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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(50): e28236, 2021 Dec 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1583957

ABSTRACT

RATIONALE: In this paper, we report on 2 patients who developed branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) exacerbation 1 day after administration of the BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. PATIENT CONCERNS: Case 1: A 71 year-old female developed vision loss in her left eye 1 day after receiving a second dose of the SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine. This patient was diagnosed with temporal inferior BRVO and secondary macular edema (ME) in her left eye. ME resolved after 3 doses of intravitreal aflibercept (IVA). After treatment, no recurrence of ME was observed.Case 2: A 72 year-old man developed vision loss in his right eye 1 day after receiving the first dose of the SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine. This patient was diagnosed with temporal superior BRVO in the right eye without ME. The patient was followed up and did not undergo any additional treatment. DIAGNOSES: Case1: Temporal superior BRVO and secondary ME were observed in the left eye. Her best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was 20/30.Case2: Temporal superior BRVO recurrence and secondary ME were observed in the right eye. BCVA was 20/25. INTERVENTIONS: Case1: Additional dose of IVA was administered. Case2: Two times of Intravitreal ranibizumab was administered twice. OUTCOMES: Case1: Subsequently, ME resolved BCVA was 20/20. Case2: Subsequently, ME resolved BCVA was 20/25. LESSONS: Both cases showed a possible association between SARS-CoV-2 vaccination and the exacerbation of BRVO.


Subject(s)
/adverse effects , COVID-19 , Macular Edema , Retinal Vein Occlusion/chemically induced , Aged , Angiogenesis Inhibitors/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Intravitreal Injections , Macular Edema/drug therapy , Male , Ranibizumab/therapeutic use , Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor/therapeutic use , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/therapeutic use , Retinal Vein Occlusion/drug therapy , Treatment Outcome , Vaccination , Visual Acuity
2.
Retina ; 41(4): 701-705, 2021 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1511061

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To describe our managing strategy for COVID-19 emergency, to evaluate the adherence to intravitreal treatment (AtT) rate during the outbreak in a referral hospital in Milan, and to correlate it with patients' clinical features. METHODS: The AtT rate of patients with scheduled intravitreal injections during the COVID-19 outbreak from February 23, 2020 to March 31, 2020 was compared with the previous trimester and with March 2019. The impact of age, sex, visual function, and diagnosis on the AtT rate during unlocked/locked weeks (from March 8th) was evaluated. RESULTS: Of 650 consecutive patients with scheduled intravitreal injections, the AtT rate during the COVID-19 outbreak was 0.37. This was significantly lower compared with AtT registered in the previous trimester (0.92) and in the same weeks in 2019 (0.90) (both P < 0.001). Patients adherent to treatment were significantly younger (P < 0.001) and had a lower best-corrected visual acuity in the fellow eye (P = 0.046). During the lockdown weeks, the AtT rate was significantly lower than in the two unlocked weeks (0.19 vs. 0.73, P < 0.001). In addition, the AtT rate in patients classified as "emergent" during the lockdown weeks was 0.60. CONCLUSION: These preliminary results can help the retina specialist community to foresee this unique scenario and to develop successful management strategies.


Subject(s)
Angiogenesis Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Appointments and Schedules , COVID-19/epidemiology , Choroidal Neovascularization/drug therapy , Macular Edema/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Wet Macular Degeneration/drug therapy , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/transmission , Choroidal Neovascularization/diagnostic imaging , Choroidal Neovascularization/physiopathology , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Female , Fluorescein Angiography , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Intravitreal Injections , Italy/epidemiology , Macular Edema/diagnostic imaging , Macular Edema/physiopathology , Male , Referral and Consultation/statistics & numerical data , Tomography, Optical Coherence , Visual Acuity/physiology , Wet Macular Degeneration/diagnostic imaging , Wet Macular Degeneration/physiopathology
3.
Ophthalmology ; 128(11): 1620-1626, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1510165

