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2.
Chin Med Sci J ; 35(2): 112-113, 2020 06 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-669147
3.
Emerg Med J ; 37(7): 398-399, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-767959

ABSTRACT

Given the high risk of healthcare worker (HCW) infection with COVID-19 during aerosol-generating medical procedures, the use of a box barrier during intubation for protection of HCWs has been examined. Previous simulation work has demonstrated its efficacy in protecting HCWs from cough-expelled droplets. Our objective was to assess its ability to protect HCWs against aerosols generated during aerosol-generating medical procedures. We used a battery-powered vapouriser to assess movement of vapour with: (1) no barrier; (2) a box barrier; and (3) a box barrier and a plastic sheet covering the box and patient's body. We visualised the trajectory of vapour and saw that the vapour remained within the barrier space when the box barrier and plastic sheet were used. This is in contrast to the box barrier alone, where vapour diffused towards the feet of the patient and throughout the room, and to no barrier where the vapour immediately diffused to the laryngoscopist. This demonstrates that the box with the plastic sheet has the potential to limit the spread of aerosols towards the laryngoscopist, and thus may play a role in protecting HCWs during aerosol-generating medical procedures. This is of particular importance in the care of patients with suspected COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Intubation, Intratracheal/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Protective Devices , Aerosols , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control
4.
Tohoku J Exp Med ; 252(2): 103-107, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-757142

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global public health concern that can be classified as mild, moderate, severe, or critical, based on disease severity. Since the identification of critical patients is crucial for developing effective management strategies, we evaluated clinical characteristics, laboratory data, treatment provided, and oxygenation to identify potential predictors of mortality among critical COVID-19 pneumonia patients. We retrospectively utilized data from seven critical patients who were admitted to our hospital during April 2020 and required mechanical ventilation. The primary endpoint was to clarify potential predictor of mortality. All patients were older than 70 years, five were men, six had hypertension, and three ultimately died. Compared with survivors, non-survivors tended to be never smokers (0 pack-years vs. 30 pack-years, p = 0.08), to have higher body mass index (31.3 kg/m2 vs. 25.3 kg/m2, p = 0.06), to require earlier tracheal intubation after symptom onset (2.7 days vs. 5.5 days, p = 0.07), and had fewer lymphocytes on admission (339 /µL vs. 518 /µL, p = 0.05). During the first week after tracheal intubation, non-survivors displayed lower values for minimum ratio of the partial pressure of oxygen to fractional inspiratory oxygen concentration (P/F ratio) (44 mmHg vs. 122 mmHg, p < 0.01) and poor response to intensive therapy compared with survivors. In summary, we show that obesity and lymphopenia could predict the severity of COVID-19 pneumonia and that the trend of lower P/F ratio during the first week of mechanical ventilation could provide useful prognostic information.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Critical Illness/therapy , Intubation, Intratracheal , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Smoking , Aged , Betacoronavirus/physiology , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Critical Illness/epidemiology , Critical Illness/mortality , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Intubation, Intratracheal/mortality , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Prognosis , Radiography, Thoracic , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Smoking/adverse effects , Smoking/epidemiology , Smoking/mortality , Smoking/therapy , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
5.
BMJ Case Rep ; 13(9)2020 Sep 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-751541

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has challenged all medical professionals to optimise non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NIV) as a means of limiting intubation. We present a case of a middle-aged man with a voluminous beard for religious reasons who developed progressive hypoxic respiratory failure secondary to COVID-19 infection which became refractory to NIV. After gaining permission to trim the patient's facial hair by engaging with the patient, his family and religious leaders, his mask fit objectively improved, his hypoxaemia markedly improved and an unnecessary intubation was avoided. Trimming of facial hair should be considered in all patients on NIV who might have any limitations with mask fit and seal that would hamper ventilation, including patients who have facial hair for religious reasons.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Critical Care/methods , Noninvasive Ventilation/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Aged , Brain Diseases/etiology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Hair , Humans , Intubation, Intratracheal , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Religion and Medicine , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Tracheostomy
6.
Trials ; 21(1): 758, 2020 Sep 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-745011

