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1.
Adv Respir Med ; 91(3): 185-202, 2023 May 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2326751

ABSTRACT

Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) presents a known risk to critically ill patients with SARS-CoV-2; quantifying the global burden of IPA in SARS-CoV-2 is extremely challenging. The true incidence of COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) and the impact on mortality is difficult to define because of indiscriminate clinical signs, low culture sensitivity and specificity and variability in clinical practice between centers. While positive cultures of upper airway samples are considered indicative for the diagnosis of probable CAPA, conventional microscopic examination and qualitative culture of respiratory tract samples have quite low sensitivity and specificity. Thus, the diagnosis should be confirmed with serum and BAL GM test or positive BAL culture to mitigate the risk of overdiagnosis and over-treatment. Bronchoscopy has a limited role in these patients and should only be considered when diagnosis confirmation would significantly change clinical management. Varying diagnostic performance, availability, and time-to-results turnaround time are important limitations of currently approved biomarkers and molecular assays for the diagnosis of IA. The use of CT scans for diagnostic purposes is controversial due to practical concerns and the complex character of lesions presented in SARS-CoV-2 patients. The key objective of management is to improve survival by avoiding misdiagnosis and by initiating early, targeted antifungal treatment. The main factors that should be considered upon selection of treatment options include the severity of the infection, concomitant renal or hepatic injury, possible drug interactions, requirement for therapeutic drug monitoring, and cost of therapy. The optimal duration of antifungal therapy for CAPA is still under debate.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Humans , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/drug therapy , COVID-19/complications , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/microbiology , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Immun Inflamm Dis ; 11(1): e760, 2023 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2300913

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Infections with fungi, such as Aspergillus species, have been found as common complications of viral pneumonia. This study aims to determine the risk factors of fungal superinfections in viral pneumonia patients using meta-analysis. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to determine the risk factors of fungal infection s in viral pneumonia patients using meta-analysis. METHODS: We reviewed primary literature about fungal infection in viral pneumonia patients published between January 1, 2010 and September 30, 2020, in the Chinese Biomedical Literature, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang (China), Cochrane Central Library, Embase, PubMed, and Web of Science databases. These studies were subjected to an array of statistical analyses, including risk of bias and sensitivity analyses. RESULTS: In this study, we found a statistically significant difference in the incidence of fungal infections in viral pneumonia patients that received corticosteroid treatment as compared to those without corticosteroid treatment (p < .00001). Additionally, regarding the severity of fungal infections, we observed significant higher incidence of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) in patients with high Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II scores (p < .001), tumors (p = .005), or immunocompromised patients (p < .0001). CONCLUSIONS: Our research shows that corticosteroid treatment was an important risk factor for the development of fungal infection in patients with viral pneumonia. High APACHE II scores, tumors, and immunocompromised condition are also important risk factors of developing IPA. The diagnosis of fungal infection in viral pneumonia patients can be facilitated by early serum galactomannan (GM) testing, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid Aspergillus antigen testing, culture, and biopsy.


Subject(s)
Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Neoplasms , Superinfection , Humans , Superinfection/complications , Sensitivity and Specificity , Aspergillus , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/microbiology , Risk Factors
3.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 822, 2022 Nov 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2108749