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Routine use of face masks for patients and physicians during intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) injections has increased with the emergence of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. This study evaluates the impact of universal face mask use on rates and outcomes of post-injection endophthalmitis (PIE). DESIGN: Retrospective, multicenter, comparative cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: Eyes receiving intravitreal anti-VEGF injections from October 1, 2019, to July 31, 2020, at 12 centers. METHODS: Cases were divided into a "no face mask" group if no face masks were worn by the physician or patient during intravitreal injections or a "universal face mask" group if face masks were worn by the physician, ancillary staff, and patient during intravitreal injections. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Rate of endophthalmitis, microbial spectrum, and visual acuity (VA). RESULTS: Of 505 968 intravitreal injections administered in 110 547 eyes, 85 of 294 514 (0.0289%; 1 in 3464 injections) cases of presumed endophthalmitis occurred in the "no face mask" group, and 45 of 211 454 (0.0213%; 1 in 4699) cases occurred in the "universal face mask" group (odds ratio [OR], 0.74; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.51-1.18; P = 0.097). In the "no face mask" group, there were 27 cases (0.0092%; 1 in 10 908 injections) of culture-positive endophthalmitis compared with 9 cases (0.004%; 1 in 23 494) in the "universal face mask" group (OR, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.22-0.99; P = 0.041). Three cases of oral flora-associated endophthalmitis occurred in the "no face mask" group (0.001%; 1 in 98 171 injections) compared with 1 (0.0005%; 1 in 211 454) in the "universal face mask" group (P = 0.645). Patients presented a mean (range) 4.9 (1-30) days after the causative injection, and mean logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) VA at endophthalmitis presentation was 2.04 (~20/2200) for "no face mask" group compared with 1.65 (~20/900) for the "universal face mask" group (P = 0.022), although no difference was observed 3 months after treatment (P = 0.764). CONCLUSIONS: In a large, multicenter, retrospective study, physician and patient face mask use during intravitreal anti-VEGF injections did not alter the risk of presumed acute-onset bacterial endophthalmitis, but there was a reduced rate of culture-positive endophthalmitis. Three months after presentation, there was no difference in VA between the groups.


Subject(s)
Angiogenesis Inhibitors/administration & dosage , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Endophthalmitis/prevention & control , Eye Infections, Bacterial/prevention & control , N95 Respirators , Comorbidity , Endophthalmitis/epidemiology , Endophthalmitis/etiology , Eye Infections, Bacterial/epidemiology , Eye Infections, Bacterial/etiology , Follow-Up Studies , Incidence , Intravitreal Injections/adverse effects , Retinal Diseases/drug therapy , Retinal Diseases/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , United States/epidemiology , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/antagonists & inhibitors
4.
Retina ; 41(11): 2215-2220, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1483570

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate the bacterial growth in the surgical face masks used by patients who received intravitreal injections and study the effect of povidone-iodine on the periocular area (PA) of masks. METHODS: Forty patients who attended for intravitreal injections were divided in those with less (<4 hours) and more (>4 hours) than 4 hours of mask use. Each group was divided depending on the application or not of povidone-iodine in the PA of the mask. Bacterial load was studied on PA and mouth area samples. RESULTS: The bacterial load in the PA was higher in the >4 hours group compared with the <4 hours group (13.2 vs. 48.75 colony-forming units/µL; P = 0.03). The contamination in the PA significantly decreased after applying povidone-iodine in the >4 hours group (P = 0.01). The use or not of povidone-iodine was strongly correlated to a positive culture (OR = 9.0, P = 0.00. CI 1.63-49.44). CONCLUSION: Surgical face masks worn for more than 4 hours present higher contamination in the PA than those with less use. Bacterial load in the PA is reduced with povidone-iodine on masks used for more than 4 hours. This contamination should be considered in the asepsis protocol of intravitreal injections.


Subject(s)
Angiogenesis Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Bacteria/isolation & purification , COVID-19/epidemiology , Equipment Contamination , Masks/microbiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/administration & dosage , Bacterial Load , Bacteriological Techniques , Female , Humans , Intravitreal Injections , Male , Middle Aged , Povidone-Iodine/administration & dosage , Prospective Studies , Retinal Diseases/drug therapy , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/antagonists & inhibitors
5.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 69(10): 2865-2866, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1441265

ABSTRACT

A central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) case in a patient developed with sudden blurred vision in some hemifield areas of his left eye, maintaining 20/20 vision 15-days after the COVID-19 vaccination. Initial retinal findings were venous dilation and tortuosity with dispersing dot hemorrhages. Fluorescein angiography (FA) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) confirmed a non-ischemic CRVO diagnosis, and a complete blood panel was requested with average results. An intravitreal steroid dose was applied. A decrease in best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) (20/30) with more intraretinal hemorrhages was documented. An intravitreal dose of bevacizumab and oral apixaban were added with a final BCVA of 20/20 with decreased hemorrhages. There is no specific causal relationship between COVID-19 vaccines and CRVO. Without previous risk factors and positive treatment response, this case may correlate the first COVID-19 vaccine dose and the event.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Macular Edema , Retinal Vein Occlusion , Angiogenesis Inhibitors/adverse effects , Bevacizumab/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines , Fluorescein Angiography , Humans , Intravitreal Injections , Macular Edema/drug therapy , RNA, Messenger , Retinal Vein Occlusion/diagnosis , Retinal Vein Occlusion/drug therapy , Retinal Vein Occlusion/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, Optical Coherence , Treatment Outcome , Vaccination/adverse effects , Visual Acuity
6.
J Fr Ophtalmol ; 44(9): 1313-1318, 2021 Nov.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1428156

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To assess functional and anatomical consequences of the delay in intravitreal injections for diabetic macular edema (DME) patients during the corona virus pandemic lockdown in Morocco as well as to evaluate factors associated with disease progression. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study included DME patients who did not complete their scheduled intravitreal bevacizumab injections during the Lockdown period (March 20, 2020 to May 20, 2020). Data recorded included age, duration of diabetes, number of previous intravitreal injections, best-corrected visual acuity, and central macular thickness before and after the lockdown. RESULTS: One hundred and fifty four eyes of 104 patients were analyzed. 57.8% were male. The mean age was 59.4±9.04 years. The mean duration of delay of intravitreal injections was 57.3±6.7 days. The mean number of intravitreal bevacizumab injections received before the lockdown was 2.29±2.1. Worsening of visual acuity was noted in 44.8% of patients and was associated with a lower number of intravitreal injections performed prior to the lockdown (P=0.001) and with glycemic imbalance (P=0.04). An increase in central macular thickness was noted in 26.6% of patients and was associated with a lower number of intravitreal injections (P=0.038). CONCLUSION: The delay in intravitreal injections during the lockdown had negative effects on visual acuity and central macular thickness in eyes with DME. Prolonged delay in intravitreal anti-VEGF injections in diabetic patients should be avoided.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Diabetic Retinopathy , Macular Edema , Aged , Angiogenesis Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Bevacizumab/therapeutic use , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Diabetic Retinopathy/complications , Diabetic Retinopathy/diagnosis , Diabetic Retinopathy/drug therapy , Humans , Intravitreal Injections , Macular Edema/diagnosis , Macular Edema/drug therapy , Macular Edema/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, Optical Coherence , Treatment Outcome
7.
Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther ; 35: 102449, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1322305

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To assess the clinical status of treatment-naive patients who had to delay 3-dose loading anti-VEGF (anti-vascular endothelial growth factor) injections during the COVID-19 lockdown, and to evaluate the effect of the delayed visual acuity treatment on spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) parameters. METHOD: A total of 55 eyes of 46 patients who were received in the study period participated in this retrospective study, including 28 patients (37 eyes) with diabetic macular edema (DME), 11 patients (11 eyes) with retinal vein occlusion (RVO), and 7 patients (7 eyes) with wet age-related macular degeneration (wet-AMD). The patients were diagnosed with DME, RVO, or wet-AMD in February 2020 and had planned 3-dose loading injections in March, April, and May 2020, but could not be injected due to the COVID-19 pandemic. RESULTS: From the patients' initial examination in February 2020, the mean best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was 0.72 ± 59 logMAR. After the patients' lockdown visit in July 2020, the mean BCVA was 0.76 ± 64 logMAR. BCVA was stable in 11 eyes, decreased in 12 eyes, and increased in 14 eyes for patients with DME. BCVA was stable in 6, decreased in 3, and increased in 2 eyes for patients with RVO, and it was stable in 4 eyes and decreased in 3 eyes for patients with wet-AMD. CONCLUSION: We concluded that 6-month delay in treatment of DME patients with non-proliferative DRP had no adverse effect on the visual acuity. However, the loading dose in wet-AMD and RVO patients should be applied as soon as possible.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetic Retinopathy , Macular Edema , Photochemotherapy , Retinal Diseases , Angiogenesis Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Communicable Disease Control , Diabetic Retinopathy/drug therapy , Humans , Intravitreal Injections , Macular Edema/drug therapy , Pandemics , Photochemotherapy/methods , Photosensitizing Agents/therapeutic use , Ranibizumab/therapeutic use , Retinal Diseases/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, Optical Coherence , Treatment Outcome , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
8.
J Chin Med Assoc ; 84(9): 827-832, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1320351