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Tocilizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody which targets and inhibits interleukin-6 (IL-6) and has demonstrated efficacy in treating diseases associated with hyper-inflammation. Data are suggestive of tocilizumab as a potential treatment for patients with COVID-19 infection. The aim of this study is to determine the safety and efficacy of standard dose versus low dose tocilizumab in adults with severe, non-critical, PCR-confirmed COVID-19 infection with evidence of progressive decline in respiratory function and evolving systemic inflammation on time to intubation, non-invasive ventilation and/or all-cause mortality. TRIAL DESIGN: This trial is a phase 2, open label, two-stage, multicentre, randomised trial. PARTICIPANTS: Adult subjects with severe, non-critical, PCR-confirmed COVID-19 infection with evidence of progressive decline in respiratory function and evolving systemic inflammation requiring admission to hospital at St. Vincent's University Hospital and Mater Misericordiae University Hospital, Dublin, Ireland. Inclusion criteria Aged 18 years or older. Confirmed SARS-CoV2 infection (as defined by positive PCR). Evidence of hyper inflammatory state as evidenced by at least three of the following: Documented temperature >38°C in the past 48 hours, IL6 >40 pg/ml, or in its absence D-dimer >1.5 µgFEU /ml, Elevated CRP (>100mg/L) and/or a three-fold increase since presentation, Elevated ferritin X5 ULN, Elevated LDH (above the ULN), Elevated fibrinogen (above the ULN). Pulmonary infiltrates on chest imaging. Moderate to severe respiratory failure as defined by PaO2/FiO2≤300mmHg. INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: Intervention for participants in this trial is SOC plus Tocilizumab compared to SOC alone (comparator). For Stage 1, following randomisation, subjects will receive either (Arm 1) SOC alone or (Arm 2) SOC plus Tocilizumab (standard single dose - 8mg/kg, infused over 60 minutes. Once stage 1 has fully recruited, subsequent participants will be enrolled directly into Stage 2 and receive either (Arm 1) SOC plus Tocilizumab (standard single dose - 8mg/kg, infused over 60 minutes or (Arm 2) SOC plus Tocilizumab (standard single dose - 4mg/kg, infused over 60 minutes). MAIN OUTCOMES: The primary endpoint for this study is the time to a composite primary endpoint of progression to intubation and ventilation, non-invasive ventilation or death within 28 days post randomisation. RANDOMISATION: Eligible patients will be randomised (1:1) using a central register. Randomisation will be performed through an interactive, web-based electronic data capturing database. In stage 1, eligible participants will be randomised (1:1) to (Arm 1) SOC alone or to (Arm 2) SOC with single dose (8mg/kg, maximum 800mg) intravenous tocilizumab infused over 60 minutes. In stage 2, eligible participants will be randomised (1:1) to receive either (Arm 1) single, standard dose (8mg/kg, maximum 800mg) intravenous tocilizumab infused over 60 minutes or (Arm 2) reduced dose (4mg/kg, maximum 800mg) intravenous tocilizumab infused over 60 minutes. BLINDING: This study is open label. The study will not be blinded to investigators, subjects, or medical or nursing staff. The trial statistician will be blinded for data analysis and will be kept unaware of treatment group assignments. To facilitate this, the randomisation schedule will be drawn up by an independent statistician and objective criteria were defined for the primary outcome to minimize potential bias. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMISED: In stage 1, 90 subjects will be randomised 1:1, 45 to SOC and 45 subjects to SOC plus Tocilizumab (8mg/kg, infused over 60 minutes). In stage 2, sample size calculation for the dose evaluation stage will use data generated from stage 1 using the same primary endpoint as in stage 1. TRIAL STATUS: The COVIRL002 trial (Protocol version 1.4, 13th May 2020) commenced in May 2020 at St. Vincent's University Hospital and Mater Misericordiae University Hospital, Dublin, Ireland. Recruitment is proceeding with the aim to achieve the target sample size on or before April 2021. TRIAL REGISTRATION: COVIRL002 was registered 25 June 2020 under EudraCT number: 2020-001767-86 and Protocol identification: UCDCRC/20/02. FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol for COVIRL002 is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest in expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol. The study protocol has been reported in accordance with the Standard Protocol Items: Recommendations for Clinical Interventional Trials (SPIRIT) guidelines (Additional file 2).


