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1.
Front Immunol ; 13: 833490, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1809392

ABSTRACT

Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is a rare form of cerebrovascular disease that impairs people's wellbeing and quality of life. Inflammation is considered to play an important role in CVT initiation and progression. Several studies have reported the important role of leukocytes, proinflammatory cytokines, and adherence molecules in the CVT-related inflammatory process. Moreover, inflammatory factors exacerbate CVT-induced brain tissue injury leading to poor prognosis. Based on clinical observations, emerging evidence shows that peripheral blood inflammatory biomarkers-especially neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and lymphocyte count-are correlated with CVT [mean difference (MD) (95%CI), 0.74 (0.11, 1.38), p = 0.02 and -0.29 (-0.51, -0.06), p = 0.01, respectively]. Moreover, increased NLR and systemic immune-inflammation index (SII) portend poor patient outcomes. Evidence accumulated since the outbreak of coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) indicates that COVID-19 infection and COVID-19 vaccine can induce CVT through inflammatory reactions. Given the poor understanding of the association between inflammation and CVT, many conundrums remain unsolved. Further investigations are needed to elucidate the exact relationship between inflammation and CVT in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Intracranial Thrombosis , Venous Thrombosis , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Inflammation , Intracranial Thrombosis/epidemiology , Intracranial Thrombosis/etiology , Quality of Life , Venous Thrombosis/etiology
2.
Eur J Neurol ; 28(10): 3478-3490, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1603703

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection predisposes patients to arterial and venous thrombosis. This study aimed to systematically review the available evidence in the literature for cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) in association with coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases to identify cases of COVID-19-associated CVT. The search period spanned 1 January 2020 to 1 December 2020, and the review protocol (PROSPERO-CRD42020214327) followed Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Identified studies were evaluated for bias using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. A proportion meta-analysis was performed to estimate the frequency of CVT among hospitalized COVID-19 patients. RESULTS: We identified 57 cases from 28 reports. Study quality was mostly classified as low. CVT symptoms developed after respiratory disease in 90%, and the mean interval was 13 days. CVT involved multiple sites in 67% of individuals, the deep venous system was affected in 37%, and parenchymal hemorrhage was found in 42%. Predisposing factors for CVT beyond SARS-CoV-2 infection were present in 31%. In-hospital mortality was 40%. Using data from 34,331 patients, the estimated frequency of CVT among patients hospitalized for SARS-CoV-2 infection was 0.08% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.01-0.5). In an inpatient setting, CVT accounted for 4.2% of cerebrovascular disorders in individuals with COVID-19 (cohort of 406 patients, 95% CI: 1.47-11.39). CONCLUSIONS: Cerebral venous thrombosis in the context of SARS-CoV-2 infection is a rare, although there seems to be an increased relative risk. High suspicion is necessary, because the diagnosis of this potentially life-threatening condition in COVID-19 patients can be challenging. Evidence is still scarce on the pathophysiology and potential prevention of COVID-19-associated CVT.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Intracranial Thrombosis , Venous Thrombosis , Cohort Studies , Humans , Intracranial Thrombosis/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Venous Thrombosis/epidemiology
3.
Lancet ; 398(10306): 1147-1156, 2021 09 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1437625