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused unprecedented disruption to the normal operation of the healthcare system. On a worldwide scale, hospitals suspended nonurgent surgeries and outpatient visits to downsize clinical loadings to redistribute manpower to counteract the pandemic's impact. So far, there is no evidence-based guideline defining a clear line between urgent and nonurgent indications of intravitreal injections (IVI). Herein, we aimed to summarize IVI algorithm modifications and discuss the patient prioritization according to medical needs in the hostile environment in the COVID crisis. Assessing current literature, we found that neovascular age-related macular degeneration is considered the utmost priority among conditions that require IVI. Other conditions assigned with a high priority include monocular or quasi-monocular patients (only one eye > 20/40), neovascular glaucoma, and new patients with significant vision loss. Although patients with central retinal vein occlusion and proliferative diabetic retinopathy are not advised to delay treatments, we found no consistent evidence that correlated with a worse outcome. Diabetic macular edema and branch retinal vein occlusion patients undertaking treatment delay should be regularly followed up every 2 to 3 months. Serving as the principle of management behind the algorithm modifications, the reduction of both patient visit and IVI therapy counts should be reckoned together with the risk of permanent visual loss and COVID infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Intravitreal Injections/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Algorithms , Humans , Hygiene , Patient Safety
9.
Ophthalmology ; 128(11): 1620-1626, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275607

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Routine use of face masks for patients and physicians during intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) injections has increased with the emergence of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. This study evaluates the impact of universal face mask use on rates and outcomes of post-injection endophthalmitis (PIE). DESIGN: Retrospective, multicenter, comparative cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: Eyes receiving intravitreal anti-VEGF injections from October 1, 2019, to July 31, 2020, at 12 centers. METHODS: Cases were divided into a "no face mask" group if no face masks were worn by the physician or patient during intravitreal injections or a "universal face mask" group if face masks were worn by the physician, ancillary staff, and patient during intravitreal injections. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Rate of endophthalmitis, microbial spectrum, and visual acuity (VA). RESULTS: Of 505 968 intravitreal injections administered in 110 547 eyes, 85 of 294 514 (0.0289%; 1 in 3464 injections) cases of presumed endophthalmitis occurred in the "no face mask" group, and 45 of 211 454 (0.0213%; 1 in 4699) cases occurred in the "universal face mask" group (odds ratio [OR], 0.74; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.51-1.18; P = 0.097). In the "no face mask" group, there were 27 cases (0.0092%; 1 in 10 908 injections) of culture-positive endophthalmitis compared with 9 cases (0.004%; 1 in 23 494) in the "universal face mask" group (OR, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.22-0.99; P = 0.041). Three cases of oral flora-associated endophthalmitis occurred in the "no face mask" group (0.001%; 1 in 98 171 injections) compared with 1 (0.0005%; 1 in 211 454) in the "universal face mask" group (P = 0.645). Patients presented a mean (range) 4.9 (1-30) days after the causative injection, and mean logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) VA at endophthalmitis presentation was 2.04 (~20/2200) for "no face mask" group compared with 1.65 (~20/900) for the "universal face mask" group (P = 0.022), although no difference was observed 3 months after treatment (P = 0.764). CONCLUSIONS: In a large, multicenter, retrospective study, physician and patient face mask use during intravitreal anti-VEGF injections did not alter the risk of presumed acute-onset bacterial endophthalmitis, but there was a reduced rate of culture-positive endophthalmitis. Three months after presentation, there was no difference in VA between the groups.


Subject(s)
Angiogenesis Inhibitors/administration & dosage , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Endophthalmitis/prevention & control , Eye Infections, Bacterial/prevention & control , N95 Respirators , Comorbidity , Endophthalmitis/epidemiology , Endophthalmitis/etiology , Eye Infections, Bacterial/epidemiology , Eye Infections, Bacterial/etiology , Follow-Up Studies , Incidence , Intravitreal Injections/adverse effects , Retinal Diseases/drug therapy , Retinal Diseases/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , United States/epidemiology , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/antagonists & inhibitors
10.
Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol ; 259(7): 1773-1780, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1224991

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The coronavirus pandemic has prompted unprecedented delays to treatment with anti-VEGF intravitreal injections due to the need to reduce hospital attendances and prioritise the patients at highest risk of vision loss. This study aims to quantify the effect of these delays on visual acuity (VA) outcomes and optical coherence tomography (OCT) features for patients receiving treatment for neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD), retinal vein occlusions (RVO) and diabetic macular oedema (DMO) and correlate to the Royal College of Ophthalmologists guidelines (RCOphth). METHODS: A retrospective data analysis of an electronic medical record was performed on a random sample of eyes receiving anti-VEGF injections for nAMD, RVO or DMO. Data collected included age, sex, reason for injection, number of weeks delay if > 8 weeks from that planned, VA at baseline and follow-up and the OCT features, if delayed. For those eyes not delayed, a visual acuity at 20 weeks was recorded to provide a control group. RESULTS: A sample of 981 eyes (858 patients) were analysed. There was a delay in review of 8 weeks or more in 39.6% of patients of which 30.4% had since returned for review (28.4% nAMD, 37.6% RVO and 30.0% DMO). There was no demographic difference identified between the delayed and non-delayed patients; however, the delayed group was significantly more likely to have better vision in their non-treated eye (p = 0.0003). A statistically significant difference was found in the change in VA between the delayed and the not-delayed group for eyes with nAMD (p = 0.001) but not for RVO or DMO. For the delayed group, mean CMT increased by 33 and 100 µm, respectively, for nAMD and RVO and decreased by 7.8 µm for DMO. The VA of 89.7% of DMO eyes returned to baseline, compared to 74.6% and 76.9% of nAMD and RVO eyes. CONCLUSION: The RCOphth guidance to prioritise intravitreal injections for nAMD over DMO appears appropriate in this cohort but not for RVO. Eyes with nAMD experienced the greatest loss of vision with treatment delay, and nAMD and RVO eyes were less likely to return to baseline on restarting treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Angiogenesis Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Intravitreal Injections , Ranibizumab , Retina , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, Optical Coherence , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A , Visual Acuity
11.
Retina ; 41(11): 2208-2214, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1219729