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/adverse effects , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/adverse effects , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Clinical Trials, Phase II as Topic , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Disease Progression , Host Microbial Interactions , Humans , Intubation, Intratracheal , Ireland , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Respiration, Artificial , Severity of Illness Index , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
7.
Int J Pharm Compd ; 24(5): 358-364, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-743555

ABSTRACT

When using ventilators in the management of the coronavirus disease 2019 patient, dense and abundant mucous secretions are formed, obstructing the endotracheal tube and making its aspiration difficult. This situation is worsened if in order to minimize the risk of infection of the medical personnel, the humidifier is disconnected. This circumstance forces the tube to be removed, cleaned, or changed, increasing the workload of the intensive care unit staff. Other therapies tested until now, like mesna, acetylcysteine, or hypertonic saline solution, are valid alternatives, although they have not shown great efficacy for this specific procedure in the past. The sanitary emergency forced the collaboration between a pharmacist and an otorhinolaryngologist to develop the cocamidopropyl betaine surfactant formula, after several tests with different concentrations of the surfactant. The objective of this compounding formula was to resolve a mechanical problem and avoid reintubation due to obstruction of the ventilator tube. The cocamidopropyl betaine surfactant solution 0.075% in saline 0.9% (physiological serum) solution demonstrated to be a well-tolerated formula, using inexpensive materials, was simple to prepare, and was easy to use in clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Betaine/analogs & derivatives , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Equipment Contamination/prevention & control , Intubation, Intratracheal , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Surface-Active Agents/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus , Betaine/pharmacology , Humans , Hygiene , Pandemics , Ventilators, Mechanical
8.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238679, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-742543

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate the role of lung ultrasound score (LUS) in assessing intubation timing for patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pneumonia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy-two patients with critical coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) were admitted to a makeshift intensive care unit (ICU). All patients underwent bedside lung ultrasonography one to two times per day. The patients were either intubated, treated with noninvasive ventilation (NIV), or given high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) after a discussion with the multidisciplinary group after their conditions worsened. Bedside lung ultrasound was performed daily after intubation, and patients received mechanical ventilation. Lung ultrasound was performed on days 1, 2, 3, 5, and 7 after patients were admitted to the ICU; if the patient was intubated, LUS determination was performed before intubation within 24 h (T1) and on days 1, 2, 5, and 7 after intubation (T2, T3, T4, and T5, respectively).The goal of this study was to evaluate the severity of lung aeration loss in intubated and non-intubated patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia by ultrasound at different time points within one week. RESULTS: A total of 16 patients were included in this study, including nine who were intubated and mechanically ventilated and seven patients without intubation. The number of elderly individuals in the intubated group was higher than in the non-intubated group (P < 0.05). In addition, there were more male than female patients in both groups. Patient characteristics (BMI, SOFA, and PaO2/FiO2 value) were similar between the two groups (P > 0.05). The 28-day mortality rate of intubated patients was higher than that of non-intubated patients; six patients in the intubated group and two patients in the non-intubated group died. Nine intubated patients showed changes in LUS within seven days (n = 9). The mean LUS within 24 h before intubation was 12.8 ± 1.3. LUS was significantly higher on T1 than on T5 (P <0.05), and did not significantly differ from T1 to T4. Comparing LUS between intubated and non-intubated patients on T1 showed that the LUS of intubated patients was significantly higher than that of non-intubated patients (P <0.05). Between the two patient groups, oxygenation index was 140.1 ± 7.7 vs. 137.8 ± 5.9 on T1, and the respiratory rate of the two groups was 26 ± 5 vs. 28 ± 4 breaths/min. Neither oxygenation index nor RR significantly differed between the two groups. CONCLUSION: LUS may be an effective tool for assessing intubation timing in critically ill patients with Covid-19 interstitial pneumonia.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Intubation, Intratracheal/methods , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Ultrasonography/methods , Aged , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Female , Humans , Intubation, Intratracheal/adverse effects , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Time Factors
9.
Ann Ital Chir ; 91: 273-276, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-739593

