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1.
J Crit Care ; 69: 154004, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1739899

ABSTRACT

An increasing number of studies have tried to determine the incidence of invasive fungal infections (IFIs) in COVID-19 patients. Challenges in the diagnosis of pulmonary aspergillosis in these patients have led to new definitions of COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA). The aim of this study was to determine the incidence and outcomes of and risk factors for IFIs in critically-ill COVID-19 patients, using the new definitions, in a tertiary center in Israel. METHODS: A case-controlled study (from 1 September 2020 to 31 March 2021) in which data from COVID-19 critically-ill patients with a diagnosis of IFI were collected and compared to a control group without IFI. RESULTS: The incidence of IFI amongst 311 COVID-19 critically-ill patients was 6.1%. 3.5% had CAPA and 3.5% had candidemia. In-hospital mortality was higher amongst patients with IFI compared to those without IFI (89.4% vs 60%, p < 0.03). The most significant predictors of IFI were cardiovascular co-morbidity and carbapenem use. CONCLUSIONS: The low incidence of CAPA in our group of COVID-19 critically-ill patients was consistent with recent reports, underscoring the importance of differentiating between true infection and colonization. Awareness and timely diagnosis of IFIs in COVID-19 critically-ill patients are imperative considering the associated high mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Invasive Fungal Infections , Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Critical Illness , Humans , Invasive Fungal Infections/diagnosis , Invasive Fungal Infections/drug therapy , Invasive Fungal Infections/epidemiology , Israel/epidemiology , Tertiary Care Centers
2.
J Laryngol Otol ; 135(5): 442-447, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1637623

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To study the possible association between invasive fungal sinusitis (mucormycosis) and coronavirus disease. METHODS: A prospective observational study was conducted at a tertiary care centre over four months, involving all patients with mucormycosis of the paranasal sinuses suffering from or having a history of coronavirus disease infection. RESULTS: Twenty-three patients presented with mucormycosis, all had an association with coronavirus disease 2019. The ethmoids (100 per cent) were the most common sinuses affected. Intra-orbital extension was seen in 43.47 per cent of cases, while intracranial extension was only seen in 8.69 per cent. Diabetes mellitus was present in 21 of 23 cases, and was uncontrolled in 12 cases. All patients had a history of steroid use during their coronavirus treatment. CONCLUSION: New manifestations of coronavirus disease 2019 are appearing over time. The association between coronavirus and mucormycosis of the paranasal sinuses must be given serious consideration. Uncontrolled diabetes and over-zealous use of steroids are two main factors aggravating the illness, and both of these must be properly checked.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/microbiology , Mucorales/isolation & purification , Mucormycosis/microbiology , Paranasal Sinuses/microbiology , Administration, Intravenous , Antifungal Agents/administration & dosage , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Female , Humans , India/epidemiology , Invasive Fungal Infections/diagnosis , Invasive Fungal Infections/epidemiology , Invasive Fungal Infections/microbiology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Male , Middle Aged , Mucorales/drug effects , Mucormycosis/diagnosis , Mucormycosis/drug therapy , Mucormycosis/etiology , Pandemics , Paranasal Sinuses/diagnostic imaging , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Sinusitis/diagnosis , Sinusitis/microbiology , Steroids/adverse effects , Steroids/therapeutic use
3.
Curr Opin Infect Dis ; 34(6): 573-580, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1507034

