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1.
Swiss Med Wkly ; 152: w30212, 2022 08 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2202462

ABSTRACT

AIMS OF THE STUDY: Awake prone positioning (aPP) in non-intubated patients with severe SARS-CoV-2-related pneumonia improves oxygenation and reduces the intubation rate, but no early predictors for success or failure of the strategy have been described. The main objective of this study was to assess whether response to the first aPP in terms of PaO2/FiO2, alveolar-arterial gradient (Aa-O2), respiratory rate and PaCO2 could predict the need for intubation. As secondary objective, we assessed the effects of aPP on the same parameters for all the sessions considered together. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of consecutive SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia patients suffering from acute respiratory failure with moderate to severe hypoxaemia for whom aPP was performed for at least 45 minutes based on the prescription of the clinician in charge according to predefined criteria. Respiratory rate, blood gases and oxygenation parameters (PaO2/FiO2 and Aa-O2), before and after the first aPP were compared between patients who were subsequently intubated or not. Effects of all the aPP sessions together were also analysed. RESULTS: One hundred and sixty-six patients were admitted for SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia during the study period. Among them, 50 received aPP lasting at least 45 minutes. Because 17 denied consent for data analysis and 2 were excluded because of a "do not intubate order", 31 patients (for a total of 116 aPP sessions without any severe adverse events reported) were included. Among them, 10 (32.3%) were intubated. Mean age ± standard deviation (SD) was 60 ± 12 years. At ICU admission, respiratory rate was 26 ± 7/minute, median PaO2/FiO2 94 (interquartile range [IQR] 74-116) mm Hg and median Aa-O2 412 (IQR 286-427) mm Hg (markedly increased). Baseline characteristics did not statistically differ between patients who subsequently needed intubation or not. During the first aPP, PaO2/FiO2 increased and Aa-O2 decreased. When comparing patients who later where intubated or not, we observed, in the non intubated group only, a clinically significant decrease in median Aa-O2, from 294 (280-414) to 204 (107-281) mm Hg, corresponding to a 40% (26-56%) reduction, and a PaO2/FiO2 increase, from 103 (84-116) to 162 (138-195), corresponding to an increase of 48% (11-93%). The p value is <0.005 for both. When all the aPP sessions (n = 80) were considered together, aPP was associated with a significant increase in PaO2/FiO2 from 112 (80-132) to 156 (86-183) mm Hg (p <0.001) and Aa-O2 decrease from 304 (244-418) to 224 (148-361) mm Hg (p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Awake pronation in spontaneously breathing patients is feasible, and improves PaO2/FiO2 and Aa-O2. Response to the first session seems to be associated with lower intubation rate.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Respiratory Insufficiency , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Hypoxia/complications , Hypoxia/therapy , Intubation, Intratracheal/adverse effects , Prone Position , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Wakefulness
2.
Anesthesiology ; 134(1): 61-71, 2021 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2161186

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Disease severity in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may be associated with inoculation dose. This has triggered interest in intubation barrier devices to block droplet exposure; however, aerosol protection with these devices is not known. This study hypothesized that barrier devices reduce aerosol outside of the barrier. METHODS: Aerosol containment in closed, semiclosed, semiopen, and open barrier devices was investigated: (1) "glove box" sealed with gloves and caudal drape, (2) "drape tent" with a drape placed over a frame, (3) "slit box" with armholes and caudal end covered by vinyl slit diaphragms, (4) original "aerosol box," (5) collapsible "interlocking box," (6) "simple drape" over the patient, and (7) "no barrier." Containment was investigated by (1) vapor instillation at manikin's right arm with video-assisted visual evaluation and (2) submicrometer ammonium sulfate aerosol particles ejected through the manikin's mouth with ventilation and coughs. Samples were taken from standardized locations inside and around the barriers using a particle counter and a mass spectrometer. Aerosol evacuation from the devices was measured using standard hospital suction, a surgical smoke evacuator, and a Shop-Vac. RESULTS: Vapor experiments demonstrated leakage via arm holes and edges. Only closed and semiclosed devices and the aerosol box reduced aerosol particle counts (median [25th, 75th percentile]) at the operator's mouth compared to no barrier (combined median 29 [-11, 56], n = 5 vs. 157 [151, 166], n = 5). The other barrier devices provided less reduction in particle counts (133 [128, 137], n = 5). Aerosol evacuation to baseline required 15 min with standard suction and the Shop-Vac and 5 min with a smoke evacuator. CONCLUSIONS: Barrier devices may reduce exposure to droplets and aerosol. With meticulous tucking, the glove box and drape tent can retain aerosol during airway management. Devices that are not fully enclosed may direct aerosol toward the laryngoscopist. Aerosol evacuation reduces aerosol content inside fully enclosed devices. Barrier devices must be used in conjunction with body-worn personal protective equipment.


