88:1-11 ANN NEUROL 2020;88:1-11.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Nervous System Diseases/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Brain Diseases/etiology , Brain Diseases/physiopathology , Brain Ischemia/etiology , Brain Ischemia/physiopathology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/etiology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/physiopathology , Encephalitis/etiology , Encephalitis/physiopathology , Encephalomyelitis, Acute Disseminated/etiology , Encephalomyelitis, Acute Disseminated/physiopathology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/etiology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/physiopathology , Humans , Inflammation , Intracranial Hemorrhages/etiology , Intracranial Hemorrhages/physiopathology , Leukoencephalitis, Acute Hemorrhagic/etiology , Leukoencephalitis, Acute Hemorrhagic/physiopathology , Meningitis, Viral/etiology , Meningitis, Viral/physiopathology , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Olfaction Disorders/physiopathology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/etiology , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/physiopathology , Stroke/etiology , Stroke/physiopathology , Thrombophilia/etiology , Thrombophilia/physiopathology
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