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1.
Anesthesiology ; 134(1): 61-71, 2021 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2161186

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Disease severity in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may be associated with inoculation dose. This has triggered interest in intubation barrier devices to block droplet exposure; however, aerosol protection with these devices is not known. This study hypothesized that barrier devices reduce aerosol outside of the barrier. METHODS: Aerosol containment in closed, semiclosed, semiopen, and open barrier devices was investigated: (1) "glove box" sealed with gloves and caudal drape, (2) "drape tent" with a drape placed over a frame, (3) "slit box" with armholes and caudal end covered by vinyl slit diaphragms, (4) original "aerosol box," (5) collapsible "interlocking box," (6) "simple drape" over the patient, and (7) "no barrier." Containment was investigated by (1) vapor instillation at manikin's right arm with video-assisted visual evaluation and (2) submicrometer ammonium sulfate aerosol particles ejected through the manikin's mouth with ventilation and coughs. Samples were taken from standardized locations inside and around the barriers using a particle counter and a mass spectrometer. Aerosol evacuation from the devices was measured using standard hospital suction, a surgical smoke evacuator, and a Shop-Vac. RESULTS: Vapor experiments demonstrated leakage via arm holes and edges. Only closed and semiclosed devices and the aerosol box reduced aerosol particle counts (median [25th, 75th percentile]) at the operator's mouth compared to no barrier (combined median 29 [-11, 56], n = 5 vs. 157 [151, 166], n = 5). The other barrier devices provided less reduction in particle counts (133 [128, 137], n = 5). Aerosol evacuation to baseline required 15 min with standard suction and the Shop-Vac and 5 min with a smoke evacuator. CONCLUSIONS: Barrier devices may reduce exposure to droplets and aerosol. With meticulous tucking, the glove box and drape tent can retain aerosol during airway management. Devices that are not fully enclosed may direct aerosol toward the laryngoscopist. Aerosol evacuation reduces aerosol content inside fully enclosed devices. Barrier devices must be used in conjunction with body-worn personal protective equipment.


Subject(s)
Aerosols/analysis , COVID-19/prevention & control , Occupational Exposure/analysis , Occupational Exposure/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment , Aerosols/adverse effects , Cough/prevention & control , Cough/virology , Health Personnel , Humans , Intubation, Intratracheal/adverse effects
2.
Anaesthesia ; 77(12): 1455, 2022 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2136639
3.
AANA J ; 90(6): 462-468, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2126131

ABSTRACT

In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, several protective barrier enclosures were developed to protect healthcare providers during airway manipulation. A certified registered nurse anesthetist (CRNA) created a barrier, the disposable intubation drape (I-Drape), that addressed limitations in range of motion. A nonrandomized, quasi-experimental design with repeated measures was used to evaluate I-Drape usability. CRNAs implemented I-Drape up to three times. Multilevel modeling was used to analyze the primary outcome: time (in seconds) to successful intubation. An online survey was used to evaluate secondary outcomes of interest: users' perceptions of features such as usability, visibility, and durability. We recruited 23 CRNAs as participants for 59 trials. Overall successful intubation and first-pass success rates were 96.6% and 93.2%, respectively. Time to successful intubation did not significantly decrease (ß = -9.16, P = 0.323) or differ significantly among types of laryngoscopy device and years of experience was not a significant factor. Overall, users favorably rated I-Drape with respect to usability, visibility, durability, and feature utility. This study demonstrated the functionality, success rate, and acceptability of I-Drape. I-Drape can be used safely and efficiently with any type of laryngoscopy device by providers with various experience levels.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Intubation, Intratracheal , Humans , Feasibility Studies , Pandemics , Laryngoscopy
4.
Minerva Anestesiol ; 88(11): 918-927, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2117561