Subject(s)
Aerosols/analysis , COVID-19/prevention & control , Occupational Exposure/analysis , Occupational Exposure/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment , Aerosols/adverse effects , Cough/prevention & control , Cough/virology , Health Personnel , Humans , Intubation, Intratracheal/adverse effects
3.
JBJS Case Connect ; 11(1)2021 03 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2115210

ABSTRACT

CASE: We describe a preliminary report of 3 cases of ulnar neuropathy after coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection and treatment with intermittent prone positioning. CONCLUSION: Ulnar neuropathy may be associated with recent COVID-19 infection. The natural process of the disease and intermittent prone positioning are likely risk factors contributing to this finding. Conservative management seems to lead to improvement of symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Intubation, Intratracheal/adverse effects , Patient Positioning/adverse effects , Prone Position , Ulnar Neuropathies/etiology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Crit Care ; 26(1): 338, 2022 11 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2108872

ABSTRACT

We conducted a proof of concept study where Anapnoguard endotracheal tubes and its control unit were used in 15 patients with COVID-19 acute respiratory distress syndrome. Anapnoguard system provides suction, venting, rinsing of subglottic space and controls cuff pressure detecting air leakage through the cuff. Alpha-amylase and pepsin levels, as oropharyngeal and gastric microaspiration markers, were assessed from 85 tracheal aspirates in the first 72 h after connection to the system. Oropharyngeal microaspiration occurred in 47 cases (55%). Episodes of gastric microaspiration were not detected. Patient positioning, either prone or supine, did not affect alpha-amylase and pepsin concentration in tracheal secretions. Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) rate was 40%. The use of the AG system provided effective cuff pressure control and subglottic secretions drainage. Despite this, no reduction in the incidence of VAP has been demonstrated, compared to data reported in the current COVID-19 literature. The value of this new technology is worth of being evaluated for the prevention of ventilator-associated respiratory tract infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Pepsin A , Pronation , Equipment Design , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated/etiology , Intubation, Intratracheal/adverse effects , alpha-Amylases
6.
Saudi Med J ; 43(10): 1120-1127, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2081103

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the value of measuring the diaphragm thickness (DT) on thorax computed tomography (CT) at intensive care unit (ICU) admission for predicting intubation requirement and mortality among COVID-19 patients. METHODS: This study was carried out in Ankara City Hospital, Ankara, Turkey, from September 2020 to January 2021, with 94 critical COVID-19 patients. The patients' demographic characteristics, laboratory parameters, DT measurements, mechanical ventilation (MV) requirements, and mortality statuses were retrospectively screened. The relationships between DT on initial CT, MV requirement, and mortality were investigated. RESULTS: Diaphragm thickness was lower in patients who required intubation after ICU admission than in non-intubated patients (p=0.006); it was also lower in non-survivors (p=0.009). The threshold values for MV need was 3.35 mm (p=0.004) and 3.275 mm for mortality (p=0.006), according to the receiver operating characteristic analysis used to assess the predictive potential of DT. The non-survivor group had a greater neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (p=0.026). Absolute neutrophil count (p=0.017), neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (p=0.010), and interleukin-6 levels (p=0.027) were higher among patients requiring MV than among non-intubated patients. CONCLUSION: Mortality and MV requirements can be predicted from DT measurements. Diaphragm thickness can facilitate the identification of high-risk patients on CT evaluation at ICU admission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Diaphragm/diagnostic imaging , Retrospective Studies , Interleukin-6 , Intubation, Intratracheal/adverse effects , Thorax
7.
Br J Hosp Med (Lond) ; 83(7): 1-3, 2022 Jul 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1988542

ABSTRACT

While previously reserved for use in patients with difficult airways or for trainee education, videolaryngoscopy has come to the forefront of anaesthesia after its use as first line in the intubation of all patients with suspected or confirmed COVID-19. This article examines its suitability for routine first line use in all intubations.