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A new syndrome of vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) has emerged as a rare side-effect of vaccination against COVID-19. Cerebral venous thrombosis is the most common manifestation of this syndrome but, to our knowledge, has not previously been described in detail. We aimed to document the features of post-vaccination cerebral venous thrombosis with and without VITT and to assess whether VITT is associated with poorer outcomes. METHODS: For this multicentre cohort study, clinicians were asked to submit all cases in which COVID-19 vaccination preceded the onset of cerebral venous thrombosis, regardless of the type of vaccine, interval between vaccine and onset of cerebral venous thrombosis symptoms, or blood test results. We collected clinical characteristics, laboratory results (including the results of tests for anti-platelet factor 4 antibodies where available), and radiological features at hospital admission of patients with cerebral venous thrombosis after vaccination against COVID-19, with no exclusion criteria. We defined cerebral venous thrombosis cases as VITT-associated if the lowest platelet count recorded during admission was below 150 × 109 per L and, if the D-dimer was measured, the highest value recorded was greater than 2000 µg/L. We compared the VITT and non-VITT groups for the proportion of patients who had died or were dependent on others to help them with their activities of daily living (modified Rankin score 3-6) at the end of hospital admission (the primary outcome of the study). The VITT group were also compared with a large cohort of patients with cerebral venous thrombosis described in the International Study on Cerebral Vein and Dural Sinus Thrombosis. FINDINGS: Between April 1 and May 20, 2021, we received data on 99 patients from collaborators in 43 hospitals across the UK. Four patients were excluded because they did not have definitive evidence of cerebral venous thrombosis on imaging. Of the remaining 95 patients, 70 had VITT and 25 did not. The median age of the VITT group (47 years, IQR 32-55) was lower than in the non-VITT group (57 years; 41-62; p=0·0045). Patients with VITT-associated cerebral venous thrombosis had more intracranial veins thrombosed (median three, IQR 2-4) than non-VITT patients (two, 2-3; p=0·041) and more frequently had extracranial thrombosis (31 [44%] of 70 patients) compared with non-VITT patients (one [4%] of 25 patients; p=0·0003). The primary outcome of death or dependency occurred more frequently in patients with VITT-associated cerebral venous thrombosis (33 [47%] of 70 patients) compared with the non-VITT control group (four [16%] of 25 patients; p=0·0061). This adverse outcome was less frequent in patients with VITT who received non-heparin anticoagulants (18 [36%] of 50 patients) compared with those who did not (15 [75%] of 20 patients; p=0·0031), and in those who received intravenous immunoglobulin (22 [40%] of 55 patients) compared with those who did not (11 [73%] of 15 patients; p=0·022). INTERPRETATION: Cerebral venous thrombosis is more severe in the context of VITT. Non-heparin anticoagulants and immunoglobulin treatment might improve outcomes of VITT-associated cerebral venous thrombosis. Since existing criteria excluded some patients with otherwise typical VITT-associated cerebral venous thrombosis, we propose new diagnostic criteria that are more appropriate. FUNDING: None.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Intracranial Thrombosis/epidemiology , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/epidemiology , Vaccination/adverse effects , Adult , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Cohort Studies , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products , Humans , Intracranial Thrombosis/drug therapy , Intracranial Thrombosis/mortality , Male , Middle Aged , Platelet Count , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Venous Thrombosis/drug therapy , Venous Thrombosis/epidemiology
4.
Ann Neurol ; 90(4): 627-639, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1318684

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to estimate the incidence of cerebral sinus and venous thrombosis (CVT) within 1 month from first dose administration and the frequency of vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) as the underlying mechanism after vaccination with BNT162b2, ChAdOx1, and mRNA-1273, in Germany. METHODS: A web-based questionnaire was e-mailed to all departments of neurology. We requested a report of cases of CVT occurring within 1 month of a COVID-19 vaccination. Other cerebral events could also be reported. Incidence rates of CVT were calculated by using official statistics of 9 German states. RESULTS: A total of 45 CVT cases were reported. In addition, 9 primary ischemic strokes, 4 primary intracerebral hemorrhages, and 4 other neurological events were recorded. Of the CVT patients, 35 (77.8%) were female, and 36 (80.0%) were younger than 60 years. Fifty-three events were observed after vaccination with ChAdOx1 (85.5%), 9 after BNT162b2 (14.5%) vaccination, and none after mRNA-1273 vaccination. After 7,126,434 first vaccine doses, the incidence rate of CVT within 1 month from first dose administration was 0.55 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.38-0.78) per 100,000 person-months (which corresponds to a risk of CVT within the first 31 days of 0.55 per 100,000 individuals) for all vaccines and 1.52 (95% CI = 1.00-2.21) for ChAdOx1 (after 2,320,535 ChAdOx1 first doses). The adjusted incidence rate ratio was 9.68 (95% CI = 3.46-34.98) for ChAdOx1 compared to mRNA-based vaccines and 3.14 (95% CI = 1.22-10.65) for females compared to non-females. In 26 of 45 patients with CVT (57.8%), VITT was graded highly probable. INTERPRETATION: Given an incidence of 0.02 to 0.15 per 100,000 person-months for CVT in the general population, these findings point toward a higher risk for CVT after ChAdOx1 vaccination, especially for women. ANN NEUROL 2021;90:627-639.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Intracranial Thrombosis/etiology , Venous Thrombosis/etiology , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cerebral Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Cerebral Hemorrhage/etiology , Female , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Intracranial Thrombosis/epidemiology , Ischemic Stroke/epidemiology , Ischemic Stroke/etiology , Male , Middle Aged , Sex Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , Venous Thrombosis/epidemiology , Young Adult
5.
J Korean Med Sci ; 36(27): e197, 2021 Jul 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1308264

