Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 99
Filter
2.
Acta Med Indones ; 54(2): 292-298, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1929565

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been a worldwide pandemic with several problems, one of which is the lack of definitive treatment. COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA), the presence of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) in COVID-19 patients, is one of the concerning secondary infections associated with higher mortality and worse clinical outcomes. Diagnosing CAPA may be challenging due to the possible absence of classic host factors and clinical symptoms or obscured radiological findings. We described two CAPA cases, which were suspected due to persistent respiratory failure despite standard treatment of COVID-19 with additional therapies and antimicrobial agents for secondary infections, eventually diagnosed with serum galactomannan testing. Clinical conditions of both patients improved significantly after the administration of voriconazole. This case series emphasizes the importance of being aware of clinical suspicions indicating CAPA followed by galactomannan testing as a relatively fast, noninvasive test for its diagnosis, which leads to appropriate antifungal treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Coinfection , Humans , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/virology
4.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(12)2022 06 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1884188

ABSTRACT

Aspergillosis is a disease caused by Aspergillus, and invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is the most common invasive fungal infection leading to death in severely immuno-compromised patients. The literature reports Aspergillus co-infections in patients with COVID-19 (CAPA). Diagnosing CAPA clinically is complex since the symptoms are non-specific, and performing a bronchoscopy is difficult. Generally, the microbiological diagnosis of aspergillosis is based on cultural methods and on searching for the circulating antigens galactomannan and 1,3-ß-D-glucan in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (bGM) or serum (sGM). In this study, to verify whether the COVID-19 period has stimulated clinicians to pay greater attention to IPA in patients with respiratory tract infections, we evaluated the number of requests for GM-Ag research and the number of positive tests found during the pre-COVID-19 and COVID-19 periods. Our data show a significant upward trend in GM-Ag requests and positivity from the pre-COVID to COVID period, which is attributable in particular to the increase in IPA risk factors as a complication of COVID-19. In the COVID period, parallel to the increase in requests, the number of positive tests for GM-Ag also increased, going from 2.5% in the first period of 2020 to 12.3% in the first period of 2021.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Aspergillus , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/complications , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/epidemiology , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/complications , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/epidemiology , Sensitivity and Specificity
5.
Mycoses ; 65(8): 824-833, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1879087

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In the absence of lung biopsy, there are various algorithms for the diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) in critically ill patients that rely on clinical signs, underlying conditions, radiological features and mycology. The aim of the present study was to compare four diagnostic algorithms in their ability to differentiate between probable IPA (i.e., requiring treatment) and colonisation. METHODS: For this diagnostic accuracy study, we included a mixed ICU population with a positive Aspergillus culture from respiratory secretions and applied four different diagnostic algorithms to them. We compared agreement among the four algorithms. In a subgroup of patients with lung tissue histopathology available, we determined the sensitivity and specificity of the single algorithms. RESULTS: A total number of 684 critically ill patients (69% medical/31% surgical) were included between 2005 and 2020. Overall, 79% (n = 543) of patients fulfilled the criteria for probable IPA according to at least one diagnostic algorithm. Only 4% of patients (n = 29) fulfilled the criteria for probable IPA according to all four algorithms. Agreement among the four diagnostic criteria was low (Cohen's kappa 0.07-0.29). From 85 patients with histopathological examination of lung tissue, 40% (n = 34) had confirmed IPA. The new EORTC/MSGERC ICU working group criteria had high specificity (0.59 [0.41-0.75]) and sensitivity (0.73 [0.59-0.85]). CONCLUSIONS: In a cohort of mixed ICU patients, the agreement among four algorithms for the diagnosis of IPA was low. Although improved by the latest diagnostic criteria, the discrimination of invasive fungal infection from Aspergillus colonisation in critically ill patients remains challenging and requires further optimization.