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review will comment on the current knowledge for the diagnosis of the main causes of COVID-19-associated invasive fungal disease (IFD); it will discuss the optimal strategies and limitations and wherever available, will describe international recommendations. RECENT FINDINGS: A range of secondary IFDs complicating COVID-19 infection have been described and while COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis was predicted, the presentation of significant numbers of COVID-19-associated candidosis and COVID-19-associated mucormycosis was somewhat unexpected. Given the range of IFDs and prolonged duration of risk, diagnostic strategies need to involve multiple tests for detecting and differentiating various causes of IFD. Although performance data for a range of tests to diagnose COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis is emerging, the performance of tests to diagnose other IFD is unknown or based on pre-COVID performance data. SUMMARY: Because of the vast numbers of COVID-19 infections, IFD in COVID-19 critical-care patients represents a significant burden of disease, even if incidences are less than 5%. Optimal diagnosis of COVID-19-associated IFD requires a strategic approach. The pandemic has highlighted the potential impact of IFD outside of the typical high-risk clinical cohorts, given the ever-increasing population at risk of IFD and enhanced surveillance of fungal infections is required.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Invasive Fungal Infections , Mucormycosis , Mycoses , Humans , Invasive Fungal Infections/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2
4.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 906, 2021 Sep 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455941

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 disease may be associated with a wide range of bacterial and fungal infections. We report a patient with COVID-19 infection who developed rhino-facial mucormycosis during treatment with corticosteroids. CASE PRESENTATION: A 59-year-old non-diabetic male patient was admitted with a diagnosis of COVID-19 based on positive RT-PCR and CT of the lungs. Due to sever lung involvement, he was treated with methylprednisolone. The patient was re-admitted to hospital, due to nasal obstruction and left side facial and orbital swelling, several days after discharge. In sinus endoscopic surgery, debridement was performed and the specimens were sent to pathology and mycology laboratories. A nasal biopsy showed wide hyphae without septa. The sequenced PCR product revealed Rhizopus oryzae. Despite all medical and surgical treatment, the patient died. In addition, the characteristics of patients with COVID-19-associated mucormycosis were reviewed in 44 available literatures. In most studies, diabetes mellitus was the most common predisposing factor for mucormycosis. CONCLUSION: Our report highlights the need for assessing the presence of mucormycosis in patients with COVID-19 and also it shows that physicians should consider the potential for secondary invasive fungal infections in COVID-19 cases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Invasive Fungal Infections , Mucormycosis , Humans , Invasive Fungal Infections/diagnosis , Invasive Fungal Infections/drug therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Mucormycosis/diagnosis , Mucormycosis/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2
5.
J Mycol Med ; 31(4): 101198, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356371

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Data suggests that invasive fungal infections (IFI) might complicate COVID-19. Our goal was to describe characteristics of IFI among critically ill COVID-19 adults. METHODS: A retrospective observational case-series analysis was done between March-July 2020. Consecutive patients with critical COVID-19 were eligible, and have been included when proven or putative/probable IFI could be confirmed during their course. For COVID-19 diagnosis, ECDC definitions and WHO severity criteria were followed. Candidaemia was diagnosed according to the ESCMID 2012 guideline. Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) was defined following EORTC/MSG, ECMM/ISHAM and modified AspICU criteria. Outcome variables were rates of IFIs, in-hospital all-cause mortality, rate and time to negative respiratory SARS-CoV-2 PCR. RESULTS: From 90 eligible patients, 20 (22.2%) fulfilled criteria for IFI. Incidence rate for IFI was 2.02 per 100 patient-days at ICU. Patients were mostly elderly males with significant comorbidities, requiring mechanical ventilation because of ARDS. IFI could be classified as candidaemia in 7/20 (40%), putative/probable IPA in 16/20 (80.0%). Isolated species of candidaemia episodes were Candida albicans (4/9, 44.4%), Candida glabrata (3/9, 33.3%), Candida parapsilosis (1/9, 11.1%), Candida metapsilosis (1/9, 11.1%). Mold isolates from lower respiratory tract were Aspergillus fumigatus, BAL galactomannan positivity was prevalent (16/20, 80.0%). Mortality was 12/20 (60.0%) with a median time to death of 31.0±37.0 (5-89) days. Only 9/20 (45.0%) patients reached SARS-CoV-2 PCR negativity after a median time of 20.0±12.0 (3-38) days. CONCLUSION: In this small cohort of critically ill COVID-19 adults, morbidity and mortality related to invasive fungal infections proved to be significant.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Invasive Fungal Infections , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Candidemia , Critical Illness , Female , Humans , Hungary/epidemiology , Invasive Fungal Infections/diagnosis , Invasive Fungal Infections/epidemiology , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies
6.
Clin Infect Dis ; 72(Suppl 2): S95-S101, 2021 03 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1338678