ABSTRACT

We used the nationwide claims database to calculate the incidence of thrombotic events and predict their overall 2-week incidence. From 2006 to 2020, the incidence of deep vein thrombosis (DVT), pulmonary embolism (PE), and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) tended to increase. Unlike intracranial venous thrombosis (ICVT) and intracranial thrombophlebitis (ICTP), which showed no age difference, other venous embolism, and thrombosis (OVET), DIC, DVT, and PE were significantly more common in over 65 years. The overall 2-week incidence of ICVT was 0.21/1,000,000 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.11-0.32). ICTP, OVET, DIC, DVT and PE were expected to occur in 0.08 (95% CI, 0.02-0.14), 7.66 (95% CI, 6.08-9.23), 5.95 (95% CI, 4.88-7.03), 13.28 (95% CI, 11.92-14.64), 14.09 (95% CI, 12.80-15.37) per 1,000,000, respectively. To date, of 8,548,231 patients vaccinated with ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 in Korea, two had confirmed thrombosis with thrombocytopenia syndrome within 2 weeks. The observed incidence of ICVT after vaccination was 0.23/1,000,000.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/chemically induced , Pulmonary Embolism/chemically induced , Thromboembolism/chemically induced , Vaccination/adverse effects , Venous Thrombosis/chemically induced , Aged , Causality , Cerebrovascular Disorders/epidemiology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Incidence , Intracranial Thrombosis/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Models, Theoretical , Pulmonary Embolism/epidemiology , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Thrombocytopenia/chemically induced , Thrombocytopenia/epidemiology , Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Venous Thrombosis/epidemiology
6.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 15(3): 1039-1045, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1303499

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Initially, novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) was considered primarily a respiratory pathogen. However, with time it has behaved as a virus with the potential to cause multi-system involvement, including neurological manifestations. Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVT) has increasingly been reported in association with coronavirus infectious disease of 2019 (COVID-19). Here, we have shed light upon CVT and its possible mechanisms in the backdrop of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: In this review, data were collected from PubMed, EMBASE and Web of Science, until March 30, 2021, using pre-specified searching strategies. The search strategy consisted of a variation of keywords of relevant medical subject headings and keywords, including "COVID-19", "SARS-CoV-2", "coronavirus", and "cerebral venous sinus thrombosis". RESULTS: COVID-19 has a causal association with a plethora of neurological, neuropsychiatric and psychological effects. CVT has gained particular importance in this regard. The known hypercoagulable state in SARS-CoV-2 infection is thought to be the main mechanism in COVID-19 related CVT. Other plausible mechanisms may include vascular endothelial dysfunction and altered flow dynamics. CONCLUSIONS: Although there are no specific clinical characteristics, insidious or acute onset headache, seizures, stroke-like, or encephalopathy symptoms in a patient with, or who has suffered COVID-19, should prompt the attending physician to investigate for CVT. The treatment of COVID-19 associated CVT does not differ radically from the therapy of CVT without the infection, i.e. urgent initiation of parenteral unfractionated heparin or low molecular weight heparin followed by conventional or mostly newer oral anticoagulants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Intracranial Thrombosis/etiology , Intracranial Thrombosis/therapy , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Emergency Medical Services/methods , Heparin/therapeutic use , Humans , Intracranial Thrombosis/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
7.
Cerebrovasc Dis Extra ; 11(2): 55-60, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1223637