Subject(s)
Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Aspergillus , Cohort Studies , Critical Illness , Humans , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/microbiology , Sensitivity and Specificity
6.
Med Mycol ; 60(5)2022 May 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1860885

ABSTRACT

Although a high prevalence of COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis has been reported, it is still difficult to distinguish between colonization with Aspergillus fumigatus and infection. Concomitantly, similarities between severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and hypersensitivity pneumonitis were suggested. The objective of this study was to investigate retrospectively if precipitin assays targeting A. fumigatus could have been useful in the management of SARS-CoV-2 patients hospitalized in an Intensive Care Unit (ICU) in 2020. SARS-CoV-2 ICU patients were screened for Aspergillus co-infection using biomarkers (galactomannan antigen, qPCR) and culture of respiratory samples (tracheal aspirates and bronchoalveolar lavage). For all these patients, clinical data, ICU characteristics and microbial results were collected. Electrosyneresis assays were performed using commercial A. fumigatus somatic and metabolic antigens. ELISA were performed using in-house A. fumigatus purified antigen and recombinant antigens.Our study population consisted of 65 predominantly male patients, with a median ICU stay of 22 days, and a global survival rate of 62%. Thirty-five patients had at least one positive marker for Aspergillus species detection. The number of arcs obtained by electrosyneresis using the somatic A. fumigatus antigen was significantly higher for these 35 SARS-CoV-2 ICU patients (P 0.01, Welch's t-test). Our study showed that SARS-CoV-2 ICU patients with a positive marker for Aspergillus species detection more often presented precipitins towards A. fumigatus. Serology assays could be an additional tool to assess the clinical relevance of the Aspergillus species in respiratory samples of SARS-CoV-2 ICU patients. LAY SUMMARY: This study showed retrospectively that precipitin assays, such as electrosyneresis, could be helpful to distinguish between colonization and infection with Aspergillus fumigatus during the management of severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS CoV-2) patients in an intensive care unit.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Animals , Antigens, Fungal , Aspergillus , Aspergillus fumigatus , Biomarkers , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/veterinary , Female , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/veterinary , Male , Precipitins , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Rev Chilena Infectol ; 38(6): 754-760, 2021 12.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1835030

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Aspergillus spp. fungal coinfections have been described in critically ill COVID-19 patients. AIM: To describe the clinical characteristics, diagnosis, treatment and evolution of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome with COVID-19, who present with COVID-19 associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) in a single public hospital. METHODS: Retrospective review of clinical records during 12 months in patients diagnosed with CAPA by cultures of respiratory samples or determination of galactomannan (GM). RESULTS: Probable CAPA was diagnosed in 11 patients (average APACHE II score of 11.7). Respiratory samples were obtained in 73% of cases by bronchoalveolar lavage and in 27% by tracheal aspirate. A. fumigatus was isolated in 4 cultures, A. niger, A. terreus and Aspergillus spp on one occasion each and the cultures were negative in 4 samples. Respiratory sample GM was performed in 7 patients, median: 3.6 (IQR: 1.71 - 4.4). In 10 patients, serum GM was performed, median: 0.5 (IQR: 0.265 - 0.9 75) with 50% of them > 0.5. Two patients showed classic findings suggestive of CAPA on computed tomography. All received antifungal therapy with voriconazole, mean time 14 days. Four patients died. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of CAPA should be a diagnosis to be considered in critically ill COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Aspergillus , COVID-19/complications , Chile/epidemiology , Critical Illness , Hospitals, Public , Humans , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/complications , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/drug therapy , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/complications , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2
8.
J Korean Med Sci ; 37(18): e134, 2022 May 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1834344

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is often accompanied by secondary infections, such as invasive aspergillosis. In this study, risk factors for developing COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) and their clinical outcomes were evaluated. METHODS: This multicenter retrospective cohort study included critically ill COVID-19 patients from July 2020 through March 2021. Critically ill patients were defined as patients requiring high-flow respiratory support or mechanical ventilation. CAPA was defined based on the 2020 European Confederation of Medical Mycology and the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology consensus criteria. Factors associated with CAPA were analyzed, and their clinical outcomes were adjusted by a propensity score-matched model. RESULTS: Among 187 eligible patients, 17 (9.1%) developed CAPA, which is equal to 33.10 per 10,000 patient-days. Sixteen patients received voriconazole-based antifungal treatment. In addition, 82.4% and 53.5% of patients with CAPA and without CAPA, respectively, received early high-dose corticosteroids (P = 0.022). In multivariable analysis, initial 10-day cumulative steroid dose > 60 mg of dexamethasone or dexamethasone equivalent dose) (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 3.77; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-13.79) and chronic pulmonary disease (adjusted OR, 4.20; 95% CI, 1.26-14.02) were independently associated with CAPA. Tendencies of higher 90-day overall mortality (54.3% vs. 35.2%, P = 0.346) and lower respiratory support-free rate were observed in patients with CAPA (76.3% vs. 54.9%, P = 0.089). CONCLUSION: Our study showed that the dose of corticosteroid use might be a risk factor for CAPA development and the possibility of CAPA contributing to adverse outcomes in critically ill COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Animals , COVID-19/complications , Critical Illness , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Humans , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/complications , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/drug therapy , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/complications , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Mycoses ; 65(7): 724-732, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1832203