Subject(s)
Anesthesiology , COVID-19 , Laryngoscopes , Humans , Intubation, Intratracheal/adverse effects , Laryngoscopy
8.
Rev Bras Ter Intensiva ; 34(1): 131-140, 2022.
Article in Portuguese, English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1988377

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the incidence of risk factors for postintubation hypotension in critically ill patients with COVID-19. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of 141 patients with COVID-19 who were intubated in the intensive care unit. Postintubation hypotension was defined as the need for any vasopressor dose at any time within the 60 minutes following intubation. Patients with intubation-related cardiac arrest and hypotension before intubation were excluded from the study. RESULTS: Of the 141 included patients, 53 patients (37.5%) had postintubation hypotension, and 43.6% of the patients (n = 17) were female. The median age of the postintubation hypotension group was 75.0 (interquartile range: 67.0 - 84.0). In the multivariate analysis, shock index ≥ 0.90 (OR = 7.76; 95%CI 3.14 - 19.21; p < 0.001), albumin levels < 2.92g/dL (OR = 3.65; 95%CI 1.49 - 8.96; p = 0.005), and procalcitonin levels (OR = 1.07, 95%CI 1.01 - 1.15; p = 0.045) were independent risk factors for postintubation hypotension. Hospital mortality was similar in patients with postintubation hypotension and patients without postintubation hypotension (92.5% versus 85.2%; p = 0.29). CONCLUSION: The incidence of postintubation hypotension was 37.5% in critically ill COVID-19 patients. A shock index ≥ 0.90 and albumin levels < 2.92g/dL were independently associated with postintubation hypotension. Furthermore, a shock index ≥ 0.90 may be a practical tool to predict the increased risk of postintubation hypotension in bedside scenarios before endotracheal intubation. In this study, postintubation hypotension was not associated with increased hospital mortality in COVID-19 patients.


OBJETIVO: Avaliar a incidência de fatores de risco para hipotensão pósintubação em pacientes críticos com COVID-19. METÓDOS: Foi realizado um estudo retrospectivo com 141 pacientes com COVID-19 que foram intubados na unidade de terapia intensiva. Hipotensão pós-intubação foi definida como a necessidade de qualquer dose de vasopressor a qualquer momento em até 60 minutos após a intubação. Pacientes com parada cardiorrespiratória relacionada à intubação e hipotensão antes da intubação foram excluídos do estudo. RESULTADOS: Dos 141 pacientes incluídos, 53 pacientes (37,5%) e 43,6% dos pacientes (n = 17) eram do sexo feminino. A idade mediana do grupo com hipotensão pós-intubação foi de 75 anos (amplitude interquartil: 67,0 - 84,0). Na análise multivariada, índice de choque ≥ 0,90 (RC = 7,76; IC95% 3,14 - 19,21; p < 0,001), níveis de albumina < 2,92g/dL (RC = 3,65; IC95% 1,49 - 8,96; p = 0,005) e níveis de procalcitonina (RC = 1,07, IC95% 1,01 - 1,15; p = 0,045) foram fatores de risco independentes para hipotensão pós-intubação. A mortalidade hospitalar foi semelhante em pacientes com hipotensão pós-intubação e pacientes sem hipotensão pós-intubação (92,5% versus 85,2%; p = 0,29). CONCLUSÃO: A incidência de hipotensão pós-intubação foi de 37,5% em pacientes críticos com COVID-19. Um índice de choque ≥ 0,90 e níveis de albumina < 2,92g/ dL foram independentemente associados à hipotensão pós-intubação. Além disso, índice de choque ≥ 0,90 pode ser uma ferramenta do leito antes da intubação endotraqueal. Neste estudo, a hipotensão pós-intubação não esteve associada ao aumento da mortalidade hospitalar em pacientes com COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypotension , Shock , Albumins , COVID-19/complications , Critical Illness , Female , Humans , Hypotension/epidemiology , Hypotension/etiology , Incidence , Intubation, Intratracheal/adverse effects , Male , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Shock/etiology
9.
Am J Otolaryngol ; 43(5): 103522, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1944083

