Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 4 de 4
Filter
1.
Front Immunol ; 12: 741218, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518486

ABSTRACT

The global outbreak of the SARS-Cov-2 virus in 2020 has killed millions of people worldwide and forced large parts of the world into lockdowns. While multiple vaccine programs are starting to immunize the global population, there is no direct cure for COVID-19, the disease caused by the SARS-Cov-2 infection. A common symptom in patients is a decrease in T cells, called lymphopenia. It is as of yet unclear what the exact role of T cells are in the immune response to COVID-19. The research so far has mainly focused on the involvement of classical αß T cells. However, another subset of T cells called γδ T cells could have an important role to play. As part of the innate immune system, γδ T cells respond to inflammation and stressed or infected cells. The γδ T cell subset appears to be particularly affected by lymphopenia in COVID-19 patients and commonly express activation and exhaustion markers. Particularly in children, this subset of T cells seems to be most affected. This is interesting and relevant because γδ T cells are more prominent and active in early life. Their specific involvement in this group of patients could indicate a significant role for γδ T cells in this disease. Furthermore, they seem to be involved in other viral infections and were able to kill SARS infected cells in vitro. γδ T cells can take up, process and present antigens from microbes and human cells. As e.g. tumour-associated antigens are presented by MHC on γδ T cells to classical T-cells, we argue here that it stands to reason that also viral antigens, such as SARS-Cov-2-derived peptides, can be presented in the same way. γδ T cells are already used for medical purposes in oncology and have potential in cancer therapy. As γδ T cells are not necessarily able to distinguish between a transformed and a virally infected cell it could therefore be of great interest to investigate further the relationship between COVID-19 and γδ T cells.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Intraepithelial Lymphocytes/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Humans , Neoplasms/immunology , Pulmonary Fibrosis/immunology
2.
Front Immunol ; 11: 559382, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389163

ABSTRACT

Eliciting durable and protective T cell-mediated immunity in the respiratory mucosa remains a significant challenge. Polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA)-based cationic pathogen-like particles (PLPs) loaded with TLR agonists mimic biophysical properties of microbes and hence, simulate pathogen-pattern recognition receptor interactions to safely and effectively stimulate innate immune responses. We generated micro particle PLPs loaded with TLR4 (glucopyranosyl lipid adjuvant, GLA) or TLR9 (CpG) agonists, and formulated them with and without a mucosal delivery enhancing carbomer-based nanoemulsion adjuvant (ADJ). These adjuvants delivered intranasally to mice elicited high numbers of influenza nucleoprotein (NP)-specific CD8+ and CD4+ effector and tissue-resident memory T cells (TRMs) in lungs and airways. PLPs delivering TLR4 versus TLR9 agonists drove phenotypically and functionally distinct populations of effector and memory T cells. While PLPs loaded with CpG or GLA provided immunity, combining the adjuvanticity of PLP-GLA and ADJ markedly enhanced the development of airway and lung TRMs and CD4 and CD8 T cell-dependent immunity to influenza virus. Further, balanced CD8 (Tc1/Tc17) and CD4 (Th1/Th17) recall responses were linked to effective influenza virus control. These studies provide mechanistic insights into vaccine-induced pulmonary T cell immunity and pave the way for the development of a universal influenza and SARS-CoV-2 vaccines.


Subject(s)
Adjuvants, Immunologic/pharmacology , Immunity, Cellular/immunology , Influenza A virus/immunology , Intraepithelial Lymphocytes/immunology , Animals , Cell Line , Dogs , Immunity, Innate/immunology , Immunologic Memory/immunology , Lung/immunology , Lung/virology , Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/immunology , Polylactic Acid-Polyglycolic Acid Copolymer/immunology , Toll-Like Receptor 4/immunology
3.
Mucosal Immunol ; 14(6): 1381-1392, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1366810

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has so far claimed over three and a half million lives worldwide. Though the SARS-CoV-2 mediated disease COVID-19 has first been characterized by an infection of the upper airways and the lung, recent evidence suggests a complex disease including gastrointestinal symptoms. Even if a direct viral tropism of intestinal cells has recently been demonstrated, it remains unclear, whether gastrointestinal symptoms are caused by direct infection of the gastrointestinal tract by SARS-CoV-2 or whether they are a consequence of a systemic immune activation and subsequent modulation of the mucosal immune system. To better understand the cause of intestinal symptoms we analyzed biopsies of the small intestine from SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals. Applying qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry, we detected SARS-CoV-2 RNA and nucleocapsid protein in duodenal mucosa. In addition, applying imaging mass cytometry and immunohistochemistry, we identified histomorphological changes of the epithelium, which were characterized by an accumulation of activated intraepithelial CD8+ T cells as well as epithelial apoptosis and subsequent regenerative proliferation in the small intestine of COVID-19 patients. In summary, our findings indicate that intraepithelial CD8+ T cells are activated upon infection of intestinal epithelial cells with SARS-CoV-2, providing one possible explanation for gastrointestinal symptoms associated with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Duodenum/immunology , Immunity, Mucosal , Intestinal Diseases/immunology , Intestinal Mucosa/immunology , Intraepithelial Lymphocytes/immunology , Lymphocyte Activation , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Animals , Apoptosis , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/virology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Cell Proliferation , Chlorocebus aethiops , Duodenum/pathology , Duodenum/virology , Female , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Intestinal Diseases/pathology , Intestinal Diseases/virology , Intestinal Mucosa/pathology , Intestinal Mucosa/virology , Intraepithelial Lymphocytes/virology , Male , Re-Epithelialization , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Vero Cells , Viral Load
4.
Front Immunol ; 11: 580304, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1256375

ABSTRACT

Gamma-delta (γδ) T cells are a subset of T cells that promote the inflammatory responses of lymphoid and myeloid lineages, and are especially vital to the initial inflammatory and immune responses. Given the capability to connect crux inflammations of adaptive and innate immunity, γδ T cells are responsive to multiple molecular cues and can acquire the capacity to induce various cytokines, such as GM-CSF, IL-4, IL-17, IL-21, IL-22, and IFN-γ. Nevertheless, the exact mechanisms responsible for γδ T cell proinflammatory functions remain poorly understood, particularly in the context of the central nervous system (CNS) diseases. CNS disease, usually leading to irreversible cognitive and physical disability, is becoming a worldwide public health problem. Here, we offer a review of the neuro-inflammatory and immune functions of γδ T cells, intending to understand their roles in CNS diseases, which may be crucial for the development of novel clinical applications.


Subject(s)
Central Nervous System Diseases/immunology , Inflammation/immunology , Intraepithelial Lymphocytes/immunology , Th17 Cells/immunology , Animals , Central Nervous System , Cytokines/metabolism , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, gamma-delta/metabolism
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL
...