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) has been reported as an important cause of mortality in critically ill patients with an incidence rate ranging from 5% to 35% during the first and second pandemic waves. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to evaluate the incidence, risk factors for CAPA by a screening protocol and outcome in the critically ill patients during the third wave of the pandemic. PATIENTS/METHODS: This prospective cohort study was conducted in two intensive care units (ICU) designated for patients with COVID-19 in a tertiary care university hospital between 18 November 2020 and 24 April 2021. SARS-CoV-2 PCR-positive adult patients admitted to the ICU with respiratory failure were included in the study. Serum and respiratory samples were collected periodically from ICU admission up to CAPA diagnosis, patient discharge or death. ECMM/ISHAM consensus criteria were used to diagnose and classify CAPA cases. RESULTS: A total of 302 patients were admitted to the two ICUs during the study period, and 213 were included in the study. CAPA was diagnosed in 43 (20.1%) patients (12.2% probable, 7.9% possible). In regression analysis, male sex, higher SOFA scores at ICU admission, invasive mechanical ventilation and longer ICU stay were significantly associated with CAPA development. Overall ICU mortality rate was higher significantly in CAPA group compared to those with no CAPA (67.4% vs 29.4%, p < .001). CONCLUSIONS: One fifth of critically ill patients in COVID-19 ICUs developed CAPA, and this was associated with a high mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Critical Illness , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/complications , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/epidemiology , Male , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/complications , SARS-CoV-2
10.
J Clin Microbiol ; 60(3): e0216921, 2022 Mar 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1799236

ABSTRACT

Diagnosis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) remains unclear especially in nonimmunocompromised patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate seven mycological criteria and their combination in a large homogenous cohort of patients. All successive patients (n = 176) hospitalized for COVID-19 requiring mechanical ventilation and who clinically worsened despite appropriate standard of care were included over a 1-year period. Direct examination, culture, Aspergillus quantitative PCR (Af-qPCR), and galactomannan testing were performed on all respiratory samples (n = 350). Serum galactomannan, ß-d-glucan, and plasma Af-qPCR were also assessed. The criteria were analyzed alone or in combination in relation to mortality rate. Mortality was significantly different in patients with 0, ≤2, and ≥3 positive criteria (log rank test, P = 0.04) with death rate of 43.1, 58.1, and 76.4%, respectively. Direct examination, plasma qPCR, and serum galactomannan were associated with a 100% mortality rate. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) galactomannan and positive respiratory sample culture were often found as isolated markers (28.1 and 34.1%) and poorly repeatable when a second sample was obtained. Aspergillus DNA was detected in 13.1% of samples (46 of 350) with significantly lower quantitative cycle (Cq) when associated with at least one other criterion (30.2 versus 35.8) (P < 0.001). A combination of markers and/or blood biomarkers and/or direct respiratory sample examination seems more likely to identify patients with CAPA. Af-qPCR may help identifying false-positive results of BAL galactomannan testing and culture on respiratory samples while quantifying fungal burden accurately.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/microbiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/complications , Mannans/analysis , Prognosis , Sensitivity and Specificity
11.
Med Mycol ; 60(5)2022 May 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1784373

