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1.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 1901772, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440845

ABSTRACT

Background: Although vaccine rollout for COVID-19 has been effective in some countries, there is still an urgent need to reduce disease transmission and severity. We recently carried out a meta-analysis and found that pre- and in-hospital use of statins may improve COVID-19 mortality outcomes. Here, we provide an updated meta-analysis in an attempt to validate these results and increase the statistical power of these potentially important findings. Methods: The meta-analysis investigated the effect of observational and randomized clinical studies on intensive care unit (ICU) admission, tracheal intubation, and death outcomes in COVID-19 cases involving statin treatment, by searching the scientific literature up to April 23, 2021. Statistical analysis and random effect modeling were performed to assess the combined effects of the updated and previous findings on the outcome measures. Findings. The updated literature search led to the identification of 23 additional studies on statin use in COVID-19 patients. Analysis of the combined studies (n = 47; 3,238,508 subjects) showed no significant effect of statin treatment on ICU admission and all-cause mortality but a significant reduction in tracheal intubation (OR = 0.73, 95% CI: 0.54-0.99, p = 0.04, n = 10 studies). The further analysis showed that death outcomes were significantly reduced in the patients who received statins during hospitalization (OR = 0.54, 95% CI: 0.50-0.58, p < 0.001, n = 7 studies), with no such effect of statin therapy before hospital admission (OR = 1.06, 95% CI = 0.82-1.37, p = 0.670, n = 29 studies). Conclusion: Taken together, this updated meta-analysis extends and confirms the findings of our previous study, suggesting that in-hospital statin use leads to significant reduction of all-cause mortality in COVID-19 cases. Considering these results, statin therapy during hospitalization, while indicated, should be recommended.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Hospitalization/trends , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Intubation, Intratracheal/trends , COVID-19/mortality , Cause of Death/trends , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Intensive Care Units , Intubation, Intratracheal/statistics & numerical data , Models, Statistical , Observational Studies as Topic , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Survival Analysis , Treatment Outcome
2.
Clin Pharmacol Ther ; 110(6): 1498-1511, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1245382

ABSTRACT

Several medications commonly used for a number of medical conditions share a property of functional inhibition of acid sphingomyelinase (ASM), or FIASMA. Preclinical and clinical evidence suggest that the ASM/ceramide system may be central to severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. We examined the potential usefulness of FIASMA use among patients hospitalized for severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in an observational multicenter study conducted at Greater Paris University hospitals. Of 2,846 adult patients hospitalized for severe COVID-19, 277 (9.7%) were taking an FIASMA medication at the time of their hospital admission. The primary end point was a composite of intubation and/or death. We compared this end point between patients taking vs. not taking an FIASMA medication in time-to-event analyses adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics and medical comorbidities. The primary analysis was a Cox regression model with inverse probability weighting (IPW). Over a mean follow-up of 9.2 days (SD = 12.5), the primary end point occurred in 104 patients (37.5%) receiving an FIASMA medication, and 1,060 patients (41.4%) who did not. Despite being significantly and substantially associated with older age and greater medical severity, FIASMA medication use was significantly associated with reduced likelihood of intubation or death in both crude (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.71, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.58-0.87, P < 0.001) and primary IPW (HR = 0.58, 95%CI = 0.46-0.72, P < 0.001) analyses. This association remained significant in multiple sensitivity analyses and was not specific to one particular FIASMA class or medication. These results show the potential importance of the ASM/ceramide system in COVID-19 and support the continuation of FIASMA medications in these patients. Double-blind controlled randomized clinical trials of these medications for COVID-19 are needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/enzymology , COVID-19/mortality , Hospitalization/trends , Intubation, Intratracheal/mortality , Intubation, Intratracheal/trends , Sphingomyelin Phosphodiesterase/antagonists & inhibitors , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19 Testing/trends , Cohort Studies , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality/trends , Retrospective Studies , Sphingomyelin Phosphodiesterase/metabolism , Young Adult
3.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(8): 105806, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1171234

