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1.
Semin Thromb Hemost ; 48(3): 309-317, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1692483

ABSTRACT

Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is a rare form of stroke that often affects younger age groups, especially reproductive age group females. CVT is a potentially fatal neurological condition that can be frequently overlooked due to the vague nature of its clinical and radiological presentation. Headache is the most common presenting symptom. However, a wide range of symptoms can be present and the symptom onset can be acute, subacute, or chronic. Neuroimaging is mandatory in cases where CVT is suspected. Both magnetic resonance venography and computed tomography venography can confirm a diagnosis of CVT. Anticoagulation with low-molecular-weight heparin is the mainstay of treatment. Intracranial hemorrhage is not considered a contraindication to the use of anticoagulants in CVT. Endovascular intervention is still controversial but can be a treatment option for patients with neurological deterioration or thrombus progression, despite the use of anticoagulation or with development of new or worsening intracerebral hemorrhage. Patients with CVT have an increased risk of recurrence of CVT and other types of venous thromboembolism. This review provides an overview of the epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of CVT in adults. Commentary about increased presentation of CVT in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), or after immunization against COVID-19, is also provided.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Intracranial Thrombosis , Venous Thrombosis , Adult , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Female , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/therapeutic use , Humans , Intracranial Thrombosis/drug therapy , Intracranial Thrombosis/therapy , Venous Thrombosis/drug therapy , Venous Thrombosis/therapy
3.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 15(3): 1039-1045, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1303499

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Initially, novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) was considered primarily a respiratory pathogen. However, with time it has behaved as a virus with the potential to cause multi-system involvement, including neurological manifestations. Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVT) has increasingly been reported in association with coronavirus infectious disease of 2019 (COVID-19). Here, we have shed light upon CVT and its possible mechanisms in the backdrop of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: In this review, data were collected from PubMed, EMBASE and Web of Science, until March 30, 2021, using pre-specified searching strategies. The search strategy consisted of a variation of keywords of relevant medical subject headings and keywords, including "COVID-19", "SARS-CoV-2", "coronavirus", and "cerebral venous sinus thrombosis". RESULTS: COVID-19 has a causal association with a plethora of neurological, neuropsychiatric and psychological effects. CVT has gained particular importance in this regard. The known hypercoagulable state in SARS-CoV-2 infection is thought to be the main mechanism in COVID-19 related CVT. Other plausible mechanisms may include vascular endothelial dysfunction and altered flow dynamics. CONCLUSIONS: Although there are no specific clinical characteristics, insidious or acute onset headache, seizures, stroke-like, or encephalopathy symptoms in a patient with, or who has suffered COVID-19, should prompt the attending physician to investigate for CVT. The treatment of COVID-19 associated CVT does not differ radically from the therapy of CVT without the infection, i.e. urgent initiation of parenteral unfractionated heparin or low molecular weight heparin followed by conventional or mostly newer oral anticoagulants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Intracranial Thrombosis/etiology , Intracranial Thrombosis/therapy , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Emergency Medical Services/methods , Heparin/therapeutic use , Humans , Intracranial Thrombosis/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(10): e24708, 2021 Mar 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1284920

ABSTRACT

RATIONALE: Pathogeny of thrombosis in COVID-19 is related to interaction of SARS-Cov-2 with vascular wall through the angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor. This induces 2 pathways with immunothrombosis from activated endothelium (cytokine storm, leukocyte and platelet recruitment, and activation of coagulation extrinsic pathway), and rise of angiotensin II levels promoting inflammation. While thrombosis is widely described in COVID-19 patients admitted in intensive care unit, cerebrovascular diseases remains rare, in particular cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT). PATIENT CONCERNS: We describe 2 cases of women admitted during the spring of 2020 for intracranial hypertension signs, in stroke units in Great-east, a French area particularly affected by COVID-19 pandemia. DIAGNOSES: Cerebral imaging revealed extended CVT in both cases. The first case described was more serious due to right supratentorial venous infarction with hemorrhagic transformation leading to herniation. Both patients presented typical pneumonia due to SARS-Cov-2 infection, confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction on a nasopharyngeal swab in only one. INTERVENTIONS: The first patient had to undergo decompressive craniectomy, and both patients were treated with anticoagulation therapy. OUTCOMES: Favorable outcome was observed for 1 patient. Persistent coma, due to bi thalamic infarction, remained for the other with more serious presentation. LESSONS: CVT, as a serious complication of COVID-19, has to be searched in all patients with intracranial hypertension syndrome. Data about anticoagulation therapy to prevent such serious thrombosis in SARS-Cov-2 infection are lacking, in particular in patients with mild and moderate COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Intracranial Thrombosis/etiology , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/immunology , Decompressive Craniectomy/methods , Female , Humans , Intracranial Thrombosis/immunology , Intracranial Thrombosis/therapy , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
5.
Clin Appl Thromb Hemost ; 27: 10760296211002274, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1191430

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this article is to address several challenging questions in the management of young patients (those age 60 and under) who present with ischemic stroke. Do genetic thrombophilic states, strongly associated with venous thrombosis, independently cause arterial events in adults? Should cases of patent foramen ovale be closed with mechanical devices in patients with cryptogenic stroke? What are the optimal treatments for cerebral vein thrombosis, carotid artery dissection, and antiphospholipid syndrome and are DOACs acceptable treatment for these indications? What is the mechanism underlying large vessel stroke in patients with COVID-19? This is a narrative review. We searched PubMed and Embase and American College of physicians Journal club database for English language articles since 2000 looking mainly at randomized clinical trials, Meta analyses, Cochran reviews as well as some research articles viewed to be cutting edge regarding anticoagulation and cerebrovascular disease. Searches were done entering cerebral vein thrombosis, carotid dissection, anticoagulation therapy and stroke, antiphospholipid antibody and stroke, stroke in young adults, cryptogenic stroke and anticoagulation, patent foramen ovale and cryptogenic stroke, COVID-19 and stroke.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Ischemic Stroke/etiology , Ischemic Stroke/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aneurysm, Dissecting/complications , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Antiphospholipid Syndrome/complications , Cervical Vertebrae/blood supply , Female , Foramen Ovale, Patent/complications , Foramen Ovale, Patent/surgery , Humans , Intracranial Thrombosis/etiology , Intracranial Thrombosis/therapy , Ischemic Stroke/prevention & control , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prognosis , Risk Factors , Thrombophilia/complications
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(10): e24708, 2021 Mar 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1138010

ABSTRACT

RATIONALE: Pathogeny of thrombosis in COVID-19 is related to interaction of SARS-Cov-2 with vascular wall through the angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor. This induces 2 pathways with immunothrombosis from activated endothelium (cytokine storm, leukocyte and platelet recruitment, and activation of coagulation extrinsic pathway), and rise of angiotensin II levels promoting inflammation. While thrombosis is widely described in COVID-19 patients admitted in intensive care unit, cerebrovascular diseases remains rare, in particular cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT). PATIENT CONCERNS: We describe 2 cases of women admitted during the spring of 2020 for intracranial hypertension signs, in stroke units in Great-east, a French area particularly affected by COVID-19 pandemia. DIAGNOSES: Cerebral imaging revealed extended CVT in both cases. The first case described was more serious due to right supratentorial venous infarction with hemorrhagic transformation leading to herniation. Both patients presented typical pneumonia due to SARS-Cov-2 infection, confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction on a nasopharyngeal swab in only one. INTERVENTIONS: The first patient had to undergo decompressive craniectomy, and both patients were treated with anticoagulation therapy. OUTCOMES: Favorable outcome was observed for 1 patient. Persistent coma, due to bi thalamic infarction, remained for the other with more serious presentation. LESSONS: CVT, as a serious complication of COVID-19, has to be searched in all patients with intracranial hypertension syndrome. Data about anticoagulation therapy to prevent such serious thrombosis in SARS-Cov-2 infection are lacking, in particular in patients with mild and moderate COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Intracranial Thrombosis/etiology , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/immunology , Decompressive Craniectomy/methods , Female , Humans , Intracranial Thrombosis/immunology , Intracranial Thrombosis/therapy , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
7.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(12): 105353, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-796759

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic continues to grow all over the world. Neurological manifestations related to COVID-19, including acute ischemic Stroke (AIS), have been reported in recent studies. In most of these, the patients are older, have multiple co-morbidities as risk factors for AIS and have developed a severe respiratory illness. Herein, we report a 36-year-old man with no significant past medical history who recently recovered from a mild COVID-19 infection and presented with unusual pattern of arterial macrothrombosis causing AIS. When the AIS happened, he had no COVID-19 related symptoms, had two negative screening tests for the infection and his chest CT was unremarkable.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Carotid Stenosis/etiology , Intracranial Thrombosis/etiology , Stroke/etiology , Adult , Age Factors , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Brain Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Brain Ischemia/therapy , COVID-19/diagnosis , Carotid Stenosis/diagnostic imaging , Carotid Stenosis/therapy , Heparin/administration & dosage , Humans , Intracranial Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Intracranial Thrombosis/therapy , Male , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Stroke/therapy , Thrombectomy , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
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