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is seen during coronavirus-2019 (COVID-19), has been reported in different incidences, and is defined as COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA). Detection of galactomannan antigen is an important diagnostic step in diagnosing IPA. Enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) is the most frequently used method, and lateral flow assay (LFA) is increasingly used with high sensitivity and specificity for rapid diagnosis. The present study aimed to compare the sensitivity of LFA and ELISA in the diagnosis of CAPA in COVID-19 patients followed in our hospital's ICU for pandemic (ICU-P). METHODS: This study included patients with a diagnosis of COVID-19 cases confirmed by polymerase chain reaction and were followed up in ICU-P between August 2021 and February 2022 with acute respiratory failure. The diagnosis of CAPA was based on the European Confederation of Medical Mycology (ECMM) and the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology 2020 (ECMM/ ISHAM) guideline. Galactomannan levels were determined using LFA and ELISA in serum samples taken simultaneously from the patients. RESULTS: Out of the 174 patients followed in the ICU-P, 56 did not meet any criteria for CAPA and were excluded from the analysis. The rate of patients diagnosed with proven CAPA was 5.7% (10 patients). A statistically significant result was obtained with LFA for the cut-off value of 0.5 ODI in the diagnosis of CAPA (p < 0.001). The same significant statistical relationship was found for the cut-off value of 1.0 ODI for the ELISA (p < 0.01). The sensitivity of LFA was 80% (95% CI: 0.55-1.05, p < 0.05), specificity 94% (95% CI: 0.89-0.98, p < 0.05); PPV 53% (95% CI: 0.28-0.79, p > 0.05) and NPV was 98% (95% CI: 0.95-1.01, p < 0.05). The risk of death was 1.66 (HR: 1.66, 95% CI: 1.02-2.86, p < 0.05) times higher in patients with an LFA result of ≥ 0.5 ODI than those with < 0.5 (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: It is reckoned that LFA can be used in future clinical practice, particularly given its effectiveness in patients with hematological malignancies and accuracy in diagnosing CAPA.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Humans , COVID-19/diagnosis , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Pandemics , Mycology , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis
6.
BMJ Open ; 12(8): e057746, 2022 08 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2020034

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Increasing numbers of patients with non-haematological diseases are infected with invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA), with a high mortality reported which is mainly due to delayed diagnosis. The diagnostic capability of mycological tests for IPA including galactomannan test, (1,3)-ß-D-glucan test, lateral flow assay, lateral flow device and PCR for the non-haematological patients remains unknown. This protocol aims to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of the diagnostic performance of mycological tests to facilitate the early diagnosis and treatments of IPA in non-haematological diseases. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Database including PubMed, CENTRAL and EMBASE will be searched from 2002 until the publication of results. Cohort or cross-sectional studies that assessing the diagnostic capability of mycological tests for IPA in patients with non-haematological diseases will be included. The true-positive, false-positive, true-negative and false-negative of each test will be extracted and pooled in bivariate random-effects model, by which the sensitivity and specificity will be calculated with 95% CI. The second outcomes will include positive (negative) likelihood ratio, area under the receiver operating characteristic curve and diagnostic OR will also be computed in the bivariate model. When applicable, subgroup analysis will be performed with several prespecified covariates to explore potential sources of heterogeneity. Factors that may impact the diagnostic effects of mycological tests will be examined by sensitivity analysis. The risk of bias will be appraised by the Quality Assessment tool for Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (QUADAS-2). ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This protocol is not involved with ethics approval, and the results will be peer-reviewed and disseminated on a recognised journal. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42021241820.


Subject(s)
Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Systematic Reviews as Topic , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diagnostic Tests, Routine/standards , Hematology , Humans , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/microbiology , Likelihood Functions , Odds Ratio , ROC Curve , Sensitivity and Specificity , Systematic Reviews as Topic/methods
7.
Mycoses ; 65(10): 960-968, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1992875

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Galactomannan Enzyme Immunoassay (GM-EIA) is proved to be a cornerstone in the diagnosis of COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA), its use is limited in middle and low-income countries, where the application of simple and rapid test, including Galactomannan Lateral Flow Assay (GM-LFA), is highly appreciated. Despite such merits, limited studies directly compared GM-LFA with GM-EIA. Herein we compared the diagnostic features of GM-LFA, GM-EIA and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) culture for CAPA diagnosis in Iran, a developing country. MATERIALS/METHODS: Diagnostic performances of GM-LFA and GM-EIA in BAL (GM indexes ≥1) and serum (GM indexes >0.5), i.e. sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) and areas under the curve (AUC), were evaluated using BAL (n = 105) and serum (n = 101) samples from mechanically ventilated COVID-19 patients in intensive care units. Patients were classified based on the presence of host factors, radiological findings and mycological evidences according to 2020 ECMM/ISHAM consensus criteria for CAPA diagnosis. RESULTS: The Aspergillus GM-LFA for serum and BAL samples showed a sensitivity of 56.3% and 60.6%, specificity of 94.2% and 88.9%, PPV of 81.8% and 71.4%, NPV of 82.3% and 83.1%, when compared with BAL culture, respectively. GM-EIA showed sensitivities of 46.9% and 54.5%, specificities of 100% and 91.7%, PPVs of 100% and 75%, NPVs of 80.2% and 81.5% for serum and BAL samples, respectively. CONCLUSION: Our study found GM-LFA as a reliable simple and rapid diagnostic tool, which could circumvent the shortcomings of culture and GM-EIA and be pivotal in timely initiation of antifungal treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Antifungal Agents , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/microbiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Galactose/analogs & derivatives , Humans , Immunoenzyme Techniques , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/microbiology , Mannans , Sensitivity and Specificity
9.
Acta Med Indones ; 54(2): 292-298, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1929565