ABSTRACT

CASE REPORT: A 64-year-old woman presented to our emergency department during the outbreak of the covid-19 emergency in Italy with syncope, anosmia, mild dyspnoea and atypical chest and dorsal pain. A chest CT scan showed an acute type B aortic dissection (ATBAD) and bilateral lung involvement with ground-glass opacity, compatible with interstitial pneumonia. Nasopharyngeal swabs resulted positive for SARS-CoV-2. For the persistence of chest pain, despite the analgesic therapy, we decided to treat her with a TEVAR. Patient's chest and back pain resolved during the first few days after the procedure. No surgical or respiratory complications occurred and the patient was discharged 14 days after surgery. DISCUSSION: By performing the operation under local anesthesia, it was possible to limit both the staff inside the operatory room and droplet/aerosol release. Since we had to perform the operation in a hemodynamics room, thanks to the limited extension of the endoprosthesis and the good caliber of the right vertebral artery we were able to reduce the risk of spinal cord ischemia despite the lack of a revascularization of the left subclavian artery. CONCLUSIONS: A minimally invasive total endovascular approach allows, through local anesthesia and percutaneous access, to avoid surgical cut down and orotracheal intubation. This, combined with a defined management protocol for infected patients, seems to be a reasonable way to perform endovascular aortic procedures in urgent setting, even in a SARSCoV- 2 positive patient. KEY WORDS: COVID-19, Dissection, TEVAR.


Subject(s)
Aneurysm, Dissecting/surgery , Aortic Aneurysm, Thoracic/surgery , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Blood Vessel Prosthesis Implantation/methods , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Endovascular Procedures/methods , Infection Control/methods , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Anesthesia, Local , Aneurysm, Dissecting/complications , Antibiotic Prophylaxis , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Aortic Aneurysm, Thoracic/complications , Contraindications, Procedure , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Darunavir/therapeutic use , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Drug Therapy, Combination , Enoxaparin/therapeutic use , Female , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Intraoperative Complications/prevention & control , Intubation, Intratracheal/adverse effects , Middle Aged , Nasopharynx/virology , Operating Rooms , Patient Isolation , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Spinal Cord Ischemia/prevention & control , Vertebral Artery/surgery
10.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 7(1)2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-733150

ABSTRACT

Invasive mechanical has been associated with high mortality in COVID-19. Alternative therapy of high flow nasal therapy (HFNT) has been greatly debated around the world for use in COVID-19 pandemic due to concern for increased healthcare worker transmission.This was a retrospective analysis of consecutive patients admitted to Temple University Hospital in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, from 10 March 2020 to 24 April 2020 with moderate-to-severe respiratory failure treated with HFNT. Primary outcome was prevention of intubation. Of the 445 patients with COVID-19, 104 met our inclusion criteria. The average age was 60.66 (+13.50) years, 49 (47.12 %) were female, 53 (50.96%) were African-American, 23 (22.12%) Hispanic. Forty-three patients (43.43%) were smokers. Saturation to fraction ratio and chest X-ray scores had a statistically significant improvement from day 1 to day 7. 67 of 104 (64.42%) were able to avoid invasive mechanical ventilation in our cohort. Incidence of hospital-associated/ventilator-associated pneumonia was 2.9%. Overall, mortality was 14.44% (n=15) in our cohort with 13 (34.4%) in the progressed to intubation group and 2 (2.9%) in the non-intubation group. Mortality and incidence of pneumonia was statistically higher in the progressed to intubation group. CONCLUSION: HFNT use is associated with a reduction in the rate of invasive mechanical ventilation and overall mortality in patients with COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Healthcare-Associated Pneumonia/epidemiology , Hypoxia/therapy , Intubation, Intratracheal/statistics & numerical data , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , African Americans , Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , Cannula , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , European Continental Ancestry Group , Female , Heart Diseases/epidemiology , Hispanic Americans , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Hypertension/epidemiology , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Lung Diseases/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Philadelphia/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pulse Therapy, Drug , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Smoking/epidemiology
13.
Am J Case Rep ; 21: e926731, 2020 Aug 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-721637