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is associated with severe acute respiratory illness, often requiring intensive care unit admission. Some patients require prolonged intubation and mechanical ventilation. Post-intubation laryngotracheal stenosis occurs in approximately four to 13 % of adult patients after prolonged intubation in the absence of COVID-19 infection. The rate of COVID-19 related post-intubation laryngotracheal stenosis may be higher. Of 339 pregnant patients with COVID-19, we identified seven who required intubation and mechanical ventilation. Four of the seven developed persistent airway complications, and laryngotracheal stenosis, the most severe, was present in three. Each patient had variations in duration of intubation, endotracheal tube size, re-intubation, presence of superimposed infections, and pre-existing comorbidities. We speculate that underlying physiologic changes of pregnancy in addition to the increased inflammatory state caused by COVID-19 are associated with an increased risk of post-intubation laryngotracheal stenosis. Otolaryngology physicians should have a low threshold for considering this pathophysiology when consulting on obstetric patients who have previously been intubated with COVID-19. Otolaryngologists can educate obstetricians when caring for pregnant patients who have laryngotracheal stenosis, especially those who may require emergency airway management for obstetric indications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Laryngostenosis , Tracheal Stenosis , Adult , Constriction, Pathologic , Female , Humans , Intubation, Intratracheal/adverse effects , Laryngostenosis/etiology , Laryngostenosis/therapy , Pregnancy , Tracheal Stenosis/etiology , Tracheal Stenosis/therapy
10.
J Stomatol Oral Maxillofac Surg ; 123(6): e631-e638, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1914709

ABSTRACT

PURPOSES: To estimate and identify predictors of craniomandibular disorders (CMDs) in severe COVID-19 survivors after prolonged intubation ≥ 1 week (SCOVIDS-PI). METHODS: This retrospective study enrolled two cohorts of SCOVIDS-PIs with vs. without CMD during a one-year period. The predictor variables were demographic, dental, anesthetic, and laboratory parameters. The main outcome was presence of CMD until six post-PI months (yes/no). Appropriate statistics were computed with α = 95%. RESULTS: The sample comprised 176 subjects aged 59.2 ± 17.2 years (range, 27-89; 11.9% with CMDs; 30.1% females). CMDs were significantly associated with (1) bilateral posterior tooth loss (P = 0; number needed to screen [NNS] = 1.6), (2) dentofacial skeletal class II/convex face (P = .01; NNS = 2.2), and (3) peak CRP during intensive care ≥ 40 mg/l (P = .01; NNS = 3.5). With combined predictors, NNS became 2 to 4.3. CONCLUSIONS: Three predictors of CMDs in SCOVIDS-PIs: bilateral molar loss, convex face, and CRP ≥ 40 mg/l, indicate CMD screening and/or referral to a CMD specialist, regardless of patients' age, gender, underlying CMDs, or previous dental checkups. Screening ∼2 to 4 "SCOVIDS-PIs with ≥ one predictor" will identify one CMD events/patients during the first six post-PI months.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Craniomandibular Disorders , Female , Humans , Male , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Intubation, Intratracheal/adverse effects , Survivors
11.
Crit Care ; 26(1): 189, 2022 06 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1910344