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been a worldwide pandemic with several problems, one of which is the lack of definitive treatment. COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA), the presence of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) in COVID-19 patients, is one of the concerning secondary infections associated with higher mortality and worse clinical outcomes. Diagnosing CAPA may be challenging due to the possible absence of classic host factors and clinical symptoms or obscured radiological findings. We described two CAPA cases, which were suspected due to persistent respiratory failure despite standard treatment of COVID-19 with additional therapies and antimicrobial agents for secondary infections, eventually diagnosed with serum galactomannan testing. Clinical conditions of both patients improved significantly after the administration of voriconazole. This case series emphasizes the importance of being aware of clinical suspicions indicating CAPA followed by galactomannan testing as a relatively fast, noninvasive test for its diagnosis, which leads to appropriate antifungal treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Coinfection , Humans , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/virology
11.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(12)2022 06 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1884188

ABSTRACT

Aspergillosis is a disease caused by Aspergillus, and invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is the most common invasive fungal infection leading to death in severely immuno-compromised patients. The literature reports Aspergillus co-infections in patients with COVID-19 (CAPA). Diagnosing CAPA clinically is complex since the symptoms are non-specific, and performing a bronchoscopy is difficult. Generally, the microbiological diagnosis of aspergillosis is based on cultural methods and on searching for the circulating antigens galactomannan and 1,3-ß-D-glucan in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (bGM) or serum (sGM). In this study, to verify whether the COVID-19 period has stimulated clinicians to pay greater attention to IPA in patients with respiratory tract infections, we evaluated the number of requests for GM-Ag research and the number of positive tests found during the pre-COVID-19 and COVID-19 periods. Our data show a significant upward trend in GM-Ag requests and positivity from the pre-COVID to COVID period, which is attributable in particular to the increase in IPA risk factors as a complication of COVID-19. In the COVID period, parallel to the increase in requests, the number of positive tests for GM-Ag also increased, going from 2.5% in the first period of 2020 to 12.3% in the first period of 2021.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Aspergillus , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/complications , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/epidemiology , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/complications , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/epidemiology , Sensitivity and Specificity
12.
Mycoses ; 65(8): 824-833, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1879087

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In the absence of lung biopsy, there are various algorithms for the diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) in critically ill patients that rely on clinical signs, underlying conditions, radiological features and mycology. The aim of the present study was to compare four diagnostic algorithms in their ability to differentiate between probable IPA (i.e., requiring treatment) and colonisation. METHODS: For this diagnostic accuracy study, we included a mixed ICU population with a positive Aspergillus culture from respiratory secretions and applied four different diagnostic algorithms to them. We compared agreement among the four algorithms. In a subgroup of patients with lung tissue histopathology available, we determined the sensitivity and specificity of the single algorithms. RESULTS: A total number of 684 critically ill patients (69% medical/31% surgical) were included between 2005 and 2020. Overall, 79% (n = 543) of patients fulfilled the criteria for probable IPA according to at least one diagnostic algorithm. Only 4% of patients (n = 29) fulfilled the criteria for probable IPA according to all four algorithms. Agreement among the four diagnostic criteria was low (Cohen's kappa 0.07-0.29). From 85 patients with histopathological examination of lung tissue, 40% (n = 34) had confirmed IPA. The new EORTC/MSGERC ICU working group criteria had high specificity (0.59 [0.41-0.75]) and sensitivity (0.73 [0.59-0.85]). CONCLUSIONS: In a cohort of mixed ICU patients, the agreement among four algorithms for the diagnosis of IPA was low. Although improved by the latest diagnostic criteria, the discrimination of invasive fungal infection from Aspergillus colonisation in critically ill patients remains challenging and requires further optimization.