ABSTRACT

Aspergillus polymerase chain reaction testing of blood and respiratory samples has recently been included in the second revision of the EORTC/MSGERC definitions for classifying invasive fungal disease. This is a result of considerable efforts to standardize methodology, the availability of commercial assays and external quality control programs, and additional clinical validation. This supporting article provides both clinical and technical justifications for its inclusion while also summarizing recent advances and likely future developments in the molecular diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis.


Subject(s)
Aspergillosis , Invasive Fungal Infections , Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Aspergillus/genetics , DNA, Fungal/genetics , Humans , Invasive Fungal Infections/diagnosis , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sensitivity and Specificity
7.
J Clin Microbiol ; 59(9): e0086921, 2021 08 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1288351

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic, there have been increasing reports of invasive fungal disease (IFD) in critical care, where rapid access to (1-3)-ß-d-glucan (BDG) testing may have enhanced diagnosis. The potential benefit of rapidly accessible BDG results is limited by local availability of BDG testing, with low demand resulting in testing being performed in specialist centers. The recent release of the Associates of Cape Cod STAT assay provides a simple, low-throughput BDG platform, potentially increasing accessibility. During the pandemic, BDG testing using the Fungitell assay (FA) was a critical component of screening for IFD in our critical care. The performance of the STAT was retrospectively determined through a case-control study of 107 serum samples from critical-care COVID-19 patients with IFD defined according to international guidelines. The STAT demonstrated excellent qualitative (observed agreement, 97.2%; kappa, 0.94) and quantitative (Spearman's coefficient, 0.8962) agreement with the FA. Sample positivity was greater (P < 0.0001) in samples from cases (67.7%) versus controls (6.1%). Using the manufacturer's threshold (≥1.2), sensitivity and specificity for the detection of proven/probable IFD were 67.9% and 93.9%, respectively. Using a lower positivity threshold of ≥0.87 increased sensitivity to 71.4% without compromising specificity. When the STAT BDG index was >2.86, specificity was 100%. The STAT provides a simple, comparable alternative to the FA for detecting BDG. Sensitivity is moderate, and specificity is excellent for the diagnosis of IFD in the critical-care COVID-19 patient. The potential for enhancing access to BDG testing through the uptake of STAT at centers where FA is not available is beneficial, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Invasive Fungal Infections , beta-Glucans , Case-Control Studies , Critical Care , Humans , Invasive Fungal Infections/diagnosis , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity
8.
Infect Dis Clin North Am ; 35(2): 261-277, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1232974

ABSTRACT

Various uncommon fungal pathogens have been increasingly identified as causes of disseminated and invasive fungal disease (IFD) worldwide. Growing recognition and clinical knowledge of these emerging fungal pathogens has occurred through improved molecular diagnostics, nucleic sequence databases, and taxonomic reclassification of medically significant fungi. However, emerging fungal diseases carry significant morbidity and mortality and, due to a paucity of published literature, the collective clinical experience with these fungi is often limited. In this review, we focus on unusual emerging fungal pathogens not extensively covered elsewhere in this issue of Infectious Diseases Clinics of North America.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases, Emerging , Invasive Fungal Infections , Mycoses , Opportunistic Infections , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/diagnosis , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/drug therapy , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , Fungi , Humans , Invasive Fungal Infections/diagnosis , Invasive Fungal Infections/drug therapy , Invasive Fungal Infections/epidemiology , Mycoses/diagnosis , Mycoses/epidemiology , North America , Opportunistic Infections/diagnosis , Opportunistic Infections/drug therapy , Opportunistic Infections/epidemiology
10.
Dtsch Med Wochenschr ; 146(7): 455-460, 2021 Apr.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1155711