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Non-invasive ventilation may alter the morphology and histology of the upper airway mucosa. This study aimed to investigate the alterations of hypopharynx and oropharynx mucosa, identified during oro-tracheal intubation procedure via video-assisted laryngoscopy, in severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus 2 related, treated by non-invasive ventilation via full-face mask or helmet. METHODS: Data of patients affected by Coronavirus 2 admitted to COVID Hospital of L'Aquila (Italy), presenting hypopharynx and oropharynx morphology alterations, requiring oro-tracheal intubation for invasive ventilation and initially treated with non-invasive ventilation were included in the study. The study aimed to investigate the upper airway mucosa alterations using oropharyngeal and hypopharyngeal images and biopsies taken during video-assisted-laryngoscopy. Data from the hypopharynx and oropharynx morphology and histology alterations between non-invasive ventilation via a full-face mask or helmet used during hospitalization were compared. RESULTS: From 220 data recorded, 60 patients were included in the study and classified into non-invasive ventilation full-face mask group (30/60) and via helmet group. Comparing data between groups, significant differences were found with respect to hyperemia (77% vs. 20%), laryngeal bleeding ulcerations (87% vs. 13%), and vocal cord edema with >50% narrowing of the tracheal lumen (73% vs. 7%), respectively. The histology examination revealed fibrin-necrotic exudate with extensive necrotic degenerative changes in the sample tissue of the groups. There were not any differences in the duration time of non-invasive ventilation, time from hospitalization and the start of ventilation between groups. CONCLUSIONS: The data from this research suggested that there were differences in airway mucosa damages among patients treated with a full-face mask or helmet. Further studies should be planned to understand which non-invasive ventilation support may mitigate upper airway mucosa damages when oro-tracheal intubation is requested for invasive respiratory support.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Noninvasive Ventilation , Humans , Noninvasive Ventilation/methods , Masks , Head Protective Devices , Hypopharynx , Italy , COVID-19/therapy , Intubation, Intratracheal , Oropharynx
5.
JBJS Case Connect ; 11(1)2021 03 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2115210

ABSTRACT

CASE: We describe a preliminary report of 3 cases of ulnar neuropathy after coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection and treatment with intermittent prone positioning. CONCLUSION: Ulnar neuropathy may be associated with recent COVID-19 infection. The natural process of the disease and intermittent prone positioning are likely risk factors contributing to this finding. Conservative management seems to lead to improvement of symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Intubation, Intratracheal/adverse effects , Patient Positioning/adverse effects , Prone Position , Ulnar Neuropathies/etiology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Front Immunol ; 13: 933960, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119695

ABSTRACT

Background: PTX3 is an important mediator of inflammation and innate immunity. We aimed at assessing its prognostic value in a large cohort of patients hospitalized with COVID-19. Methods: Levels of PTX3 were measured in 152 patients hospitalized with COVID-19 at San Gerardo Hospital (Monza, Italy) since March 2020. Cox regression was used to identify predictors of time from admission to in-hospital death or mechanical ventilation. Crude incidences of death were compared between patients with PTX3 levels higher or lower than the best cut-off estimated with the Maximally Selected Rank Statistics Method. Results: Upon admission, 22% of the patients required no oxygen, 46% low-flow oxygen, 30% high-flow nasal cannula or CPAP-helmet and 3% MV. Median level of PTX3 was 21.7 (IQR: 13.5-58.23) ng/ml. In-hospital mortality was 25% (38 deaths); 13 patients (8.6%) underwent MV. PTX3 was associated with risk of death (per 10 ng/ml, HR 1.08; 95%CI 1.04-1.11; P<0.001) and death/MV (HR 1.04; 95%CI 1.01-1.07; P=0.011), independently of other predictors of in-hospital mortality, including age, Charlson Comorbidity Index, D-dimer and C-reactive protein (CRP). Patients with PTX3 levels above the optimal cut-off of 39.32 ng/ml had significantly higher mortality than the others (55% vs 8%, P<0.001). Higher PTX3 plasma levels were found in 14 patients with subsequent thrombotic complications (median [IQR]: 51.4 [24.6-94.4] versus 21 [13.4-55.2]; P=0.049). Conclusions: High PTX3 levels in patients hospitalized with COVID-19 are associated with a worse outcome. The evaluation of this marker could be useful in prognostic stratification and identification of patients who could benefit from immunomodulant therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thrombosis , Humans , Hospital Mortality , Serum Amyloid P-Component/metabolism , Thrombosis/etiology , Intubation, Intratracheal
7.
Eur J Med Res ; 27(1): 226, 2022 Nov 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2108965