Subject(s)
Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Aspergillus , Cohort Studies , Critical Illness , Humans , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/microbiology , Sensitivity and Specificity
13.
Med Mycol ; 60(5)2022 May 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1860885

ABSTRACT

Although a high prevalence of COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis has been reported, it is still difficult to distinguish between colonization with Aspergillus fumigatus and infection. Concomitantly, similarities between severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and hypersensitivity pneumonitis were suggested. The objective of this study was to investigate retrospectively if precipitin assays targeting A. fumigatus could have been useful in the management of SARS-CoV-2 patients hospitalized in an Intensive Care Unit (ICU) in 2020. SARS-CoV-2 ICU patients were screened for Aspergillus co-infection using biomarkers (galactomannan antigen, qPCR) and culture of respiratory samples (tracheal aspirates and bronchoalveolar lavage). For all these patients, clinical data, ICU characteristics and microbial results were collected. Electrosyneresis assays were performed using commercial A. fumigatus somatic and metabolic antigens. ELISA were performed using in-house A. fumigatus purified antigen and recombinant antigens.Our study population consisted of 65 predominantly male patients, with a median ICU stay of 22 days, and a global survival rate of 62%. Thirty-five patients had at least one positive marker for Aspergillus species detection. The number of arcs obtained by electrosyneresis using the somatic A. fumigatus antigen was significantly higher for these 35 SARS-CoV-2 ICU patients (P 0.01, Welch's t-test). Our study showed that SARS-CoV-2 ICU patients with a positive marker for Aspergillus species detection more often presented precipitins towards A. fumigatus. Serology assays could be an additional tool to assess the clinical relevance of the Aspergillus species in respiratory samples of SARS-CoV-2 ICU patients. LAY SUMMARY: This study showed retrospectively that precipitin assays, such as electrosyneresis, could be helpful to distinguish between colonization and infection with Aspergillus fumigatus during the management of severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS CoV-2) patients in an intensive care unit.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Animals , Antigens, Fungal , Aspergillus , Aspergillus fumigatus , Biomarkers , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/veterinary , Female , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/veterinary , Male , Precipitins , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Rev Chilena Infectol ; 38(6): 754-760, 2021 12.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1835030

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Aspergillus spp. fungal coinfections have been described in critically ill COVID-19 patients. AIM: To describe the clinical characteristics, diagnosis, treatment and evolution of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome with COVID-19, who present with COVID-19 associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) in a single public hospital. METHODS: Retrospective review of clinical records during 12 months in patients diagnosed with CAPA by cultures of respiratory samples or determination of galactomannan (GM). RESULTS: Probable CAPA was diagnosed in 11 patients (average APACHE II score of 11.7). Respiratory samples were obtained in 73% of cases by bronchoalveolar lavage and in 27% by tracheal aspirate. A. fumigatus was isolated in 4 cultures, A. niger, A. terreus and Aspergillus spp on one occasion each and the cultures were negative in 4 samples. Respiratory sample GM was performed in 7 patients, median: 3.6 (IQR: 1.71 - 4.4). In 10 patients, serum GM was performed, median: 0.5 (IQR: 0.265 - 0.9 75) with 50% of them > 0.5. Two patients showed classic findings suggestive of CAPA on computed tomography. All received antifungal therapy with voriconazole, mean time 14 days. Four patients died. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of CAPA should be a diagnosis to be considered in critically ill COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Aspergillus , COVID-19/complications , Chile/epidemiology , Critical Illness , Hospitals, Public , Humans , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/complications , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/drug therapy , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/complications , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2
15.
J Korean Med Sci ; 37(18): e134, 2022 May 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1834344