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND The role of tracheostomy during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is still to be determined, and the complication rate of the tracheostomy in COVID-19 patients is still unknown. Postintubation tracheal stenosis is a well-known risk of prolonged endotracheal intubation, but it is too early to define the existence of any difference among the COVID-19 cohort of patients and non-COVID-19 patients. This report is of 2 cases of COVID-19 pneumonia that required tracheostomy and prolonged endotracheal intubation, which were followed by delayed tracheal stenosis.   CASE REPORT Case 1. A 54-year-old male was admitted to our hospital (Biella, Italy) for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. The patient underwent orotracheal intubation, progressively improving his breathing function, and was discharged after 20 days. Ten days later, the patient presented with severe respiratory distress. Computed tomography (CT) scan and bronchoscopy showed signs of tracheal stenosis. We administered intravenous steroids for 10 days. The patient showed increasing improvement in his breathing function and was discharged with no other signs of respiratory distress. Case 2. A 43-year-old male was admitted to our hospital for SARS-CoV-2 infection. The patient underwent orotracheal intubation, progressively improving his breathing function, and was discharged after 25 days. Eighteen days later, the patient came to our emergency room with severe respiratory distress. CT scan and bronchoscopy showed signs of tracheal stenosis. The patient had to undergo tracheal resection. CONCLUSIONS The 2 cases presented in this report have shown that even when patients recover from severe COVID-19 pneumonia requiring tracheostomy and mechanical ventilation, tracheal stenosis should be recognized as a potential complication and careful follow-up is required.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Tracheal Stenosis/etiology , Tracheostomy/adverse effects , Adult , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Intubation, Intratracheal/adverse effects , Male , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Tracheal Stenosis/therapy
15.
Ann Surg ; 272(2): e63-e65, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-706917

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A novel coronavirus (COVID-19) erupted in the latter part of 2019. The virus, SARS-CoV-2 can cause a range of symptoms ranging from mild through fulminant respiratory failure. Approximately 25% of hospitalized patients require admission to the intensive care unit, with the majority of those requiring mechanical ventilation. High density consolidations in the bronchial tree and in the pulmonary parenchyma have been described in the advanced phase of the disease. We noted a subset of patients who had a sudden, significant increase in peak airway, plateau and peak inspiratory pressures. Partial or complete ETT occlusion was noted to be the culprit in the majority of these patients. METHODS: With institutional IRB approval, we examined a subset of our mechanically ventilated COVID-19 patients. All of the patients were admitted to one of our COVID-19 ICUs. Each was staffed by a board certified intensivist. During multidisciplinary rounds, all arterial blood gas (ABG) results, ventilator settings and ventilator measurements are discussed and addressed. ARDSNet Protocols are employed. In patients with confirmed acute occlusion of the endotracheal tube (ETT), acute elevation in peak airway and peak inspiratory pressures are noted in conjunction with desaturation. Data was collected retrospectively and demographics, ventilatory settings and ABG results were recorded. RESULTS: Our team has observed impeded ventilation in intubated patients who are several days into the critical course. Pathologic evaluation of the removed endotracheal tube contents from one of our patients demonstrated a specimen consistent with sloughed tracheobronchial tissues and inflammatory cells in a background of dense mucin. Of 110 patients admitted to our adult COVID-19 ICUs, 28 patients required urgent exchange of their ETT. CONCLUSION: Caregivers need to be aware of this pathological finding, recognize, and to treat this aspect of the COVID-19 critical illness course, which is becoming more prevalent.


Subject(s)
Bronchi/injuries , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Intubation, Intratracheal/adverse effects , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Trachea/injuries , Adult , Betacoronavirus , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Pandemics
16.
Medwave ; 20(6): e7950, 2020 Jul 02.
Article in Spanish, English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-696250

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this article is to review the characteristics of SARS-CoV-2, the clinical-epidemiological aspects of COVID-19, and the implications anesthesiologists when performing aerosol-generating procedures. A search of PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, SciELO, and Web of Science databases was performed until April 9, 2020, using the words: "COVID-19 or COVID19 or SARS-CoV-2 and anesthesiology or anesthesia". Forty-eight articles with information on the management of the patient in the perioperative period or the intensive care unit when suspected or confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection were included. In general, the postponement of elective surgeries for no more than 6 to 8 weeks, depending on the clinical condition of the patients is recommended. In the case of urgent or emergency surgeries, we review the use of personal protection gear, as well as the recommended strategies for carrying out the procedure.