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Evidence regarding the timing of the application of mechanical ventilation among patients with severe coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is insufficient. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of early intubation compared to late intubation in patients with severe and critical COVID-19. METHODS: For this study, we searched the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases as well as one Korean domestic database on July 15, 2021. We updated the search monthly from September 10, 2021 to February 10, 2022. Studies that compared early intubation with late intubation in patients with severe COVID-19 were eligible for inclusion. Relative risk (RR) and mean difference (MD) were calculated as measures of effect using the random-effects model for the pooled estimates of in-hospital mortality, intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay (LOS), duration of mechanical ventilation (MV), hospital LOS, ICU-free days, and ventilator-free days. Subgroup analysis was performed based on the definition of early intubation and the index time. To assess the risk of bias in the included studies, we used the Risk of Bias Assessment tool for Non-randomized studies 2.0. RESULTS: Of the 1523 records identified, 12 cohort studies, involving 2843 patients with severe COVID-19 were eligible. There were no differences in in-hospital mortality (8 studies, n = 795; RR 0.91, 95% CI 0.75-1.10, P = 0.32, I2 = 33%), LOS in the ICU (9 studies, n = 978; MD -1.77 days, 95% CI -4.61 to 1.07 days, P = 0.22, I2 = 78%), MV duration (9 studies, n = 1,066; MD -0.03 day, 95% CI -1.79 to 1.72 days, P = 0.97, I2 = 49%), ICU-free days (1 study, n = 32; 0 day vs. 0 day; P = 0.39), and ventilator-free days (4 studies, n = 344; MD 0.94 day, 95% CI -4.56 to 6.43 days, P = 0.74, I2 = 54%) between the early and late intubation groups. However, the early intubation group had significant advantage in terms of hospital LOS (6 studies, n = 738; MD -4.32 days, 95% CI -7.20 to -1.44 days, P = 0.003, I2 = 45%). CONCLUSION: This study showed no significant difference in both primary and secondary outcomes between the early intubation and late intubation groups. Trial registration This study was registered in the Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews on 16 February, 2022 (registration number CRD42022311122).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/therapy , Respiration, Artificial , Intensive Care Units , Length of Stay , Intubation, Intratracheal
8.
Crit Care ; 26(1): 338, 2022 11 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2108872

ABSTRACT

We conducted a proof of concept study where Anapnoguard endotracheal tubes and its control unit were used in 15 patients with COVID-19 acute respiratory distress syndrome. Anapnoguard system provides suction, venting, rinsing of subglottic space and controls cuff pressure detecting air leakage through the cuff. Alpha-amylase and pepsin levels, as oropharyngeal and gastric microaspiration markers, were assessed from 85 tracheal aspirates in the first 72 h after connection to the system. Oropharyngeal microaspiration occurred in 47 cases (55%). Episodes of gastric microaspiration were not detected. Patient positioning, either prone or supine, did not affect alpha-amylase and pepsin concentration in tracheal secretions. Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) rate was 40%. The use of the AG system provided effective cuff pressure control and subglottic secretions drainage. Despite this, no reduction in the incidence of VAP has been demonstrated, compared to data reported in the current COVID-19 literature. The value of this new technology is worth of being evaluated for the prevention of ventilator-associated respiratory tract infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Pepsin A , Pronation , Equipment Design , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated/etiology , Intubation, Intratracheal/adverse effects , alpha-Amylases
9.
Expert Rev Med Devices ; 19(10): 779-789, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2107124