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is often accompanied by secondary infections, such as invasive aspergillosis. In this study, risk factors for developing COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) and their clinical outcomes were evaluated. METHODS: This multicenter retrospective cohort study included critically ill COVID-19 patients from July 2020 through March 2021. Critically ill patients were defined as patients requiring high-flow respiratory support or mechanical ventilation. CAPA was defined based on the 2020 European Confederation of Medical Mycology and the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology consensus criteria. Factors associated with CAPA were analyzed, and their clinical outcomes were adjusted by a propensity score-matched model. RESULTS: Among 187 eligible patients, 17 (9.1%) developed CAPA, which is equal to 33.10 per 10,000 patient-days. Sixteen patients received voriconazole-based antifungal treatment. In addition, 82.4% and 53.5% of patients with CAPA and without CAPA, respectively, received early high-dose corticosteroids (P = 0.022). In multivariable analysis, initial 10-day cumulative steroid dose > 60 mg of dexamethasone or dexamethasone equivalent dose) (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 3.77; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-13.79) and chronic pulmonary disease (adjusted OR, 4.20; 95% CI, 1.26-14.02) were independently associated with CAPA. Tendencies of higher 90-day overall mortality (54.3% vs. 35.2%, P = 0.346) and lower respiratory support-free rate were observed in patients with CAPA (76.3% vs. 54.9%, P = 0.089). CONCLUSION: Our study showed that the dose of corticosteroid use might be a risk factor for CAPA development and the possibility of CAPA contributing to adverse outcomes in critically ill COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Animals , COVID-19/complications , Critical Illness , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Humans , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/complications , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/drug therapy , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/complications , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Mycoses ; 65(7): 724-732, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1832203

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) has been reported as an important cause of mortality in critically ill patients with an incidence rate ranging from 5% to 35% during the first and second pandemic waves. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to evaluate the incidence, risk factors for CAPA by a screening protocol and outcome in the critically ill patients during the third wave of the pandemic. PATIENTS/METHODS: This prospective cohort study was conducted in two intensive care units (ICU) designated for patients with COVID-19 in a tertiary care university hospital between 18 November 2020 and 24 April 2021. SARS-CoV-2 PCR-positive adult patients admitted to the ICU with respiratory failure were included in the study. Serum and respiratory samples were collected periodically from ICU admission up to CAPA diagnosis, patient discharge or death. ECMM/ISHAM consensus criteria were used to diagnose and classify CAPA cases. RESULTS: A total of 302 patients were admitted to the two ICUs during the study period, and 213 were included in the study. CAPA was diagnosed in 43 (20.1%) patients (12.2% probable, 7.9% possible). In regression analysis, male sex, higher SOFA scores at ICU admission, invasive mechanical ventilation and longer ICU stay were significantly associated with CAPA development. Overall ICU mortality rate was higher significantly in CAPA group compared to those with no CAPA (67.4% vs 29.4%, p < .001). CONCLUSIONS: One fifth of critically ill patients in COVID-19 ICUs developed CAPA, and this was associated with a high mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Critical Illness , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/complications , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/epidemiology , Male , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/complications , SARS-CoV-2
17.
J Mycol Med ; 32(3): 101290, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1804912

ABSTRACT

It is now well known that patients with severe COVID-19 are at risk for developing invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA). Nevertheless, the symptomatology of IPA is often atypical in mechanically ventilated patients and the radiological aspects of SARS CoV-2 pneumonia and IPA are difficult to differentiate. In this context, the significance of the presence of Aspergillus in respiratory tract samples (detected by culture, galactomannan antigen, or specific PCR) is not yet fully understood. Here we report two cases of intubated and mechanically ventilated ICU patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia, in whom Aspergillus was detected in respiratory samples, who had a favorable outcome in the absence of antifungal treatment. These two cases highlight the difficulty of using the new definitions of COVID-19 associated pulmonary aspergillosis for routine management of patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Aspergillus , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/drug therapy , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/microbiology , Respiratory System , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Med Mycol ; 60(5)2022 May 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1784373