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Awake prone positioning (APP) reduces the intubation rate in COVID-19 patients treated by high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC). However, the lung aeration response to APP has not been addressed. We aimed to explore the lung aeration response to APP by lung ultrasound (LUS). METHODS: This two-center, prospective, observational study enrolled patients with COVID-19-induced acute hypoxemic respiratory failure treated by HFNC and APP. LUS score was recorded 5-10 min before, 1 h after APP, and 5-10 min after supine in the first APP session within the first three days. The primary outcome was LUS score changes in the first three days. Secondary outcomes included changes in SpO2/FiO2 ratio, respiratory rate and ROX index (SpO2/FiO2/respiratory rate) related to APP, and the rate of treatment success (patients who avoided intubation). RESULTS: Seventy-one patients were enrolled. LUS score decreased from 20 (interquartile range [IQR] 19-24) to 19 (18-21) (p < 0.001) after the first APP session, and to 19 (18-21) (p < 0.001) after three days. Compared to patients with treatment failure (n = 20, 28%), LUS score reduction after the first three days in patients with treatment success (n = 51) was greater (- 2.6 [95% confidence intervals - 3.1 to - 2.0] vs 0 [- 1.2 to 1.2], p = 0.001). A decrease in dorsal LUS score > 1 after the first APP session was associated with decreased risk for intubation (Relative risk 0.25 [0.09-0.69]). APP daily duration was correlated with LUS score reduction in patients with treatment success, especially in dorsal lung zones (r = - 0.76; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure due to COVID-19 and treated by HFNC, APP reduced LUS score. The reduction in dorsal LUS scores after APP was associated with treatment success. The longer duration on APP was correlated with greater lung aeration. Trial registration This study was prospectively registered on clinicaltrials.gov on April 22, 2021. Identification number NCT04855162 .


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Insufficiency , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Intubation, Intratracheal/adverse effects , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Prone Position/physiology , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Wakefulness
12.
Respir Care ; 67(10): 1291-1299, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1903686

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Timing of intubation in COVID-19 is controversial. We sought to determine the association of the ROX (Respiratory rate-OXygenation) index defined as [Formula: see text] divided by [Formula: see text] divided by breathing frequency at the time of intubation with clinical outcomes. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients with COVID-19 who were intubated by using a database composed of electronic health record data from patients with COVID-19 from 62 institutions. Multivariable logistic regression was used to evaluate the impact of ROX index score on mortality. We analyzed the ROX index as a continuous variable as well as a categorical variable by using cutoffs previously described as predicting success with high-flow nasal cannula. RESULTS: Of 1,087 subjects in the analysis group, the median age was 64 years, and more than half had diabetes; 55.2% died, 1.8% were discharged to hospice, 7.8% were discharged to home, 27.3% were discharged to another institution, and 7.8% had another disposition. Increasing age and a longer time from admission to intubation were associated with mortality. After adjusting for sex, race, age, comorbidities, and days from admission to intubation, an increasing ROX index score at the time of intubation was associated with a lower risk of death. In a logistic regression model, each increase in the ROX index score by 1 at the time of intubation was associated with an 8% reduction in odds of mortality (odds ratio 0.92, 95% CI 0.88-0.95). We also found an odds ratio for death of 0.62 (95% CI 0.47-0.81) for subjects with an ROX index score ≥ 4.88 at the time of intubation. CONCLUSIONS: Among a cohort of subjects with COVID-19 who were ultimately intubated, a higher ROX index at the time of intubation was positively associated with survival.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Blood Gas Analysis , Cannula , Humans , Intubation, Intratracheal/adverse effects , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies
14.
Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital ; 42(2): 99-105, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1865660

ABSTRACT

Objective: The COVID-19 pandemic was an extraordinary challenge for the global healthcare system not only for the number of patients affected by pulmonary disease, but also for the incidence of long-term sequalae. In this regard, laryngo-tracheal stenosis (LTS) represents one of the most common complications of invasive ventilation. Methods: A case series of patients who underwent tracheal resection and anastomosis (TRA) for post-COVID-19 LTS was collected from June 2020 to September 2021. Results: Among 14 patients included, 50% had diabetes and 64.3% were obese. During intensive care unit stay, mean duration of orotracheal intubation (OTI) was 15.2 days and 10 patients (71.4%) underwent tracheostomy, which was maintained in 7 for an average of 31 days. According to the European Laryngological Society classification, 13 patients (92.9%) had a grade IIIa LTS and one a grade IIIa+. All patients underwent Type A TRA, according to the authors' classification. No major perioperative complications were reported and at the last follow-up all patients were asymptomatic. Conclusions: With the appropriate indications, TRA represents an effective treatment in post-COVID-19 LTS patients. Short OTI times and careful tracheostomy are required in order to reduce the incidence of airway injury.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Tracheal Stenosis , Anastomosis, Surgical , Constriction, Pathologic/surgery , Humans , Intubation, Intratracheal/adverse effects , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Tracheal Stenosis/epidemiology , Tracheal Stenosis/etiology , Tracheal Stenosis/surgery , Tracheostomy/adverse effects , Treatment Outcome
16.
J Crit Care ; 71: 154062, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1851453

