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World J Emerg Surg ; 16(1): 30, 2021 06 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1280596


Bile duct injury (BDI) is a dangerous complication of cholecystectomy, with significant postoperative sequelae for the patient in terms of morbidity, mortality, and long-term quality of life. BDIs have an estimated incidence of 0.4-1.5%, but considering the number of cholecystectomies performed worldwide, mostly by laparoscopy, surgeons must be prepared to manage this surgical challenge. Most BDIs are recognized either during the procedure or in the immediate postoperative period. However, some BDIs may be discovered later during the postoperative period, and this may translate to delayed or inappropriate treatments. Providing a specific diagnosis and a precise description of the BDI will expedite the decision-making process and increase the chance of treatment success. Subsequently, the choice and timing of the appropriate reconstructive strategy have a critical role in long-term prognosis. Currently, a wide spectrum of multidisciplinary interventions with different degrees of invasiveness is indicated for BDI management. These World Society of Emergency Surgery (WSES) guidelines have been produced following an exhaustive review of the current literature and an international expert panel discussion with the aim of providing evidence-based recommendations to facilitate and standardize the detection and management of BDIs during cholecystectomy. In particular, the 2020 WSES guidelines cover the following key aspects: (1) strategies to minimize the risk of BDI during cholecystectomy; (2) BDI rates in general surgery units and review of surgical practice; (3) how to classify, stage, and report BDI once detected; (4) how to manage an intraoperatively detected BDI; (5) indications for antibiotic treatment; (6) indications for clinical, biochemical, and imaging investigations for suspected BDI; and (7) how to manage a postoperatively detected BDI.

Bile Ducts/injuries , Cholecystectomy/adverse effects , Humans , Iatrogenic Disease , Intraoperative Period , Quality of Life
Am J Otolaryngol ; 42(1): 102829, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-909337


PURPOSE: The COVID-19 pandemic has led to concerns over transmission risk from healthcare procedures, especially when operating in the head and neck such as during surgical repair of facial fractures. This study aims to quantify aerosol and droplet generation from mandibular and midface open fixation and measure mitigation of airborne particles by a smoke evacuating electrocautery hand piece. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The soft tissue of the bilateral mandible and midface of two fresh frozen cadaveric specimens was infiltrated using a 0.1% fluorescein solution. Surgical fixation via oral vestibular approach was performed on each of these sites. Droplet splatter on the surgeon's chest, facemask, and up to 198.12 cm (6.5 ft) away from each surgical site was measured against a blue background under ultraviolet-A (UV-A) light. Aerosol generation was measured using an optical particle sizer. RESULTS: No visible droplet contamination was observed for any trials of mandible or midface fixation. Total aerosolized particle counts from 0.300-10.000 µm were increased compared to baseline following each use of standard electrocautery (n = 4, p < 0.001) but not with use of a suction evacuating electrocautery hand piece (n = 4, p = 0.103). Total particle counts were also increased during use of the powered drill (n = 8, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Risk from visible droplets during mandible and midface fixation is low. However, significant increases in aerosolized particles were measured after electrocautery use and during powered drilling. Aerosol dispersion is significantly decreased with the use of a smoke evacuating electrocautery hand piece.

Aerosols/adverse effects , COVID-19/transmission , Disease Transmission, Infectious/statistics & numerical data , Intraoperative Period , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Mandible , United States/epidemiology
BJU Int ; 127(3): 349-360, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-845322


OBJECTIVE: To identify the available evidence on aerosol viral transmission risk during minimally invasive surgery (MIS) and evaluate its impact on guidelines development and clinical activity worldwide during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. METHODS: We performed a scoping review on PubMed, Cochrane, the Excerpta Medica dataBASE (EMBASE), Clinical Trial Register, and the Grey Literature Repository databases, to identify reports on viral transmission via surgical smoke or aerosolisation. A systematic review of all available national and international guidelines was also performed to report their recommendations. Additionally, a worldwide transdisciplinary survey was performed to capture the actual compliance to dedicated guidelines and their impact on MIS activity. RESULTS: Based on a selection of 17 studies, there was no evidence to support the concerns of an intraoperative viral transmission via pneumoperitoneum aerosolisation. Most national surgical and urological societies either did address this topic or referred to international guidelines. The guidelines of the American College of Surgery, the Royal College of Surgeons, and the European Association of Urology Robotic Urology Section, recommended an avoidance of MIS due to an increased risk of intraoperative aerosol-enhanced transmission. The results of the survey completed by 334 respondents, from different surgical abdominal specialties, suggested a lack of compliance with the guidelines. CONCLUSION: There seems to be a dissonance between contemporary guidelines and ongoing surgical activity, possibly due to the perceived lack of evidence. Recommendations regarding changes in clinical practice should be based on the best available research evidence and experience. A scoping review of the evidence and an assessment of the benefits and harms together with a survey showed that laparoscopic procedures do not seem to increase the risk of viral transmission. Nevertheless, the few publications and low quality of existing evidence limits the validity of the review.