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to summarize the effect of the aerosol box on tracheal intubation in patients with COVID-19. AREAS COVERED: According to the PRISMA guidelines, a systematic search was performed to identify relevant literature on the 'impact of the aerosol box on tracheal intubation during the COVID-19 pandemic' in different electronic databases up to March 2021. Based on a set of predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria, 447 articles were screened. Finally, 20 articles were included in the current systematic review. The findings showed that the use of aerosol box during intubation could reduce droplet contamination on the healthcare workers but not necessarily aerosols. An increase in the time of intubation with the aerosol box was also observed in 9 out of 12 studies (75%); however, three studies reported no significant difference in the time of intubation with and without the aerosol box. Most studies (8 out of 9, 89%) were also shown that intubation with the aerosol box may lead to more difficulty. EXPERT OPINION: The proceduralist and other healthcare workers involved in airway management of COVID-19 infected patients should decide whether to apply the aerosol box with caution, balancing between benefits and risks, especially in difficult airway circumstances.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Respiratory Aerosols and Droplets , Intubation, Intratracheal , Airway Management
11.
Acta Med Acad ; 51(2): 99-107, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100260

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Airway management has undergone a dramatic transformation since the arrival of video laryngoscope (VL). VL has higher intubation success rate on first try and lower complications in comparison to direct laryngoscope (DL). The use of VL is recommended in intubating COVID-19 patients to speed up intubation time and reduce failure rate. A team from Airlangga University developed Wycope Video Laryngoscope (Wycope VL), a VL with Wi-Fi connection to smartphones for an easier VL with low cost. This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of Wycope VL, C-MAC Video Laryngoscope (C-MAC VL), and DL. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was an analytic observational study with a cross sectional design, involving 63 patients who were divided into 3 groups based on the type of laryngoscope, namely Wycope VL, C-MAC VL, and DL. Intubation is carried out by 4th year anaesthesiology resident. Research subjects were patients who will undergo elective surgery at Dr. Soetomo General Hospital under general anaesthesia using orotracheal tube. Inclusion age of 19-64 years, PS ASA 1-2, no anatomical abnormalities of the airway, did not have difficult airway, and was willing to participate in the study. RESULTS: All patients were successfully intubated without complications. C-MAC VL (5.33±1.42 seconds) and Wycope VL (5.95±0.74 seconds) was significantly faster in seeing vocal folds and glottis compared to DL (7.14±0.72 seconds) with P=0.000. DL was significantly faster in average time of intubation (15.52±5.90 seconds) compared to C-MAC VL (16.95±1.11 seconds) and Wycope VL (20.29±2.81 seconds) with P=0.000. CONCLUSION: DL was faster compared to VL in speed of intubation while C-MAC VL and Wycope VL was faster in viewing the vocal folds and glottis compared to DL.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Laryngoscopes , Humans , Young Adult , Adult , Middle Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Intubation, Intratracheal , Laryngoscopy
13.
Saudi Med J ; 43(10): 1120-1127, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2081103

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the value of measuring the diaphragm thickness (DT) on thorax computed tomography (CT) at intensive care unit (ICU) admission for predicting intubation requirement and mortality among COVID-19 patients. METHODS: This study was carried out in Ankara City Hospital, Ankara, Turkey, from September 2020 to January 2021, with 94 critical COVID-19 patients. The patients' demographic characteristics, laboratory parameters, DT measurements, mechanical ventilation (MV) requirements, and mortality statuses were retrospectively screened. The relationships between DT on initial CT, MV requirement, and mortality were investigated. RESULTS: Diaphragm thickness was lower in patients who required intubation after ICU admission than in non-intubated patients (p=0.006); it was also lower in non-survivors (p=0.009). The threshold values for MV need was 3.35 mm (p=0.004) and 3.275 mm for mortality (p=0.006), according to the receiver operating characteristic analysis used to assess the predictive potential of DT. The non-survivor group had a greater neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (p=0.026). Absolute neutrophil count (p=0.017), neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (p=0.010), and interleukin-6 levels (p=0.027) were higher among patients requiring MV than among non-intubated patients. CONCLUSION: Mortality and MV requirements can be predicted from DT measurements. Diaphragm thickness can facilitate the identification of high-risk patients on CT evaluation at ICU admission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Diaphragm/diagnostic imaging , Retrospective Studies , Interleukin-6 , Intubation, Intratracheal/adverse effects , Thorax
14.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0276420, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2079767