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Optimal timing of intubation is controversial. We attempted to investigate the association between timing of intubation and clinical outcomes of critically ill patients. METHODS: PubMed was systematically searched for studies reporting on mortality of critically ill patients undergoing early versus late intubation. Studies involving patients with new coronavirus disease (COVID-19) were excluded because a relevant meta-analysis has been published. "Early" intubation was defined according to the authors of the included studies. All-cause mortality was the primary outcome. Pooled risk ratio (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using a random effects model. The meta-analysis was registered with PROSPERO (CRD42021284850). RESULTS: In total, 27 studies involving 15,441 intubated patients (11,943 early, 3498 late) were included. All-cause mortality was lower in patients undergoing early versus late intubation (7338 deaths; 45.8% versus 53.5%; RR 0.92, 95% CI 0.87-0.97; p = 0.001). This was also the case in the sensitivity analysis of studies defining "early" as intubation within 24 h from admission in the intensive care unit (6279 deaths; 45.8% versus 53.6%; RR 0.93, 95% CI 0.89-0.98; p = 0.005). CONCLUSION: Avoiding late intubation may be associated with lower mortality in critically ill patients without COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Critical Illness , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Intubation, Intratracheal/adverse effects
17.
Eur J Anaesthesiol ; 39(5): 463-472, 2022 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1806662

ABSTRACT

Tracheal intubation is among the most commonly performed and high-risk procedures in critical care. Indeed, 45% of patients undergoing intubation experience at least one major peri-intubation adverse event, with cardiovascular instability being the most common event reported in 43%, followed by severe hypoxemia in 9% and cardiac arrest in 3% of cases. These peri-intubation adverse events may expose patients to a higher risk of 28-day mortality, and they are more frequently observed with an increasing number of attempts to secure the airway. The higher risk of peri-intubation complications in critically ill patients, compared with the anaesthesia setting, is the consequence of their deranged physiology (e.g. underlying respiratory failure, shock and/or acidosis) and, in this regard, airway management in critical care has been defined as "physiologically difficult". In recent years, several randomised studies have investigated the most effective preoxy-genation strategies, and evidence for the use of positive pressure ventilation in moderate-to-severe hypoxemic patients is established. On the other hand, evidence on interventions to mitigate haemodynamic collapse after intubation has been elusive. Airway management in COVID-19 patients is even more challenging because of the additional risk of infection for healthcare workers, which has influenced clinical choices in this patient group. The aim of this review is to provide an update of the evidence for intubation in critically ill patients with a focus on understanding peri-intubation risks and evaluating interventions to prevent or mitigate adverse events.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Insufficiency , Airway Management/adverse effects , Critical Illness/therapy , Humans , Intubation, Intratracheal/adverse effects , Intubation, Intratracheal/methods
18.
Respir Care ; 67(4): 471-479, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1766057

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Awake prone positioning (APP) has been recently proposed as an adjunctive treatment for non-intubated coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients requiring oxygen therapy to improve oxygenation and reduce the risk of intubation. However, the magnitude of the effect of APP on clinical outcomes in these patients remains uncertain. We performed a comparative systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the effectiveness of APP to improve the clinical outcomes in non-intubated subjects with COVID-19. METHODS: The primary outcomes were the need for endotracheal intubation and mortality. The secondary outcome was hospital length of stay. Pooled risk ratio (RR) and mean difference with the corresponding 95% CI were obtained by the Mantel-Haenszel method within a random-effect model. RESULTS: A total of 14 studies (5 randomized controlled trials [RCTs] and 9 observational studies) involving 3,324 subjects (1,495 received APP and 1,829 did not) were included. There was a significant reduction in the mortality rate in APP group compared to control (RR 0.68 [95% CI 0.51-0.90]; P = .008, I2 = 52%) with no significant effect on intubation (RR 0.85 [95% CI 0.66-1.08]; P = .17, I2 = 63%) or hospital length of stay (mean difference -3.09 d [95% CI-10.14-3.96]; P = .39, I2 = 97%). Subgroup analysis of RCTs showed significant reduction in intubation rate (RR 0.83 [95% CI 0.72-0.97]; P = .02, I2 = 0%). CONCLUSIONS: APP has the potential to reduce the in-hospital mortality rate in COVID-19 subjects with hypoxemia without a significant effect on the need for intubation or length of hospital stay. However, there was a significant decrease in the need for intubation on subgroup analysis of RCTs. More large-scale trials with a standardized protocol for prone positioning are needed to better evaluate its effectiveness in this select population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Intubation, Intratracheal/adverse effects , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/methods , Patient Positioning/methods , Prone Position
19.
Respir Care ; 67(6): 638-646, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1761000