ABSTRACT

COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) incidence varies depending on the country. Serum galactomannan quantification is a promising diagnostic tool since samples are easy to obtain with low biosafety issues. A multicenter prospective study was performed to evaluate the CAPA incidence in Argentina and to assess the performance of the lateral flow assay with digital readout (Sona Aspergillus LFA) as a CAPA diagnostic and screening tool. The correlation between the values obtained with Sona Aspergillus LFA and Platelia® EIA was evaluated. In total, 578 serum samples were obtained from 185 critically ill COVID patients. CAPA screening was done weekly starting from the first week of ICU stay. Probable CAPA incidence in critically ill patients was 10.27% (19/185 patients when LFA was used as mycological criteria) and 9% (9/100 patients when EIA was used as mycological criteria). We found a very good correlation between the two evaluated galactomannan quantification methods (overall agreement of 92.16% with a Kappa statistic value of 0.721). CAPA diagnosis (>0.5 readouts in LFA) were done during the first week of ICU stay in 94.7% of the probable CAPA patients. The overall mortality was 36.21%. CAPA patients' mortality and length of ICU stay were not statistically different from for COVID (non-CAPA) patients (42.11 vs 33.13% and 29 vs 24 days, respectively). These indicators were lower than in other reports. LFA-IMMY with digital readout is a reliable tool for early diagnosis of CAPA using serum samples in critically ill COVID patients. It has a good agreement with Platelia® EIA. LAY SUMMARY: The incidence of COVID-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) in critically-ill Argentinian patients was established (10.27%). Serum galactomannan quantification was useful as a screening tool for this mycosis. A good agreement between Platelia® EIA and Sona Aspergillus LFA is reported.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Animals , Argentina/epidemiology , Aspergillus , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/veterinary , Critical Illness , Galactose/analogs & derivatives , Humans , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/veterinary , Mannans , Prospective Studies , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/veterinary , Sensitivity and Specificity
19.
J Clin Microbiol ; 60(4): e0229821, 2022 04 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1759280

ABSTRACT

Critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may develop COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA), which impacts their chances of survival. Whether positive bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) mycological tests can be used as a survival proxy remains unknown. We conducted a post hoc analysis of a previous multicenter, multinational observational study with the aim of assessing the differential prognostic impact of BALF mycological tests, namely, positive (optical density index of ≥1.0) BALF galactomannan (GM) and positive BALF Aspergillus culture alone or in combination for critically ill patients with COVID-19. Of the 592 critically ill patients with COVID-19 enrolled in the main study, 218 were included in this post hoc analysis, as they had both test results available. CAPA was diagnosed in 56/218 patients (26%). Most cases were probable CAPA (51/56 [91%]) and fewer were proven CAPA (5/56 [9%]). In the final multivariable model adjusted for between-center heterogeneity, an independent association with 90-day mortality was observed for the combination of positive BALF GM and positive BALF Aspergillus culture in comparison with both tests negative (hazard ratio, 2.53; 95% CI confidence interval [CI], 1.28 to 5.02; P = 0.008). The other independent predictors of 90-day mortality were increasing age and active malignant disease. In conclusion, the combination of positive BALF GM and positive BALF Aspergillus culture was associated with increased 90-day mortality in critically ill patients with COVID-19. Additional study is needed to explore the possible prognostic value of other BALF markers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Aspergillus , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , COVID-19/complications , Critical Illness , Galactose/analogs & derivatives , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/complications , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Mannans , Mycology , Prognosis , Sensitivity and Specificity
20.
Mycoses ; 65(5): 541-550, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1714274

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) is a major complication of critically ill COVID-19 patients, with a high mortality rate and potentially preventable. Thus, identifying patients at high risk of CAPA would be of great interest. We intended to develop a clinical prediction score capable of stratifying patients according to the risk for CAPA at ICU admission. METHODS: Single centre retrospective case-control study. A case was defined as a patient diagnosed with CAPA according to 2020 ECMM/ISHAM consensus criteria. 2 controls were selected for each case among critically ill COVID-19 patients. RESULTS: 28 CAPA patients and 56-matched controls were included. Factors associated with CAPA included old age (68 years vs. 62, p = .033), active smoking (17.9% vs. 1.8%, p = .014), chronic respiratory diseases (48.1% vs. 26.3%, p = .043), chronic renal failure (25.0% vs. 3.6%, p = .005), chronic corticosteroid treatment (28.6% vs. 1.8%, p < .001), tocilizumab therapy (92.9% vs. 66.1%, p = .008) and high APACHE II at ICU admission (median 13 vs. 10 points, p = .026). A score was created including these variables, which showed an area under the receiver operator curve of 0.854 (95% CI 0.77-0.92). A punctuation below 6 had a negative predictive value of 99.6%. A punctuation of 10 or higher had a positive predictive value of 27.9%. CONCLUSION: We present a clinical prediction score that allowed to stratify critically ill COVID-19 patients according to the risk for developing CAPA. This CAPA score would allow to target preventive measures. Further evaluation of the score, as well as the utility of these targeted preventive measures, is needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Case-Control Studies , Critical Illness , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/complications , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/drug therapy , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/complications , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
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