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to describe how video laryngoscopy is used outside the operating room within the hospital setting. Specifically, we aimed to summarise the evidence for the use of video laryngoscopy outside the operating room, and detail how it appears in current clinical practice guidelines. A literature search was conducted across two databases (MEDLINE and Embase), and all articles underwent screening for relevance to our aims and pre-determined exclusion criteria. Our results include 14 clinical practice guidelines, 12 interventional studies, 38 observational studies. Our results show that video laryngoscopy is likely to improve glottic view and decrease the incidence of oesophageal intubations; however, it remains unclear as to how this contributes to first-pass success, overall intubation success and clinical outcomes such as mortality outside the operating room. Furthermore, our results indicate that the appearance of video laryngoscopy in clinical practice guidelines has increased in recent years, and particularly through the COVID-19 pandemic. Current COVID-19 airway management guidelines unanimously introduce video laryngoscopy as a first-line (rather than rescue) device.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Laryngoscopes , Humans , Laryngoscopy/methods , Operating Rooms , Intubation, Intratracheal/methods , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Video Recording
15.
J Nanobiotechnology ; 20(1): 112, 2022 Mar 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1717964

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The endotracheal tube (ETT) is an essential medical device to secure the airway patency in patients undergoing mechanical ventilation or general anesthesia. However, long-term intubation eventually leads to complete occlusion, ETTs potentiate biofilm-related infections, such as ventilator-associated pneumonia. ETTs are mainly composed of medical polyvinyl chloride (PVC), which adheres to microorganisms to form biofilms. Thus, a simple and efficient method was developed to fabricate CS-AgNPs@PAAm-Gelatin nanocomposite coating to achieve dual antibacterial and antifouling effects. RESULTS: The PAAm-Gelatin (PAAm = polyacrylamide) molecular chain gel has an interpenetrating network with a good hydrophilicity and formed strong covalent bonds with PVC-ETTs, wherein silver nanoparticles were used as antibacterial agents. The CS-AgNPs@PAAm-Gelatin coating showed great resistance and antibacterial effects against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Its antifouling ability was tested using cell, protein, and platelet adhesion assays. Additionally, both properties were comprehensively evaluated using an artificial broncho-lung model in vitro and a porcine mechanical ventilation model in vivo. These remarkable results were further confirmed that the CS-AgNPs@PAAm-Gelatin coating exhibited an excellent antibacterial capacity, an excellent stain resistance, and a good biocompatibility. CONCLUSIONS: The CS-AgNPs@PAAm-Gelatin nanocomposite coating effectively prevents the occlusion and biofilm-related infection of PVC-ETTs by enhancing the antibacterial and antifouling properties, and so has great potential for future clinical applications.


Subject(s)
Biofouling , Metal Nanoparticles , Nanocomposites , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated , Animals , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Biofilms , Biofouling/prevention & control , Humans , Intubation, Intratracheal , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated/microbiology , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated/prevention & control , Silver/pharmacology , Swine
16.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0274571, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2054344