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, 60-80% of patients admitted to ICU require mechanical ventilation for respiratory distress. We aimed to compare the frequency of postextubation stridor (PES) and to explore risk factors in COVID-19 subjects compared to those without COVID-19. METHODS: We performed an observational retrospective study on subjects admitted for severe COVID-19 requiring mechanical ventilation > 48 h during the first and second waves in 2020 and compared these subjects to historical controls without COVID-19 who received mechanical ventilation > 48 h between 2016-2019. The primary outcome was the frequency of PES, defined as audible stridor within 2 h following extubation. RESULTS: Of the 134 subjects admitted with severe COVID-19 requiring mechanical ventilation, 96 were extubated and included and compared to 211 controls. The frequency of PES was 22.9% in the COVID-19 subjects and 3.8% in the controls (P < .001). Factors independently associated with PES were having COVID-19 (odds ratio 3.72, [95% CI 1.24-12.14], P = .02), female sex (odds ratio 5.77 [95% CI 2.30-15.64], P < .001), and tube mobilization or re-intubation or prone positioning (odds ratio 3.01 [95% CI 1.04-9.44], P = .047) after adjustment on Simplified Acute Physiology Score II expanded). During the first wave, PES was significantly more common in subjects with a positive SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR test on tracheal samples on the day of extubation (73.3% vs 24.3%, P = .018). CONCLUSIONS: PES affected nearly one-quarter of subjects with COVID-19, a proportion significantly higher than that seen in controls. Independent risk factors for PES were COVID-19, female sex, and tube mobilization or re-intubation or prone positioning. PES was associated with persistent viral shedding at the time of extubation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Intubation, Intratracheal , Respiratory Sounds , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Humans , Intubation, Intratracheal/adverse effects , Male , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Sounds/etiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
20.
Adv Skin Wound Care ; 35(4): 202-212, 2022 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1752184

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe trends and risk factors for pressure injuries (PIs) in adult critical care patients proned to alleviate acute respiratory distress syndrome secondary to COVID-19 and examine the effectiveness of products and strategies used to mitigate PIs. METHODS: The authors conducted a retrospective chart review between April 9 and June 8, 2020. Demographic data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Differences between groups with and without PIs were analyzed. RESULTS: Among 147 patients, significant PI risk factors included male sex (P = .019), high body mass index (>40 kg/m2; P = .020), low Braden Scale score (<12; P = .018), and low-dose vasopressor therapy (P = .020). Taping endotracheal tubes (ETTs) caused significantly fewer facial PIs than commercial ETT holders (P < .0001). Maximum prone duration/session was a significant risk factor for anterior PIs (P = .016), which dropped 71% with newer pressure redistribution products. d-Dimer greater than 3,200 µg/mL (P = .042) was a significant risk factor for sacrococcygeal PIs while supine. Mortality was 30%; significant risk factors included age older than 60 years (P = .005), Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score greater than 11 (P = .003), and comorbid congestive heart failure (P = .016). CONCLUSIONS: Taping the ETT, limiting the maximum duration of prone positioning to less than 32 hours, and frequent repositioning while supine may reduce the number of modifiable risk factors for PIs. Standardized methods for testing products for PI prevention will inform individualized patient care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Adult , Critical Care/methods , Humans , Intubation, Intratracheal/adverse effects , Male , Middle Aged , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Retrospective Studies
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