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the rates of postintravitreal injection-related endophthalmitis during the COVID-19 pandemic with institution of both physician and patient face masking. METHODS: All eyes receiving intravitreal injections of any kind from a single large tertiary retina practice in Houston, TX before (August 2017-March 22, 2020) and after (March 23, 2020-September 2020) COVID-19 pandemic universal masking protocols. The total number of injections and cases of acute injection-related endophthalmitis were determined from billing records and subsequent retrospective chart review. The primary outcome was the rate of endophthalmitis after intravitreal injection. Secondary outcomes included visual acuity, time until initial presentation, patient age, and differences in the overall number of injections performed monthly pre-COVID-19 and post-COVID-19. RESULTS: A total of 134, 097 intravitreal injections were performed during the study period (111,679 pre-COVID-19 and 22,418 post-COVID-19 masking protocols). A total of 41 cases of acute endophthalmitis occurred in the pre-COVID group (0.04%, one in 2,500) and 7 cases in the post-COVID group (0.03%, one in 3,333) P = 0.85. CONCLUSION: In this single center, retrospective study, the implementation of universal patient and physician masking as practiced during the COVID-19 pandemic did not significantly affect the rate of postintravitreal injection endophthalmitis.


Subject(s)
Angiogenesis Inhibitors/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Endophthalmitis/epidemiology , Intravitreal Injections/adverse effects , Masks/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/antagonists & inhibitors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Choroid Diseases/drug therapy , Eye Infections, Bacterial/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retinal Diseases/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies , United States/epidemiology , Visual Acuity
12.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(4)2021 Apr 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1207484

ABSTRACT

Tractional retinal detachment is an uncommon complication of intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) injection wherein the drug triggers tractional retinal detachment as a result of fibrovascular membrane contraction. We present a case of a 42-year-old hypertensive woman diagnosed with chronic central retinal vein occlusion on both eyes. The right eye had total retinal detachment and neovascular glaucoma, while the left eye had retinal neovascularisation. Panretinal photocoagulation and intravitreal anti-VEGF injection was started on the left eye. However, she was lost to follow-up. She returned 4 months later with extensive tractional retinal detachment involving the macula on the left eye. She subsequently underwent vitrectomy with endolaser and silicone oil tamponade on the left eye. The anti-VEGF 'crunch' results from regression of fibrovascular proliferation with a concurrent increase in fibrosis, resulting in worsening retinal traction. With the widespread use of anti-VEGF agents, ophthalmologists need to be aware of this vision-threatening complication.


Subject(s)
Retinal Detachment , Retinal Vein Occlusion , Adult , Female , Humans , Intravitreal Injections , Retinal Detachment/chemically induced , Retinal Detachment/surgery , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A , Vitrectomy
13.
BMJ Open ; 11(4): e049495, 2021 04 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1199793

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a common cause of visual impairment, affecting central vision. Geographic atrophy (GA) is an advanced form of the non-neovascular (dry) type of AMD. Late-stage clinical trials suggest that intravitreal injections of novel therapeutics may slow down the rate of GA progression by up to 30% in 1 year, thus allowing people with GA to preserve central vision for a longer period. While intravitreal injections have become an established treatment modality for neovascular (wet) AMD, it is unknown whether patients with (more gradually progressing) GA would accept regular injections that slow down, but do not stop or reverse, vision loss. Therefore, this mixed-methods pilot study will aim to explore whether regular intravitreal injections will be acceptable as treatment for patients with GA, and the factors that may affect treatment acceptability. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A mixed-methods survey has been designed in collaboration with a GA patient advisory group. The survey comprises of structured questionnaires, semi-structured interview questions regarding patients' perceptions of intravitreal injections and the burden of treatment, and a task eliciting preferences between different potential treatments. Due to COVID-19 restrictions, this study will be conducted remotely by telephone. Thirty individuals will be recruited from NHS Medical Retina clinics at Central Middlesex Hospital, London. Half of the participants will be naïve to intravitreal injections, while half will have previous experience of intravitreal injections for neovascular (wet) AMD. Qualitative data analysis will be conducted using the Framework Method of analysis to identify key themes from participants' accounts. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study received Health Research Authority approval on 23 March 2021 (IRAS Project ID: 287824). Findings will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications and conference presentations to the medical retina community, as well as through dialogue with patients and macular disease charities.