ABSTRACT

MAIN OBJECTIVE: There is limited information on how patient outcomes have changed during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study characterizes changes in mortality, intubation, and ICU admission rates during the first 20 months of the pandemic. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: University of Wisconsin researchers collected and harmonized electronic health record data from 1.1 million COVID-19 patients across 21 United States health systems from February 2020 through September 2021. The analysis comprised data from 104,590 adult hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Inclusion criteria for the analysis were: (1) age 18 years or older; (2) COVID-19 ICD-10 diagnosis during hospitalization and/or a positive COVID-19 PCR test in a 14-day window (+/- 7 days of hospital admission); and (3) health system contact prior to COVID-19 hospitalization. Outcomes assessed were: (1) mortality (primary), (2) endotracheal intubation, and (3) ICU admission. RESULTS AND SIGNIFICANCE: The 104,590 hospitalized participants had a mean age of 61.7 years and were 50.4% female, 24% Black, and 56.8% White. Overall risk-standardized mortality (adjusted for age, sex, race, ethnicity, body mass index, insurance status and medical comorbidities) declined from 16% of hospitalized COVID-19 patients (95% CI: 16% to 17%) early in the pandemic (February-April 2020) to 9% (CI: 9% to 10%) later (July-September 2021). Among subpopulations, males (vs. females), those on Medicare (vs. those on commercial insurance), the severely obese (vs. normal weight), and those aged 60 and older (vs. younger individuals) had especially high mortality rates both early and late in the pandemic. ICU admission and intubation rates also declined across these 20 months. CONCLUSIONS: Mortality, intubation, and ICU admission rates improved markedly over the first 20 months of the pandemic among adult hospitalized COVID-19 patients although gains varied by subpopulation. These data provide important information on the course of COVID-19 and identify hospitalized patient groups at heightened risk for negative outcomes. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04506528 (https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04506528).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Intensive Care Units , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Intubation, Intratracheal , Male , Medicare , Middle Aged , Pandemics , United States/epidemiology
17.
J Anesth ; 36(6): 707-714, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2035074

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Studies in adults have reported that video laryngoscope is more useful than direct laryngoscope when training less experienced anesthesiologists. However, whether this is true for infants remains unclear. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate whether the use of video laryngoscope would result in smaller differences in success rate according to anesthesiologists' expertise than those in direct laryngoscope. METHODS: Medical records and video recordings from the operating room of patients aged < 1 year who underwent non-cardiac surgery between March 2019 and September 2021 were reviewed. Tracheal intubations between April 8, 2020, and June 20, 2021, were excluded due to the shortage of video laryngoscope blades during the COVID-19 pandemic. Rates of first-time tracheal intubation success were compared by years of anesthesia experience and initial intubation device. RESULTS: In total, 125 of 175 tracheal intubations were analyzed (direct laryngoscope group, n = 72; video laryngoscope group, n = 53). The first-time tracheal intubation success rate increased with years of experience as an anesthesiologist in the direct laryngoscope group (odds ratio OR 1.70, 95% confidence interval CI 1.15, 2.49; P = 0.0070), but not the video laryngoscope group (OR 0.99, 95% CI 0.74, 1.35; P = 0.99). CONCLUSION: The differences in success rate according to the anesthesiologists' years of experience were non-significant when using video laryngoscope in infants, compared to those in direct laryngoscope.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia , COVID-19 , Laryngoscopes , Adult , Infant , Humans , Pandemics , Laryngoscopy , Intubation, Intratracheal , Video Recording
18.
Kaohsiung J Med Sci ; 38(8): 796-803, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2034917

ABSTRACT

Video laryngoscopy is often selected to assist nasotracheal intubation in allowing better laryngeal visualization, although there is no comparative study evaluating the effectiveness between auxiliary techniques by using Magill forceps and inflated cuff in GlideScope video laryngoscopy for nasotracheal intubation. Fifty-one of 100 patients in a Magill forceps group and 47 of 100 patients in a cuff inflation group were included in the final analysis in this randomized, single-blind, parallel, clinical trial study. Induction agents were routinely administered according to body weight, while intubation time spent, attempts, and related side effects were recorded. Compared to the Magill forceps group, the cuff inflation technique shortened the total intubation time (70.0 ± 24.5 s vs. 87.0 ± 25.0 s, p = 0.001) and the time of advancing the nasotracheal tube from oropharyngeal space into the trachea (25.9 ± 16.4 s vs. 42.3 ± 21.2 s, p < 0.001). However, the number of intubation attempts was not significantly different between groups. During tube advancement, the tube was rotated to accommodate the glottis and trachea more frequently in the cuff inflation group (p = 0.009), but the blade of the laryngoscope shifted and was adjusted to the proper position more frequently in the Magill forceps group (p < 0.001). In the Magill forceps group, the tube cuff might be clipped incidentally and the intubator might shift their gaze away from the screen during intubation, although there was no significant difference in intubation-related side effects between groups. Unlike the conventional approach, nasotracheal intubation with the GlideScope® video laryngoscope using the auxiliary technique of cuff inflation could be more suited than using Magill forceps.