Subject(s)
Anesthesiology/standards , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Occupational Diseases/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Aerosols , Anesthesia, Conduction/methods , Anesthesia, Epidural/methods , Anesthesia, General/methods , Anesthesia, Spinal/methods , Anesthesiology/organization & administration , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Elective Surgical Procedures , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Intubation, Intratracheal/methods , Intubation, Intratracheal/standards , Nerve Block/methods , Pandemics , Personal Protective Equipment , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Respiration, Artificial/standards , Surgical Procedures, Operative , Symptom Assessment/methods
17.
West J Emerg Med ; 21(4): 764-770, 2020 Jun 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-691204

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Intubation of patients suspected of having coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is considered to be a high-risk procedure due to the aerosolization of viral particles. In an effort to minimize the risk of exposure and optimize patient care, we sought to develop, test, provide training, and implement a standardized algorithm for intubating these high-risk patients at our institution. METHODS: We developed an initial intubation algorithm, incorporating strategic use of equipment and incorporating emerging best practices. By combining simulation-based training sessions and rapid-cycle improvement methodology with physicians, nurses, and respiratory therapists, and incorporating their feedback into the development, we were able to optimize the process prior to implementation. Training sessions also enabled the participants to practice the algorithm as a team. Upon completion of each training session, participants were invited to complete a brief online survey about their overall experience. RESULTS: An algorithm and training system vetted by simulation and actual practice were developed. A training video and dissemination package were made available for other emergency departments to adopt. Survey results were overall positive, with 97.92% of participants feeling confident in their role in the intubation process, and many participants citing the usefulness of the multidisciplinary approach to the training. CONCLUSION: A multidisciplinary, team-based approach to the development and training of a standardized intubation algorithm combining simulation and rapid-cycle improvement methodology is a useful, effective process to respond to rapidly evolving clinical information and experiences during a global pandemic.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Algorithms , Emergency Service, Hospital , Humans , Intubation, Intratracheal , Pandemics , Simulation Training
18.
Am J Case Rep ; 21: e925776, 2020 Jul 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-690469

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND As the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS CoV2) spreads around the world infecting people of all ages, clinicians and researchers are working to gather data on the presentation of coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Further study is necessary to better diagnose and treat COVID-19 patients. CASE REPORT We describe the case of an 8-year-old boy admitted with status epilepticus, who also tested positive for COVID-19, while afebrile, with no initial respiratory symptoms. Benzodiazepines were given per treatment guidelines, abating the seizure activity. He subsequently developed respiratory distress and desaturation requiring temporary emergent intubation. All clinical symptoms resolved within a few hours. Results of a computed tomography (CT) scan of the brain were within normal limits. Results of a 24-h electroencephalogram (EEG) were abnormal, indicative of diffuse cerebral dysfunction. As a result of intubation and findings of bilateral infiltrates on chest x-ray, a COVID-19 test was administered and the result was positive. CONCLUSIONS For proper diagnosis and treatment, patients and clinicians should be aware that COVID-19 may not present in the typical fashion of respiratory distress and fever. The present case suggests a rare neurological presentation of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Status Epilepticus/virology , Betacoronavirus , Child , Humans , Intubation, Intratracheal , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Male , Pandemics , Radiography , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/virology
20.
West J Emerg Med ; 21(4): 809-812, 2020 Jun 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-682222

ABSTRACT

In light of the rapid spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) across the United States, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and hospitals nationwide have developed new protocols to address infection control as well as the care of critical patients. Airway management has been particularly difficult; the challenge of quickly establishing an airway in patients must be balanced by the risk of aerosolizing respiratory secretions and putting the provider at risk of infection. Significant attention has been given to developing protocols for the emergency department and critical care units, but little guidance regarding establishing airway and respiratory support for patients in the prehospital setting has been made available. While some of the recommendations can be extrapolated from hospital guidelines, other factors such as environment and available resources make these protocols unfeasible. Through review of current literature the authors established recommendations regarding airway management and the provision of respiratory support to patients developing respiratory failure related to COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Airway Management/methods , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Emergency Medical Services , Infection Control/standards , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Airway Management/instrumentation , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Intubation, Intratracheal/methods , Laryngoscopy/methods , Pandemics , Personal Protective Equipment , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Positive-Pressure Respiration , Video Recording
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