Aerosols , COVID-19/transmission , Guideline Adherence , Infection Control , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Practice Guidelines as Topic , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Intraoperative Period , Pandemics , Practice Patterns, Physicians' , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
Clin Exp Ophthalmol ; 48(9): 1168-1174, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-780795


IMPORTANCE: Determine phacoemulsification cataract surgery risk in a Covid-19 era. BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 (Covid-19) transmission via microdroplet and aerosol-generating procedures presents risk to medical professionals. As the most common elective surgical procedure performed globally; determining contamination risk from phacoemulsification cataract surgery may guide personal protection equipment use. DESIGN: Pilot study involving phacoemulsification cataract surgery on enucleated porcine eyes by experienced ophthalmologists in an ophthalmic operating theatre. PARTICIPANTS: Two ophthalmic surgical teams. METHODS: Standardized phacoemulsification of porcine eyes by two ophthalmologists accompanied by an assistant. Fluorescein incorporated into phacoemulsification irrigation fluid identifying microdroplets and spatter. Contamination documented using a single-lens reflex camera with a 532 nm narrow bandpass (fluorescein) filter, in-conjunction with a wide-field blue light and flat horizontal laser beam (wavelength 532 nm). Quantitative image analysis using Image-J software. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Microdroplet and spatter contamination from cataract phacoemulsification. RESULTS: With phacoemulsification instruments fully within the eye, spatter contamination was limited to <10 cm. Insertion and removal of the phacoemulsification needle and bimanual irrigation/aspiration, with irrigation active generated spatter on the surgeons' gloves and gown extending to >16 cm below the neckline in surgeon 1 and > 5.5 cm below the neckline of surgeon 2. A small tear in the phacoemulsification irrigation sleeve, presented a worse-case scenario the greatest spatter. No contamination above the surgeons' neckline nor contamination of assistant occurred. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Cataract phacoemulsification generates microdroplets and spatter. Until further studies on SARS-CoV-2 transmission via microdroplets or aerosolisation of ocular fluid are reported, this pilot study only supports standard personal protective equipment.

COVID-19/epidemiology , Cataract/epidemiology , Disease Transmission, Infectious/statistics & numerical data , Equipment Contamination/statistics & numerical data , Phacoemulsification/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Intraoperative Period , Male , Pilot Projects
Ann Ital Chir ; 91: 235-238, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-739563


The present pandemic caused by the SARS COV-2 coronavirus is still ongoing, although it is registered a slowdown in the spread for new cases. The main environmental route of transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is through droplets and fomites or surfaces, but there is a potential risk of virus spread also in smaller aerosols during various medical procedures causing airborne transmission. To date, no information is available on the risk of contagion from the peritoneal fluid with which surgeons can come into contact during the abdominal surgery on COVID-19 patients. We have investigated the presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in the peritoneal cavity of patients affected by COVID-19, intraoperatively and postoperatively. KEY WORDS: Covid-19, Laparotomy, Surgery.

Ascitic Fluid/virology , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Intestinal Perforation/surgery , Laparotomy , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Sigmoid Diseases/surgery , Viremia/transmission , Aerosols , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diverticulum/complications , Fatal Outcome , Female , Humans , Intestinal Perforation/blood , Intestinal Perforation/complications , Intestinal Perforation/virology , Intraoperative Period , Nasopharynx/virology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Postoperative Period , Prospective Studies , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Risk , SARS-CoV-2 , Serum/virology , Sigmoid Diseases/blood , Sigmoid Diseases/complications , Sigmoid Diseases/virology , Viremia/virology
Rev. Col. Bras. Cir ; 47: e20202558, 2020. graf
Article in Portuguese | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-613684


RESUMO A infecção pelo coronavírus determinante da doença COVID-19, também conhecida como SARS-COV2 foi classificada nos últimos meses como pandemia. Essa é potencialmente fatal, representando enorme problema de saúde mundial. A disseminação, após provável origem zoonótica na cidade de Wuhan, China, resultou em colapso do sistema de saúde de diversos países, alguns com enorme impacto social e número grande de mortes descritas na Itália e Espanha. Medidas extremas intra e extra-hospitalares têm sido implementadas a fim de conter a transmissão e disseminação da COVID-19. No âmbito cirúrgico, enorme quantidade de procedimentos considerados não essenciais ou eletivos foram prorrogados ou suspensos até resolução da pandemia. No entanto, cirurgias de urgência e oncológicas não permitem que o paciente espere. Nesta publicação, sugerimos e ensinamos adaptação a ser feita com materiais de uso corriqueiro em laparoscopias para evitar a contaminação ou a disseminação entre as equipes assistenciais e os pacientes.

ABSTRACT The coronavirus infection, also known as SARS-COV2, has proven to be potentially fatal, representing a major global health problem. Its spread after its origin in the city of Wuhan, China has resulted in a pandemic with the collapse of the health system in several countries, some with enormous social impact and expressive number of deaths as seen in Italy and Spain. Extreme intra and extra-hospital measures have been implemented to decrease the transmission and dissemination of the COVID-19. Regarding the surgical practice, a huge number of procedures considered non-essential or elective were cancelled and postponed until the pandemic is resolved. However, urgent and oncological procedures have been carried out. In this publication, we highlight and teach adaptations to be made with commonly used materials in laparoscopy to help prevent the spread and contamination of the healthcare team assisting surgical patients.

Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Surgical Procedures, Operative/standards , Laparoscopy/methods , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Aerosols/adverse effects , Pandemics/prevention & control , Robotic Surgical Procedures/methods , Operating Rooms/methods , Pneumoperitoneum, Artificial/standards , Protective Devices/standards , Surgical Instruments/standards , Punctures/methods , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Betacoronavirus , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , Intraoperative Period