Subject(s)
Geographic Atrophy , Telemedicine , Wet Macular Degeneration , Angiogenesis Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Geographic Atrophy/drug therapy , Humans , Intravitreal Injections , London , Pilot Projects , Wet Macular Degeneration/drug therapy
14.
Int Ophthalmol ; 41(9): 2951-2961, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1188134

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate the adherence rate of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) patients in treat-and-extend (TAE) protocol to their anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) intravitreal injection (IVI) appointments and to evaluate the functional and anatomical outcomes of the patients who attended and did not attend their IVI appointments during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) restriction period (RP). METHODS: The patients with nAMD having IVI appointments between March 16 and June 1, 2020 (RP in Turkey) were included in this retrospective study. For adherence analysis, the patients who attended (Group 1, n = 44) and who did not attend (Group 2, n = 60) their IVI appointment visits during the RP (VRP) were evaluated according to their last visit before the RP (V0). For outcome analysis, the patients who attend VRP and have follow-up (Group 1a, 46 eyes) and who did not attend VRP but later attended for follow-up (Group 2a, 33 eyes) were evaluated for functional (best-corrected visual acuity, BCVA [logMAR]) and anatomical (optical coherence tomography [OCT] disease activity) outcomes at the first visit after RP (V1) and last visit within six months after RP (V2). Patients received a complete ophthalmologic evaluation with anti-VEGF (Aflibercept) IVI administration at all visits. RESULTS: The adherence rate of the patients to VRP was 42.3% (44/104). The patients in Group 1 were significantly younger (mean ± SD years, 71.0 ± 8.1 vs. 74.7 ± 8.0, p = 0.024), had better median [IQR] BCVA at their first presentation (0.30 [0.54] vs. 0.61 [1.08], p = 0.023) and V0 (0.40 [0.48] vs. 0.52 [0.70], p = 0.031), and had less hypertension (36.4% vs. 58.3%, p = 0.044) than Group 2. The mean ± SD delay of planned IVI at VRP in Group 2a was 13.9 ± 6.2 weeks. Disease activity in OCT was significantly higher in Group 2a than Group 1a at V1 (60.6% vs. 32.6%, p = 0.025). In Group 2a, the median (IQR) BCVA was significantly worse at V1 (0.70 [0.58]) and V2 (0.70 [0.59]) than V0 (0.52 [0.40], p = 0.047 and p = 0.035, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: More than half of the scheduled nAMD patients in TAE protocol missed their IVI visits during the RP, which resulted in a delay of their treatments. The delay of IVI treatment in those patients resulted in an increase in OCT disease activity and a decrease in BCVA.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Wet Macular Degeneration , Angiogenesis Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Humans , Intravitreal Injections , Pandemics , Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor , Recombinant Fusion Proteins , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, Optical Coherence , Treatment Outcome , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A , Visual Acuity , Wet Macular Degeneration/diagnosis , Wet Macular Degeneration/drug therapy
16.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 69(4): 987-989, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1138817

ABSTRACT

A 42-year-old male patient presented with profound impairment of vision in both eyes, just as he was recovering from COVID-19. A known diabetic and hypertensive, he suffered from COVID-19 pneumonia further complicated by ARDS, septicaemia and acute kidney injury. His vision on presentation was finger counting close to face bilaterally with multiple, yellowish lesions at the posterior pole. Based on the clinical findings and previous blood culture report, it was diagnosed as candida retinitis and treated with oral and intravitreal anti-fungals. The lesions were regressing at follow-up. This is a post COVID-19 presumed candida retinitis case report.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Candidiasis/diagnosis , Eye Infections, Fungal/diagnosis , Opportunistic Infections/diagnosis , Retinitis/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Administration, Oral , Adult , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Candidiasis/drug therapy , Candidiasis/microbiology , Eye Infections, Fungal/drug therapy , Eye Infections, Fungal/microbiology , Fluconazole/therapeutic use , Humans , Intravitreal Injections , Male , Opportunistic Infections/drug therapy , Opportunistic Infections/microbiology , Retinitis/drug therapy , Retinitis/microbiology , Tomography, Optical Coherence , Visual Acuity/physiology , Voriconazole/therapeutic use
17.
Am J Ophthalmol ; 223: 178-183, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1135232