ABSTRACT

Invasive fungal infections are gaining increasing importance in intensive care medicine. The aim of this article is to present an update on recent developments in the field of invasive fungal infection in critically ill patients. Particular emphasis is placed on the recently described invasive mold infections in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome due to influenza or COVID-19. Detecting high-risk patients and the optimal diagnostic and therapeutic strategies play a decisive role to improve outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Influenza, Human/complications , Invasive Fungal Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/complications , Biomarkers , COVID-19/epidemiology , Candidiasis, Invasive/diagnosis , Candidiasis, Invasive/epidemiology , Candidiasis, Invasive/therapy , Humans , Incidence , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Intensive Care Units , Invasive Fungal Infections/diagnosis , Invasive Fungal Infections/therapy , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/complications , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/epidemiology , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology
11.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 203(3): 307-317, 2021 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1041932

ABSTRACT

Rationale: Whether severe coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is a significant risk factor for the development of invasive fungal superinfections is of great medical interest and remains, for now, an open question.Objectives: We aim to assess the occurrence of invasive fungal respiratory superinfections in patients with severe COVID-19.Methods: We conducted the study on patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-related pneumonia admitted to five ICUs in France who had respiratory and serum sampling performed for specific screening of fungal complications.Measurements and Main Results: The study population included a total of 145 patients; the median age was 55 years old. Most of them were male (n = 104; 72%), were overweight (n = 99; 68%), and had hypertension (n = 83; 57%) and diabetes (n = 46; 32%). Few patients presented preexisting host risk factors for invasive fungal infection (n = 20; 14%). Their global severity was high; all patients were on invasive mechanical ventilation, and half (n = 73, 54%) were on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support. Mycological analysis included 2,815 mycological tests (culture, galactomannan, ß-glucan, and PCR) performed on 475 respiratory samples and 532 sera. A probable/putative invasive pulmonary mold infection was diagnosed in 7 (4.8%) patients and linked to high mortality. Multivariate analysis indicates a significantly higher risk for solid organ transplant recipients (odds ratio, = 4.66; interquartile range, 1.98-7.34; P = 0.004). False-positive fungal test and clinically irrelevant colonization, which did not require the initiation of antifungal treatment, was observed in 25 patients (17.2%).Conclusions: In patients with no underlying immunosuppression, severe SARS-CoV-2-related pneumonia seems at low risk of invasive fungal secondary infection, especially aspergillosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Invasive Fungal Infections/epidemiology , Lung Diseases, Fungal/epidemiology , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Female , France , Hospitalization , Humans , Invasive Fungal Infections/diagnosis , Lung Diseases, Fungal/diagnosis , Male , Middle Aged , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
12.
Future Microbiol ; 15: 1405-1413, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-883809

ABSTRACT

As the global COVID-19 pandemic spreads worldwide, new challenges arise in the clinical landscape. The need for reliable diagnostic methods, treatments and vaccines for COVID-19 is the major worldwide urgency. While these goals are especially important, the growing risk of co-infections is a major threat not only to the health systems but also to patients' lives. Although there is still not enough published statistical data, co-infections in COVID-19 patients found that a significant number of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 developed secondary systemic mycoses that led to serious complications and even death. This review will discuss some of these important findings with the major aim to warn the population about the high risk of concomitant systemic mycoses in individuals weakened by COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Mycoses/complications , Opportunistic Infections/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Glucocorticoids/adverse effects , Humans , Invasive Fungal Infections/complications , Invasive Fungal Infections/diagnosis , Invasive Fungal Infections/epidemiology , Invasive Fungal Infections/microbiology , Lung Diseases, Fungal/complications , Lung Diseases, Fungal/diagnosis , Lung Diseases, Fungal/epidemiology , Lung Diseases, Fungal/microbiology , Mycoses/diagnosis , Mycoses/epidemiology , Mycoses/microbiology , Opportunistic Infections/diagnosis , Opportunistic Infections/epidemiology , Opportunistic Infections/microbiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Risk , SARS-CoV-2
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