Subject(s)
Laryngoscopes , Humans , Intubation, Intratracheal/methods , Laryngoscopy/methods , Single-Blind Method , Surgical Instruments
19.
Swiss Med Wkly ; 152: w30212, 2022 08 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2030233

ABSTRACT

AIMS OF THE STUDY: Awake prone positioning (aPP) in non-intubated patients with severe SARS-CoV-2-related pneumonia improves oxygenation and reduces the intubation rate, but no early predictors for success or failure of the strategy have been described. The main objective of this study was to assess whether response to the first aPP in terms of PaO2/FiO2, alveolar-arterial gradient (Aa-O2), respiratory rate and PaCO2 could predict the need for intubation. As secondary objective, we assessed the effects of aPP on the same parameters for all the sessions considered together. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of consecutive SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia patients suffering from acute respiratory failure with moderate to severe hypoxaemia for whom aPP was performed for at least 45 minutes based on the prescription of the clinician in charge according to predefined criteria. Respiratory rate, blood gases and oxygenation parameters (PaO2/FiO2 and Aa-O2), before and after the first aPP were compared between patients who were subsequently intubated or not. Effects of all the aPP sessions together were also analysed. RESULTS: One hundred and sixty-six patients were admitted for SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia during the study period. Among them, 50 received aPP lasting at least 45 minutes. Because 17 denied consent for data analysis and 2 were excluded because of a "do not intubate order", 31 patients (for a total of 116 aPP sessions without any severe adverse events reported) were included. Among them, 10 (32.3%) were intubated. Mean age ± standard deviation (SD) was 60 ± 12 years. At ICU admission, respiratory rate was 26 ± 7/minute, median PaO2/FiO2 94 (interquartile range [IQR] 74-116) mm Hg and median Aa-O2 412 (IQR 286-427) mm Hg (markedly increased). Baseline characteristics did not statistically differ between patients who subsequently needed intubation or not. During the first aPP, PaO2/FiO2 increased and Aa-O2 decreased. When comparing patients who later where intubated or not, we observed, in the non intubated group only, a clinically significant decrease in median Aa-O2, from 294 (280-414) to 204 (107-281) mm Hg, corresponding to a 40% (26-56%) reduction, and a PaO2/FiO2 increase, from 103 (84-116) to 162 (138-195), corresponding to an increase of 48% (11-93%). The p value is <0.005 for both. When all the aPP sessions (n = 80) were considered together, aPP was associated with a significant increase in PaO2/FiO2 from 112 (80-132) to 156 (86-183) mm Hg (p <0.001) and Aa-O2 decrease from 304 (244-418) to 224 (148-361) mm Hg (p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Awake pronation in spontaneously breathing patients is feasible, and improves PaO2/FiO2 and Aa-O2. Response to the first session seems to be associated with lower intubation rate.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Respiratory Insufficiency , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Hypoxia/complications , Hypoxia/therapy , Intubation, Intratracheal/adverse effects , Prone Position , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Wakefulness
20.
Ann Intern Med ; 175(9): JC99, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2025313

ABSTRACT

SOURCE CITATION: Alhazzani W, Parhar KK, Weatherald J, et al. Effect of awake prone positioning on endotracheal intubation in patients with COVID-19 and acute respiratory failure: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2022;327:2104-13. 35569448.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Insufficiency , Humans , Hypoxia/therapy , Intubation, Intratracheal , Patient Positioning , Prone Position , Wakefulness
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