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We sought to investigate bacterial dispersion with patient face mask use during simulated intravitreal injections. DESIGN: Prospective cross-sectional study. METHODS: Fifteen healthy subjects were recruited for this single-center study. Each participant was instructed not to speak for 2 minutes, simulating a "no-talking" policy, while in an ophthalmic examination chair with an blood agar plate secured to the forehead and wearing various face masks (no mask, loose fitting surgical mask, tight-fitting surgical mask without tape, tight-fitting surgical mask with adhesive tape securing the superior portion of the mask, N95 mask, and cloth mask). Each scenario was then repeated while reading a 2-minute script, simulating a talking patient. The primary outcome measures were the number of colony-forming units (CFUs) and microbial species. RESULTS: During the "no-talking" scenario, subjects wearing a tight-fitting surgical mask with tape developed fewer CFUs compared with subjects wearing the same mask without tape (difference 0.93 CFUs [95% confidence interval 0.32-1.55]; P = .003). During the speech scenarios, subjects wearing a tight-fitting surgical mask with tape had significantly fewer CFUs compared with subjects without a face mask (difference 1.07 CFUs; P = .001), subjects with a loose face mask (difference 0.67 CFUs; P = .034), and subjects with a tight face mask without tape (difference 1.13 CFUs; P < .001). There was no difference between those with a tight-fitting surgical mask with tape and an N95 mask in the "no-talking" (P > .99) and "speech" (P = .831) scenarios. No oral flora were isolated in "no-talking" scenarios but were isolated in 8 of 75 (11%) cultures in speech scenarios (P = .02). CONCLUSION: The addition of tape to the superior portion of a patient's face mask reduced bacterial dispersion during simulated intravitreal injections and had no difference in bacterial dispersion compared with wearing N95 masks.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/isolation & purification , Equipment Design , Intravitreal Injections , Masks , Patient Simulation , Adult , Colony Count, Microbial , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Prospective Studies
18.
JAMA Ophthalmol ; 139(5): 508-515, 2021 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1126331

ABSTRACT

Importance: Patient perceptions regarding the risks of obtaining in-person ophthalmic care during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic may affect adherence to recommended treatment plans and influence visual outcomes. A deeper understanding of patient perspectives will inform strategies to optimize adherence with vision-preserving therapies. Objective: To evaluate perceptions of COVID-19 exposure risk and their association with appointment attendance among patients at high risk of both reversible and irreversible vision loss from lapses in care. Design, Setting, and Participants: This survey study included a nonvalidated telephone survey designed in April and May of 2020 and a retrospective medical record review conducted in parallel with survey administration from May 22 to August 18, 2020. Participants were recruited from 2 tertiary eye care centers (Emory Eye Center in Atlanta, Georgia, and W.K. Kellogg Eye Center in Ann Arbor, Michigan). The study included a random sample of patients with diagnoses of exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD) or diabetic retinopathy (DR) who received an intravitreal injection between January 6 and March 13, 2020, and were scheduled for a second injection between March 13 and May 6, 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures: Association between perceptions regarding COVID-19 risks and loss to follow-up. Results: Of 1004 eligible patients, 423 (42%) were successfully contacted, and 348 (82%) agreed to participate (participants' mean [SD] age, 75 [12] years; 195 women [56%]; 287 White [82%] patients). Respondents had a mean (SD) of 2.7 (1.1) comorbidities associated with severe COVID-19, and 77 (22%) knew someone with COVID-19. Of all respondents, 163 (47%) were very concerned or moderately concerned about vision loss from missed treatments during the pandemic. Although 208 (60%) believed the COVID-19 virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), exposure at the eye clinic was extremely unlikely or unlikely, 49 (14%) believed it was extremely likely or likely. Seventy-eight participants (22%) were lost to follow-up. Concern regarding COVID-19 exposure during clinic visits (odds ratio [OR], 3.9; 95% CI, 1.8-8.4) and diagnosis of DR (vs AMD) (OR, 8.130; 95% CI, 3.367-20.408) were associated with an increase in likelihood of loss to follow-up. Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients at high risk for vision loss from lapses in care, many expressed concerns regarding the effect of the pandemic on their ability to receive timely care. Survey results suggest that fear of SARS-CoV-2 exposure was associated with a roughly 4-fold increase in the odds of patient loss to follow-up. These results support the potential importance of clearly conveying infection-control measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Diabetic Retinopathy/drug therapy , Eye Diseases/therapy , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Macular Degeneration/drug therapy , Ophthalmic Solutions/administration & dosage , Ophthalmology , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/transmission , Diabetic Retinopathy/diagnosis , Drug Administration Schedule , Eye Diseases/diagnosis , Fear , Female , Georgia , Health Care Surveys , Humans , Intravitreal Injections , Macular Degeneration/diagnosis , Male , Michigan , Middle Aged , Patient Compliance , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors
19.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 69(3): 730-733, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1089033

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The aim of this study was to analyze the impact on vision due to delay in presentation of patients requiring intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) injections, consequent to COVID-19-related travel restrictions. Methods: Data were collected retrospectively of patients who received anti-VEGF injections during four months of the COVID-19 pandemic. Visual acuities, indication for treatment were noted along with basic demographic characteristics. Results: Data were analyzed for 303 eyes of 263 patients. The indication for treatment was age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in 60 eyes (19.8%), while 162 eyes (53.5%) had Diabetic Macular Edema, 71 eyes (23.4%) had Retinal Vein Occlusion and 10 eyes (3.3%) had other diagnosis. The visual acuity in the treatment naïve eyes (Group A, n = 168) was significantly worse (P <0.001) than those who presented for retreatment (Group B, n = 135). In Group B, there was a significant decline in vision for the entire cohort (P = 0.009) and those with AMD (P = 0.036). Those in Group B presented at a mean interval of 19.1 ± 10.6 (range, 4-64) weeks for retreatment. Conclusion: The COVID-19 pandemic has led to a delay in patients receiving anti-VEGF injections. The visual acuity is worse in both treatment naïve as well as those requiring retreatment. This could have long-term impact on vision of patients requiring this vision preserving treatment.


Subject(s)
Bevacizumab/administration & dosage , COVID-19/epidemiology , Quarantine , Ranibizumab/administration & dosage , Retinal Diseases/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Angiogenesis Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Comorbidity , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Intravitreal Injections , Male , Middle Aged , Retinal Diseases/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/antagonists & inhibitors , Young Adult
20.
J Fr Ophtalmol ; 44(3): 299-306, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1078009

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the treatment course of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) patients who received anti-VEGF injection therapy with real-life data. METHODS: This retrospective study consisted of 116 eyes of 106 patients. Ophthalmic examination, assessment of best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), optical coherence tomography (OCT) findings and data of last two visits before restrictions (V-2 and V-1) and the first visit (V0) after the release of national lockdown and subsequent visits (V1 and Vlast) were recorded. The lockdown period was determined by the time interval between March 11 and June 1, 2020. MAIN RESULTS: The injection interval before V-1 was significantly longer than the interval after V0 (2.56±0.9 vs. 2.14±0.8 months, P=0.02). While the median central macular thickness (CMT) was significantly increased at V0 compared to V-1 [274(132-711) vs. 238(136-628), P<0.001], the median CMT was significantly lower at V1 compared to V0 [256 (136-591) vs. 274(132-711), P=0.003]. The median BCVA was 0.67(0.1-1.1) logMAR at V-1 and significantly worsened to 0.78 (0.1-1.2) logMAR at V0 (P=0.003). Although the median BCVA improved to 0.69 logMAR (0.1-1.2) at Vlast, the difference did not reach statistical significance compared to V0 (P=0.08). CONCLUSION: Treatment delay due to the COVID-19 pandemic cause progression of nAMD and visual impairment. To plan more frequent anti-VEGF treatments and visits may be an appropriate approach until the disease stabilizes. However, it should be kept in mind that despite the improvement in OCT findings, the desired success in VA could not be achieved in the short term.


Subject(s)
Angiogenesis Inhibitors/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Macular Degeneration , Pandemics , Retinal Neovascularization , Time-to-Treatment , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Angiogenesis Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Delayed Diagnosis/statistics & numerical data , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Intravitreal Injections , Macular Degeneration/diagnosis , Macular Degeneration/drug therapy , Macular Degeneration/epidemiology , Macular Degeneration/pathology , Male , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Physical Examination/statistics & numerical data , Prognosis , Retinal Neovascularization/diagnosis , Retinal Neovascularization/drug therapy , Retinal Neovascularization/epidemiology , Retinal Neovascularization/pathology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Time-to-Treatment/statistics & numerical data , Tomography, Optical Coherence , Treatment Outcome , Turkey/epidemiology , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/antagonists & inhibitors , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/immunology
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