ABSTRACT

COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) incidence varies depending on the country. Serum galactomannan quantification is a promising diagnostic tool since samples are easy to obtain with low biosafety issues. A multicenter prospective study was performed to evaluate the CAPA incidence in Argentina and to assess the performance of the lateral flow assay with digital readout (Sona Aspergillus LFA) as a CAPA diagnostic and screening tool. The correlation between the values obtained with Sona Aspergillus LFA and Platelia® EIA was evaluated. In total, 578 serum samples were obtained from 185 critically ill COVID patients. CAPA screening was done weekly starting from the first week of ICU stay. Probable CAPA incidence in critically ill patients was 10.27% (19/185 patients when LFA was used as mycological criteria) and 9% (9/100 patients when EIA was used as mycological criteria). We found a very good correlation between the two evaluated galactomannan quantification methods (overall agreement of 92.16% with a Kappa statistic value of 0.721). CAPA diagnosis (>0.5 readouts in LFA) were done during the first week of ICU stay in 94.7% of the probable CAPA patients. The overall mortality was 36.21%. CAPA patients' mortality and length of ICU stay were not statistically different from for COVID (non-CAPA) patients (42.11 vs 33.13% and 29 vs 24 days, respectively). These indicators were lower than in other reports. LFA-IMMY with digital readout is a reliable tool for early diagnosis of CAPA using serum samples in critically ill COVID patients. It has a good agreement with Platelia® EIA. LAY SUMMARY: The incidence of COVID-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) in critically-ill Argentinian patients was established (10.27%). Serum galactomannan quantification was useful as a screening tool for this mycosis. A good agreement between Platelia® EIA and Sona Aspergillus LFA is reported.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Animals , Argentina/epidemiology , Aspergillus , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/veterinary , Critical Illness , Galactose/analogs & derivatives , Humans , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/veterinary , Mannans , Prospective Studies , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/veterinary , Sensitivity and Specificity
13.
J Clin Microbiol ; 60(4): e0229821, 2022 04 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1759280

ABSTRACT

Critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may develop COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA), which impacts their chances of survival. Whether positive bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) mycological tests can be used as a survival proxy remains unknown. We conducted a post hoc analysis of a previous multicenter, multinational observational study with the aim of assessing the differential prognostic impact of BALF mycological tests, namely, positive (optical density index of ≥1.0) BALF galactomannan (GM) and positive BALF Aspergillus culture alone or in combination for critically ill patients with COVID-19. Of the 592 critically ill patients with COVID-19 enrolled in the main study, 218 were included in this post hoc analysis, as they had both test results available. CAPA was diagnosed in 56/218 patients (26%). Most cases were probable CAPA (51/56 [91%]) and fewer were proven CAPA (5/56 [9%]). In the final multivariable model adjusted for between-center heterogeneity, an independent association with 90-day mortality was observed for the combination of positive BALF GM and positive BALF Aspergillus culture in comparison with both tests negative (hazard ratio, 2.53; 95% CI confidence interval [CI], 1.28 to 5.02; P = 0.008). The other independent predictors of 90-day mortality were increasing age and active malignant disease. In conclusion, the combination of positive BALF GM and positive BALF Aspergillus culture was associated with increased 90-day mortality in critically ill patients with COVID-19. Additional study is needed to explore the possible prognostic value of other BALF markers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Aspergillus , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , COVID-19/complications , Critical Illness , Galactose/analogs & derivatives , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/complications , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Mannans , Mycology , Prognosis , Sensitivity and Specificity
14.
Mycoses ; 65(5): 541-550, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1714274

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) is a major complication of critically ill COVID-19 patients, with a high mortality rate and potentially preventable. Thus, identifying patients at high risk of CAPA would be of great interest. We intended to develop a clinical prediction score capable of stratifying patients according to the risk for CAPA at ICU admission. METHODS: Single centre retrospective case-control study. A case was defined as a patient diagnosed with CAPA according to 2020 ECMM/ISHAM consensus criteria. 2 controls were selected for each case among critically ill COVID-19 patients. RESULTS: 28 CAPA patients and 56-matched controls were included. Factors associated with CAPA included old age (68 years vs. 62, p = .033), active smoking (17.9% vs. 1.8%, p = .014), chronic respiratory diseases (48.1% vs. 26.3%, p = .043), chronic renal failure (25.0% vs. 3.6%, p = .005), chronic corticosteroid treatment (28.6% vs. 1.8%, p < .001), tocilizumab therapy (92.9% vs. 66.1%, p = .008) and high APACHE II at ICU admission (median 13 vs. 10 points, p = .026). A score was created including these variables, which showed an area under the receiver operator curve of 0.854 (95% CI 0.77-0.92). A punctuation below 6 had a negative predictive value of 99.6%. A punctuation of 10 or higher had a positive predictive value of 27.9%. CONCLUSION: We present a clinical prediction score that allowed to stratify critically ill COVID-19 patients according to the risk for developing CAPA. This CAPA score would allow to target preventive measures. Further evaluation of the score, as well as the utility of these targeted preventive measures, is needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Case-Control Studies , Critical Illness , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/complications , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/drug therapy , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/complications , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Mycoses ; 65(4): 449-457, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1691476