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Coronavirus disease 2019 (CO-VID-19) has an increased propensity for systemic hypercoagulability and thromboembolism. An association with cerebrovascular diseases, especially cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT), has been reported among these patients. The objective of the present study was to identify risk factors for CVT as well as its presentation and outcome in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: This is a multicenter and multinational observational study. Ten centers in 4 countries (Pakistan, Egypt, Singapore, and the United Arab Emirates) participated in this study. The study included patients (aged >18 years) with symptomatic CVT and recent COVID-19 infection. RESULTS: Twenty patients (70% men) were included. Their mean age was 42.4 years, with a male-to-female ratio of 2.3:1. Headache (85%) and seizures (65%) were the common presenting symptoms, with a mean admission Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score of 13. CVT was the presenting feature in 13 cases (65%), while 7 patients (35%) developed CVT while being treated for COVID-19 infection. Respiratory symptoms were absent in 45% of the patients. The most common imaging finding was infarction (65%), followed by hemorrhage (20%). The superior sagittal sinus (65%) was the most common site of thrombosis. Acute inflammatory markers were raised, including elevated serum D-dimer (87.5%), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (69%), and C-reactive protein (47%) levels. Homocysteine was elevated in half of the tested cases. The mortality rate was 20% (4 patients). A good functional outcome was seen in the surviving patients, with a mean modified Rankin Scale score at discharge of 1.3. Nine patients (45%) had a modified Rankin Scale score of 0-1 at discharge. CONCLUSION: COVID-19-related CVT is more common among males at older ages when compared to previously reported non-COVID-19-related CVT cases. CVT should be suspected in COVID-19 patients presenting with headache or seizures. Mortality is high, but functional neurological outcome is good among survivors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Intracranial Thrombosis/epidemiology , Intracranial Thrombosis/virology , Venous Thrombosis/epidemiology , Venous Thrombosis/virology , Adult , COVID-19/therapy , Egypt , Female , Humans , Intracranial Thrombosis/diagnosis , Male , Middle Aged , Pakistan , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Singapore , United Arab Emirates , Venous Thrombosis/diagnosis
8.
AJNR Am J Neuroradiol ; 42(7): 1196-1200, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1200067

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is associated with hypercoagulability. We sought to evaluate the demographic and clinical characteristics of cerebral venous thrombosis among patients hospitalized for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) at 6 tertiary care centers in the New York City metropolitan area. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective multicenter cohort study of 13,500 consecutive patients with COVID-19 who were hospitalized between March 1 and May 30, 2020. RESULTS: Of 13,500 patients with COVID-19, twelve had imaging-proved cerebral venous thrombosis with an incidence of 8.8 per 10,000 during 3 months, which is considerably higher than the reported incidence of cerebral venous thrombosis in the general population of 5 per million annually. There was a male preponderance (8 men, 4 women) and an average age of 49 years (95% CI, 36-62 years; range, 17-95 years). Only 1 patient (8%) had a history of thromboembolic disease. Neurologic symptoms secondary to cerebral venous thrombosis occurred within 24 hours of the onset of the respiratory and constitutional symptoms in 58% of cases, and 75% had venous infarction, hemorrhage, or both on brain imaging. Management consisted of anticoagulation, endovascular thrombectomy, and surgical hematoma evacuation. The mortality rate was 25%. CONCLUSIONS: Early evidence suggests a higher-than-expected frequency of cerebral venous thrombosis among patients hospitalized for COVID-19. Cerebral venous thrombosis should be included in the differential diagnosis of neurologic syndromes associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Intracranial Thrombosis/epidemiology , Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , Causality , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Intracranial Thrombosis/diagnosis , Male , Middle Aged , New York City/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Thrombectomy/adverse effects , Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Venous Thrombosis/epidemiology
9.
Eur J Clin Invest ; 51(6): e13559, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1153487

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is an infectious disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 associated with haematological manifestations (thrombolytic events). AIMS: Considering the high prevalence of the thrombotic scenarios associated with COVID-19, the aim of this study was to perform a systematic review of the available literature, concerning the relation of COVID-19 and the thrombotic events, and identify prognostic factors for these events. MATERIALS & METHODS: PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus databases were searched. Independent reviewers conducted all flow diagram steps. For qualitative analysis, Oxford level of evidence and Newcastle-Ottawa scale were used in the eligible articles. For the prognostic factors, a meta-analysis was conducted to age, number of neutrophils and platelets, and levels of ferritin, C-reactive protein, lactate dehydrogenase and D-dimer. Publication bias was accessed by funnel plot and by trim-and-fill test. Trim-and-fill test was also applied to evaluate meta-analysis bias. RESULTS: Twenty articles were included in the qualitative analysis, and 6 articles were included in the meta-analysis. Case-control studies showed bias related to exposure, and the main bias in cohort studies were related to selection and outcome. All articles received score 4 for the level of evidence. Hypertension and diabetes were the comorbidities more frequently associated with thrombolytic events. Significant results were found regarding D-dimer (P < .0001) and age (P = .0202) for thrombotic events in patients diagnosed with COVID-19. CONCLUSION: Patients older than 60 years, with hypertension, diabetes and D-Dimer values above 3.17 µg/mL, can be considered prognostic factors for developing thrombotic events due to COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Thrombosis/epidemiology , Age Factors , COVID-19/complications , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Intracranial Thrombosis/epidemiology , Intracranial Thrombosis/etiology , Pulmonary Embolism/epidemiology , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombosis/etiology , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology , Venous Thrombosis/epidemiology , Venous Thrombosis/etiology
10.
Eur J Neurol ; 28(10): 3478-3490, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066675

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection predisposes patients to arterial and venous thrombosis. This study aimed to systematically review the available evidence in the literature for cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) in association with coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases to identify cases of COVID-19-associated CVT. The search period spanned 1 January 2020 to 1 December 2020, and the review protocol (PROSPERO-CRD42020214327) followed Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Identified studies were evaluated for bias using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. A proportion meta-analysis was performed to estimate the frequency of CVT among hospitalized COVID-19 patients. RESULTS: We identified 57 cases from 28 reports. Study quality was mostly classified as low. CVT symptoms developed after respiratory disease in 90%, and the mean interval was 13 days. CVT involved multiple sites in 67% of individuals, the deep venous system was affected in 37%, and parenchymal hemorrhage was found in 42%. Predisposing factors for CVT beyond SARS-CoV-2 infection were present in 31%. In-hospital mortality was 40%. Using data from 34,331 patients, the estimated frequency of CVT among patients hospitalized for SARS-CoV-2 infection was 0.08% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.01-0.5). In an inpatient setting, CVT accounted for 4.2% of cerebrovascular disorders in individuals with COVID-19 (cohort of 406 patients, 95% CI: 1.47-11.39). CONCLUSIONS: Cerebral venous thrombosis in the context of SARS-CoV-2 infection is a rare, although there seems to be an increased relative risk. High suspicion is necessary, because the diagnosis of this potentially life-threatening condition in COVID-19 patients can be challenging. Evidence is still scarce on the pathophysiology and potential prevention of COVID-19-associated CVT.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Intracranial Thrombosis , Venous Thrombosis , Cohort Studies , Humans , Intracranial Thrombosis/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Venous Thrombosis/epidemiology
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