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1.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(3): e222940, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1748799

ABSTRACT

Importance: Reports of cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) after messenger RNA (mRNA)-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccination has caused safety concerns, but CVT is also known to occur after SARS-CoV-2 infection. Comparing the relative incidence of CVT after infection vs vaccination may provide a better perspective of this complication. Objective: To compare the incidence rates and clinical characteristics of CVT following either SARS-CoV-2 infection or mRNA-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. Design, Setting, and Participants: Between January 23, 2020, and August 3, 2021, this observational cohort study was conducted at all public acute hospitals in Singapore, where patients hospitalized with CVT within 6 weeks of SARS-CoV-2 infection or after mRNA-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccination (BNT162b2 [Pfizer-BioNTech] or mRNA-1273 [Moderna]) were identified. Diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection was based on quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction or positive serology. National SARS-CoV-2 infection data were obtained from the National Centre for Infectious Disease, Singapore, and vaccination data were obtained from the National Immunisation Registry, Singapore. Exposures: SARS-CoV-2 infection or mRNA-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. Main Outcomes and Measures: Clinical characteristics, crude incidence rate (IR), and incidence rate ratio (IRR) of CVT after SARS-CoV-2 infection and after mRNA SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. Results: Among 62 447 individuals diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infections included in this study, 58 989 (94.5%) were male; the median (range) age was 34 (0-102) years; 6 CVT cases were identified (all were male; median [range] age was 33.5 [27-40] years). Among 3 006 662 individuals who received at least 1 dose of mRNA-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, 1 626 623 (54.1%) were male; the median (range) age was 50 (12-121) years; 9 CVT cases were identified (7 male individuals [77.8%]; median [range] age: 60 [46-76] years). The crude IR of CVT after SARS-CoV-2 infections was 83.3 per 100 000 person-years (95% CI, 30.6-181.2 per 100 000 person-years) and 2.59 per 100 000 person-years (95% CI, 1.19-4.92 per 100 000 person-years) after mRNA-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. Six (66.7%) received BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) vaccine and 3 (33.3%) received mRNA-1273 (Moderna) vaccine. The crude IRR of CVT hospitalizations with SARS-CoV-2 infection compared with those who received mRNA SARS-CoV-2 vaccination was 32.1 (95% CI, 9.40-101; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: The incidence rate of CVT after SARS-CoV-2 infection was significantly higher compared with after mRNA-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. CVT remained rare after mRNA-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccines, reinforcing its safety.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Venous Thrombosis , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Intracranial Thrombosis/etiology , Male , Middle Aged , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , Singapore/epidemiology , Vaccination , Venous Thrombosis/epidemiology , Venous Thrombosis/etiology , Young Adult
3.
Neonatology ; 119(2): 268-272, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1714478

ABSTRACT

A possible consequence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is the development of an exacerbated thrombophilic status, and cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is a rare but possible complication of SARS-CoV-2 infection reported both in adults and in children. The present case report describes the clinical course of a term neonate showing extended CVT of unclear origin, whose mother had developed SARS-CoV-2 infection during the third trimester of pregnancy. We speculate that the prothrombotic status induced by maternal SARS-CoV-2 infection may have played a pathophysiological role in the development of such severe neonatal complication. Further investigations are required to confirm such hypothesis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Intracranial Thrombosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Venous Thrombosis , Adult , COVID-19/complications , Child , Family , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Intracranial Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Intracranial Thrombosis/etiology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Outcome , SARS-CoV-2 , Venous Thrombosis/complications
4.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 31(3): 106298, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1627029

ABSTRACT

Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is an uncommon cerebrovascular disease, which has been reported with covid infection as well as covid vaccines, particularly AstraZeneca and Janssen vaccines. We present four consecutive cases of CVT after receiving either Sinopharm or Sinovac vaccine, both of which are composed of an inactivated-virus. All the patients recovered well with anticoagulation and discharged with a good functional outcome. This is the first case series reporting CVT following the administration of these vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , Intracranial Thrombosis , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans , Intracranial Thrombosis/etiology , Vaccines, Inactivated/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Inactivated/adverse effects
6.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 53(2): 359-362, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1504316

ABSTRACT

Cases of cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) associated with vaccine induced thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) were reported following administration of the adenoviral vector COVID-19 vaccines, resulting in a pause in Ad.26.COV2.S vaccine administration in the United States, beginning on April 14, 2021. We aimed to quantify and characterize an anticipated increase in brain venograms performed in response to this pause. Brain venogram cases were retrospectively identified during the three-week period following the vaccine pause and during the same calendar period in 2019. For venograms performed in 2021, we compared COVID vaccinated to unvaccinated patients. There was a 262% increase in venograms performed between 2019 (n = 26) and 2021 (n = 94), compared to only a 19% increase in all radiologic studies. Fifty-seven percent of patients in 2021 had a history of COVID-19 vaccination, with the majority being Ad.26.COV2.S. All patients diagnosed with CVT were unvaccinated. COVID vaccinated patients lacked platelet or D-dimer measurements consistent with VITT. Significantly more vaccinated versus unvaccinated patients had a headache (94% vs 70%, p = 0.0014), but otherwise lacked compelling CVT presentations, such as decreased/altered consciousness (7% vs 23%, p = 0.036), neurologic deficit (28% vs 48%, p = 0.049), and current/recent pregnancy (2% vs 28%, p = 0.0003). We found a dramatic increase in brain venograms performed following publicity of rare COVID-19 vaccine associated CVT cases, with no CVTs identified in vaccinated patients. Clinicians should carefully consider if brain venogram performance is indicated in COVID-19 vaccinated patients lacking thrombocytopenia and D-dimer elevation, especially without other compelling CVT risk factors or symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Intracranial Thrombosis , Thrombocytopenia , Thrombosis , Brain , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans , Intracranial Thrombosis/etiology , Phlebography/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies , Thrombocytopenia/etiology , Thrombosis/etiology , United States , Vaccination/adverse effects
7.
Am J Hematol ; 96(12): 1580-1586, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1375592

ABSTRACT

The recent association of cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) with COVID-19 vaccinations prompted the current retrospective review of 74 cases of CVT (median age = 44 years, range 15-85; 61% females) associated with myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs), seen at the Mayo Clinic, Catholic University of Rome, and University of Florence, between 1991 and 2021. Disease-specific frequencies were 1.3% (39/2893), 1.2% (21/1811) and 0.2% (3/1888) for essential thrombocythemia, polycythemia vera and primary myelofibrosis, respectively. Cerebral venous thrombosis occurred either prior to (n = 20, 27%), at (n = 32, 44%) or after (n = 22) MPN diagnosis. A total of 72% of patients presented with headaches. Transverse (51%), sagittal (43%) and sigmoid sinuses (35%) were involved with central nervous system hemorrhage noted in 10 (14%) patients. In all, 91% of tested patients harbored JAK2V617F. An underlying thrombophilic condition was identified in 19 (31%) cases and history of thrombosis in 10 (14%). Treatment for CVT included systemic anticoagulation alone (n = 27) or in conjunction with aspirin (n = 24), cytoreductive therapy (n = 14), or both (n = 9). At a median follow-up of 5.1 years (range 0.1-28.6), recurrent CVT was documented in three (4%) patients while recurrent arterial and venous thromboses and major hemorrhage were recorded in 11%, 9% and 14%, respectively. Follow-up neurological assessment revealed headaches (n = 9), vision loss (n = 1) and cognitive impairment (n = 1). The current study lends clarity to MPN-associated CVT and highlights its close association with JAK2V617F, younger age and female gender. Clinical features that distinguish COVID vaccine-related CVT from MPN-associated CVT include, in the latter, lower likelihood of concurrent venous thromboses and intracerebral hemorrhage; as a result, MPN-associated CVT was not fatal.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Intracranial Thrombosis/etiology , Myeloproliferative Disorders/complications , Venous Thrombosis/etiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Intracranial Thrombosis/genetics , Janus Kinase 2/genetics , Male , Middle Aged , Myeloproliferative Disorders/genetics , Point Mutation , Polycythemia Vera/complications , Polycythemia Vera/genetics , Primary Myelofibrosis/complications , Primary Myelofibrosis/genetics , Retrospective Studies , Thrombocythemia, Essential/complications , Thrombocythemia, Essential/genetics , Venous Thrombosis/genetics , Young Adult
9.
J Cardiovasc Med (Hagerstown) ; 23(2): 71-74, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1348429

ABSTRACT

Currently, the world is coping with the COVID-19 pandemic with a few vaccines. So far, the European Medicine Agency has approved four of them. However, following widespread vaccination with the recombinant adenoviral vector-based Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine, available only in the United Kingdom and Europe, many concerns have emerged, especially the report of several cases of the otherwise rare cerebral sinus vein thrombosis and splanchnic vein thrombosis. The onset of thrombosis particularly at these unusual sites, about 5--14 days after vaccination, along with thrombocytopenia and other specific blood test abnormalities, are the main features of the vaccine side effects. The acronym vaccine-induced prothrombotic immune thrombocytopenia (VIPIT) has been coined to name this new condition, with the aim of highlighting the difference from the classic heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT). VIPIT seems to primarily affect young to middle-aged women. For this reason, the vaccine administration has been stopped or limited in a few European countries. Coagulopathy induced by the Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine (and probably by Janssen/Johnson & Johnson vaccine as well in the USA) is likely related to the use of recombinant vector DNA adenovirus, as experimentally proven in animal models. Conversely, Pfizer and Moderna vaccines use mRNA vectors. All vaccine-induced thrombotic events should be treated with a nonheparin anticoagulant. As the condition has some similarities with HIT, patients should not receive any heparin or platelet transfusion, as these treatments may potentially worsen the clinical course. Aspirin has limited rational use in this setting and is not currently recommended. Intravenous immunoglobulins may represent another potential treatment, but, most importantly, clinicians need to be aware of this new unusual postvaccination syndrome.


Subject(s)
/adverse effects , Intracranial Thrombosis/etiology , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/etiology , /adverse effects , Adenoviridae/immunology , Humans
10.
J Neurovirol ; 27(4): 644-649, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1338289

ABSTRACT

Among the ever-increasing literature of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), there have been reports on several complications in association with severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), such as secondary bacterial and fungal infections. We report a 61-year-old woman with a past history of diabetes mellitus who presented to our hospital suffering from COVID-19 infection. During the course of her hospitalization, the patient developed chemosis and proptosis in both eyes, ultimately leading to a diagnosis of invasive rhino-orbital-cerebral mucormycosis and cerebrovascular thrombosis. This study strengthens the possible association between the occurrence of COVID-19 and invasive mucormycosis infection, providing new impetus for further investigations to substantiate this correlation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Mucormycosis/complications , Brain Infarction/etiology , Diabetes Mellitus , Fatal Outcome , Female , Humans , Hypertension , Intracranial Thrombosis/etiology , Middle Aged , Paranasal Sinus Diseases/complications , Paranasal Sinus Diseases/microbiology
11.
Ann Neurol ; 90(4): 627-639, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1318684

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to estimate the incidence of cerebral sinus and venous thrombosis (CVT) within 1 month from first dose administration and the frequency of vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) as the underlying mechanism after vaccination with BNT162b2, ChAdOx1, and mRNA-1273, in Germany. METHODS: A web-based questionnaire was e-mailed to all departments of neurology. We requested a report of cases of CVT occurring within 1 month of a COVID-19 vaccination. Other cerebral events could also be reported. Incidence rates of CVT were calculated by using official statistics of 9 German states. RESULTS: A total of 45 CVT cases were reported. In addition, 9 primary ischemic strokes, 4 primary intracerebral hemorrhages, and 4 other neurological events were recorded. Of the CVT patients, 35 (77.8%) were female, and 36 (80.0%) were younger than 60 years. Fifty-three events were observed after vaccination with ChAdOx1 (85.5%), 9 after BNT162b2 (14.5%) vaccination, and none after mRNA-1273 vaccination. After 7,126,434 first vaccine doses, the incidence rate of CVT within 1 month from first dose administration was 0.55 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.38-0.78) per 100,000 person-months (which corresponds to a risk of CVT within the first 31 days of 0.55 per 100,000 individuals) for all vaccines and 1.52 (95% CI = 1.00-2.21) for ChAdOx1 (after 2,320,535 ChAdOx1 first doses). The adjusted incidence rate ratio was 9.68 (95% CI = 3.46-34.98) for ChAdOx1 compared to mRNA-based vaccines and 3.14 (95% CI = 1.22-10.65) for females compared to non-females. In 26 of 45 patients with CVT (57.8%), VITT was graded highly probable. INTERPRETATION: Given an incidence of 0.02 to 0.15 per 100,000 person-months for CVT in the general population, these findings point toward a higher risk for CVT after ChAdOx1 vaccination, especially for women. ANN NEUROL 2021;90:627-639.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Intracranial Thrombosis/etiology , Venous Thrombosis/etiology , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cerebral Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Cerebral Hemorrhage/etiology , Female , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Intracranial Thrombosis/epidemiology , Ischemic Stroke/epidemiology , Ischemic Stroke/etiology , Male , Middle Aged , Sex Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , Venous Thrombosis/epidemiology , Young Adult
12.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 15(3): 1039-1045, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1303499

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Initially, novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) was considered primarily a respiratory pathogen. However, with time it has behaved as a virus with the potential to cause multi-system involvement, including neurological manifestations. Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVT) has increasingly been reported in association with coronavirus infectious disease of 2019 (COVID-19). Here, we have shed light upon CVT and its possible mechanisms in the backdrop of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: In this review, data were collected from PubMed, EMBASE and Web of Science, until March 30, 2021, using pre-specified searching strategies. The search strategy consisted of a variation of keywords of relevant medical subject headings and keywords, including "COVID-19", "SARS-CoV-2", "coronavirus", and "cerebral venous sinus thrombosis". RESULTS: COVID-19 has a causal association with a plethora of neurological, neuropsychiatric and psychological effects. CVT has gained particular importance in this regard. The known hypercoagulable state in SARS-CoV-2 infection is thought to be the main mechanism in COVID-19 related CVT. Other plausible mechanisms may include vascular endothelial dysfunction and altered flow dynamics. CONCLUSIONS: Although there are no specific clinical characteristics, insidious or acute onset headache, seizures, stroke-like, or encephalopathy symptoms in a patient with, or who has suffered COVID-19, should prompt the attending physician to investigate for CVT. The treatment of COVID-19 associated CVT does not differ radically from the therapy of CVT without the infection, i.e. urgent initiation of parenteral unfractionated heparin or low molecular weight heparin followed by conventional or mostly newer oral anticoagulants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Intracranial Thrombosis/etiology , Intracranial Thrombosis/therapy , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Emergency Medical Services/methods , Heparin/therapeutic use , Humans , Intracranial Thrombosis/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(10): e24708, 2021 Mar 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1284920

ABSTRACT

RATIONALE: Pathogeny of thrombosis in COVID-19 is related to interaction of SARS-Cov-2 with vascular wall through the angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor. This induces 2 pathways with immunothrombosis from activated endothelium (cytokine storm, leukocyte and platelet recruitment, and activation of coagulation extrinsic pathway), and rise of angiotensin II levels promoting inflammation. While thrombosis is widely described in COVID-19 patients admitted in intensive care unit, cerebrovascular diseases remains rare, in particular cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT). PATIENT CONCERNS: We describe 2 cases of women admitted during the spring of 2020 for intracranial hypertension signs, in stroke units in Great-east, a French area particularly affected by COVID-19 pandemia. DIAGNOSES: Cerebral imaging revealed extended CVT in both cases. The first case described was more serious due to right supratentorial venous infarction with hemorrhagic transformation leading to herniation. Both patients presented typical pneumonia due to SARS-Cov-2 infection, confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction on a nasopharyngeal swab in only one. INTERVENTIONS: The first patient had to undergo decompressive craniectomy, and both patients were treated with anticoagulation therapy. OUTCOMES: Favorable outcome was observed for 1 patient. Persistent coma, due to bi thalamic infarction, remained for the other with more serious presentation. LESSONS: CVT, as a serious complication of COVID-19, has to be searched in all patients with intracranial hypertension syndrome. Data about anticoagulation therapy to prevent such serious thrombosis in SARS-Cov-2 infection are lacking, in particular in patients with mild and moderate COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Intracranial Thrombosis/etiology , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/immunology , Decompressive Craniectomy/methods , Female , Humans , Intracranial Thrombosis/immunology , Intracranial Thrombosis/therapy , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
14.
Pan Afr Med J ; 38: 373, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1236952

ABSTRACT

Although the severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) being more frequently related to acute respiratory distress syndrome and acute cardiac and renal injuries, thromboembolic events have been increasingly reported. Acute respiratory distress syndrome due to SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome - Corona Virus 2) often requires intensive care follow-up. As well as respiratory failure, the SARS-CoV-2 may cause central nervous system (CNS) involvement. The pandemic has raised many challenges in managing critically ill older adults, a population preferentially killed by COVID-19. The mortality and morbidity rates are extremely high in critically ill patients with COVID-19. Recent studies have reported the potential development of a hypercoagulable state in COVID-19. Viral infections and hypoxia may cause these state. It is increasingly reported that thromboembolic events are associated with a poor prognosis. Due to these thromboembolic complications, COVID-19 patients often have neurological symptoms. These symptoms may not be observed in intensive care patients who are sedated. We report one case who was sedated COVID-19 pneumonia and who was later diagnosed with cerebral venous thrombosis with cranial imaging when he could not awaken even though sedation was discontinued. Since COVID-19 causes intense thrombotic susceptibility due to cytokine storm, cerebrovascular thromboembolic complications associated with COVID-19 infection should be considered first and foremost for unconsciousness ventilated patients. Severe and potentially cerebral thrombosis may prolong the patient´s stay in intensive care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Intracranial Thrombosis/etiology , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Care , Deep Sedation , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
16.
Clin Appl Thromb Hemost ; 27: 10760296211002274, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1191430

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this article is to address several challenging questions in the management of young patients (those age 60 and under) who present with ischemic stroke. Do genetic thrombophilic states, strongly associated with venous thrombosis, independently cause arterial events in adults? Should cases of patent foramen ovale be closed with mechanical devices in patients with cryptogenic stroke? What are the optimal treatments for cerebral vein thrombosis, carotid artery dissection, and antiphospholipid syndrome and are DOACs acceptable treatment for these indications? What is the mechanism underlying large vessel stroke in patients with COVID-19? This is a narrative review. We searched PubMed and Embase and American College of physicians Journal club database for English language articles since 2000 looking mainly at randomized clinical trials, Meta analyses, Cochran reviews as well as some research articles viewed to be cutting edge regarding anticoagulation and cerebrovascular disease. Searches were done entering cerebral vein thrombosis, carotid dissection, anticoagulation therapy and stroke, antiphospholipid antibody and stroke, stroke in young adults, cryptogenic stroke and anticoagulation, patent foramen ovale and cryptogenic stroke, COVID-19 and stroke.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Ischemic Stroke/etiology , Ischemic Stroke/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aneurysm, Dissecting/complications , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Antiphospholipid Syndrome/complications , Cervical Vertebrae/blood supply , Female , Foramen Ovale, Patent/complications , Foramen Ovale, Patent/surgery , Humans , Intracranial Thrombosis/etiology , Intracranial Thrombosis/therapy , Ischemic Stroke/prevention & control , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prognosis , Risk Factors , Thrombophilia/complications
17.
Eur J Clin Invest ; 51(6): e13559, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1153487

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is an infectious disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 associated with haematological manifestations (thrombolytic events). AIMS: Considering the high prevalence of the thrombotic scenarios associated with COVID-19, the aim of this study was to perform a systematic review of the available literature, concerning the relation of COVID-19 and the thrombotic events, and identify prognostic factors for these events. MATERIALS & METHODS: PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus databases were searched. Independent reviewers conducted all flow diagram steps. For qualitative analysis, Oxford level of evidence and Newcastle-Ottawa scale were used in the eligible articles. For the prognostic factors, a meta-analysis was conducted to age, number of neutrophils and platelets, and levels of ferritin, C-reactive protein, lactate dehydrogenase and D-dimer. Publication bias was accessed by funnel plot and by trim-and-fill test. Trim-and-fill test was also applied to evaluate meta-analysis bias. RESULTS: Twenty articles were included in the qualitative analysis, and 6 articles were included in the meta-analysis. Case-control studies showed bias related to exposure, and the main bias in cohort studies were related to selection and outcome. All articles received score 4 for the level of evidence. Hypertension and diabetes were the comorbidities more frequently associated with thrombolytic events. Significant results were found regarding D-dimer (P < .0001) and age (P = .0202) for thrombotic events in patients diagnosed with COVID-19. CONCLUSION: Patients older than 60 years, with hypertension, diabetes and D-Dimer values above 3.17 µg/mL, can be considered prognostic factors for developing thrombotic events due to COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Thrombosis/epidemiology , Age Factors , COVID-19/complications , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Intracranial Thrombosis/epidemiology , Intracranial Thrombosis/etiology , Pulmonary Embolism/epidemiology , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombosis/etiology , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology , Venous Thrombosis/epidemiology , Venous Thrombosis/etiology
18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(10): e24708, 2021 Mar 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1138010

ABSTRACT

RATIONALE: Pathogeny of thrombosis in COVID-19 is related to interaction of SARS-Cov-2 with vascular wall through the angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor. This induces 2 pathways with immunothrombosis from activated endothelium (cytokine storm, leukocyte and platelet recruitment, and activation of coagulation extrinsic pathway), and rise of angiotensin II levels promoting inflammation. While thrombosis is widely described in COVID-19 patients admitted in intensive care unit, cerebrovascular diseases remains rare, in particular cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT). PATIENT CONCERNS: We describe 2 cases of women admitted during the spring of 2020 for intracranial hypertension signs, in stroke units in Great-east, a French area particularly affected by COVID-19 pandemia. DIAGNOSES: Cerebral imaging revealed extended CVT in both cases. The first case described was more serious due to right supratentorial venous infarction with hemorrhagic transformation leading to herniation. Both patients presented typical pneumonia due to SARS-Cov-2 infection, confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction on a nasopharyngeal swab in only one. INTERVENTIONS: The first patient had to undergo decompressive craniectomy, and both patients were treated with anticoagulation therapy. OUTCOMES: Favorable outcome was observed for 1 patient. Persistent coma, due to bi thalamic infarction, remained for the other with more serious presentation. LESSONS: CVT, as a serious complication of COVID-19, has to be searched in all patients with intracranial hypertension syndrome. Data about anticoagulation therapy to prevent such serious thrombosis in SARS-Cov-2 infection are lacking, in particular in patients with mild and moderate COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Intracranial Thrombosis/etiology , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/immunology , Decompressive Craniectomy/methods , Female , Humans , Intracranial Thrombosis/immunology , Intracranial Thrombosis/therapy , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
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