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has strained the healthcare systems across the world but its impact on acute stroke care is just being elucidated. We hypothesized a major global impact of COVID-19 not only on stroke volumes but also on various aspects of thrombectomy systems. AIMS: We conducted a convenience electronic survey with a 21-item questionnaire aimed to identify the changes in stroke admission volumes and thrombectomy treatment practices seen during a specified time period of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: The survey was designed using Qualtrics software and sent to stroke and neuro-interventional physicians around the world who are part of the Global Executive Committee (GEC) of Mission Thrombectomy 2020, a global coalition under the aegis of Society of Vascular and Interventional Neurology, between April 5th and May 15th, 2020. RESULTS: There were 113 responses to the survey across 25 countries with a response rate of 31% among the GEC members. Globally there was a median 33% decrease in stroke admissions and a 25% decrease in mechanical thrombectomy (MT) procedures during the COVID-19 pandemic period until May 15th, 2020 compared to pre-pandemic months. The intubation policy for MT procedures during the pandemic was highly variable across participating centers: 44% preferred intubating all patients, including 25% of centers that changed their policy to preferred-intubation (PI) from preferred non-intubation (PNI). On the other hand, 56% centers preferred not intubating patients undergoing MT, which included 27% centers that changed their policy from PI to PNI. There was no significant difference in rate of COVID-19 infection between PI versus PNI centers (p=0.60) or if intubation policy was changed in either direction (p=1.00). Low-volume (<10 stroke/month) compared with high-volume stroke centers (>20 strokes/month) were less likely to have neurointerventional suite specific written personal protective equipment protocols (74% vs 88%) and if present, these centers were more likely to report them to be inadequate (58% vs 92%). CONCLUSION: Our data provides a comprehensive snapshot of the impact on acute stroke care observed worldwide during the pandemic. Overall, respondents reported decreased stroke admissions as well as decreased cases of MT with no clear preponderance in intubation policy during MT. DATA ACCESS STATEMENT: The corresponding author will consider requests for sharing survey data. The study was exempt from institutional review board approval as it did not involve patient level data.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Global Health/trends , Healthcare Disparities/trends , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/trends , Stroke/therapy , Thrombectomy/trends , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Care Surveys , Hospitals, High-Volume/trends , Hospitals, Low-Volume/trends , Humans , Infection Control/trends , Intubation, Intratracheal/trends , Patient Admission/trends , Stroke/diagnosis , Time Factors
5.
J Clin Monit Comput ; 35(2): 217-224, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-622276

ABSTRACT

Although 1st and 2nd generation supraglottic airway devices (SADs) have many desirable features, they are nevertheless inserted in a similar 'blind' way as their 1st generation predecessors. Clinicians mostly still rely entirely on subjective indirect assessments to estimate correct placement which supposedly ensures a tight seal. Malpositioning and potential airway compromise occurs in more than half of placements. Vision-guided insertion can improve placement. In this article we propose the development of a 3rd generation supraglottic airway device, equipped with cameras and fiberoptic illumination, to visualise insertion of the device, enable immediate manoeuvres to optimise SAD position, verify whether correct 1st and 2nd seals are achieved and check whether size selected is appropriate. We do not provide technical details of such a '3rd generation' device, but rather present a theoretical analysis of its desirable properties, which are essential to overcome the remaining limitations of current 1st and 2nd generation devices. We also recommend that this further milestone improvement, i.e. ability to place the SAD accurately under direct vision, be eligible for the moniker '3rd generation'. Blind insertion of SADs should become the exception and we anticipate, as in other domains such as central venous cannulation and nerve block insertions, vision-guided placement becoming the gold standard.


Subject(s)
Airway Management/instrumentation , Equipment Design , Glottis , Intubation, Intratracheal/instrumentation , Laryngeal Masks , Airway Management/trends , Fiber Optic Technology , Humans , Intubation, Intratracheal/trends , Vision, Ocular
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