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 patients on mechanical ventilation are at risk to develop invasive aspergillosis. To provide additional data regarding this intriguing entity, we conducted a retrospective study describing risk factors, radiology and prognosis of this emerging entity in a Brazilian referral centre. METHODS: This retrospective study included intubated (≥18 years) patients with COVID-19 admitted from April 2020 until July 2021 that had bronchoscopy to investigate pulmonary co-infections. COVID-19-associated aspergillosis (CAPA) was defined according to the 2020 European Confederation of Medical Mycology/International Society of Human and Animal Mycosis consensus criteria. The performance of tracheal aspirate (TA) cultures to diagnose CAPA were described, as well as the radiological findings, risk factors and outcomes. RESULTS: Fourteen patients (14/87, 16%) had probable CAPA (0.9 cases per 100 ICU admissions). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of TA for the diagnosis of CAPA were 85.7%, 73.1%, 46.2% and 95% respectively. Most of the radiological findings of CAPA were classified as typical of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (64.3%). The overall mortality rate of probable CAPA was 71.4%. Age was the only independent risk factor for CAPA [p = .03; odds ratio (OR) 1.072]. CAPA patients under renal replacement therapy (RRT) may have a higher risk for a fatal outcome (p = .053, hazard ratio 8.047). CONCLUSIONS: CAPA was a prevalent co-infection in our cohort of patients under mechanical ventilation. Older patients had a higher risk to develop CAPA, and a poor prognosis may be associated with RRT.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Animals , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/microbiology , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Intubation , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/epidemiology , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/therapy , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/virology , Referral and Consultation , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
17.
Mycoses ; 65(4): 411-418, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1685386

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) in intensive care unit (ICU) patients is challenging, and the role of Aspergillus-PCR in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) is unknown. OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated diagnostic accuracy of Aspergillus-PCR in BAL in IPA in three different cohorts: ICU-admitted patients with COVID-19, ICU-admitted patients without COVID-19 and immunocompromised patients. METHODS: All stored available BAL samples collected from three patient groups were tested with Aspergillus-PCR (AsperGenius® ). IPA was diagnosed according to appropriate criteria for each patient group. RESULTS: We included 111 BAL samples from 101 patients: 52 (51%) patients admitted to ICU for COVID-19, 24 (24%) admitted to ICU for other reasons and 25 (25%) immunocompromised. There were 31 cases of IPA (28%). Aspergillus-PCR sensitivity was 64% (95% CI 47-79) and specificity 99% (95% CI 93-100). Aspergillus-PCR sensitivity was 40% (95%CI 19-64) in ICU COVID-19, 67% (95% CI 21-93) in non-COVID-19 ICU patients and 92% (95%CI 67-98) in the immunocompromised. The concordance between positive BAL-GM and BAL-PCR in patients with and without IPA was significantly lower in ICU patients (32%; 43% in COVID-19, 18% in non-COVID-19) than in the immunocompromised (92%), p < .001. CONCLUSIONS: Aspergillus-PCR in BAL improves the diagnostic accuracy of BAL-GM in ICU patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Aspergillus/genetics , Bronchoalveolar Lavage , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , COVID-19/diagnosis , Critical Illness , Galactose , Humans , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Mannans/analysis , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sensitivity and Specificity
18.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 26(2): 710-714, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1675569

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To study the utility of Galactomannan (GM) antigen as a screening marker for diagnosing invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The serum samples from patients with severe COVID-19 diseases admitted to the Critical Care Unit were collected on the 5th day of admission for GM screening. The samples were analysed by enzyme linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA) and GM index of more than 1 was considered as positive. All GM positive patients were serially followed until discharge or death. RESULTS: The GM was raised in serum of 12 out of 38 patients, indicating an incidence of possible COVID-19 associated IPA (CAPA) in 31.57% of patients. The median age of these CAPA patients was 56.5 years, males were significantly more affected than females. The inflammatory marker serum ferritin was raised in all 12 patients (median value of 713.74 ng/ml), while IL-6 was raised in 9 patients (median value of 54.13 ng/ml). None of these patients received antifungals. Their median length of hospital stay was 20 days (IQR: 12, 34 days). All these patients succumbed to the illness. CONCLUSIONS: The serum GM appears to be sensitive diagnostic tool to identify early IPA in COVID-19 patients and pre-emptive antifungal therapy could play a role in salvaging these patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Galactose/analogs & derivatives , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Mannans/blood , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Galactose/blood , Humans , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/complications , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Pilot Projects , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sex Factors
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL